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BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with 5 Maps and 13 Plans. 
Second Edition. 1 S 7 1 4 s. 

THE RHINE find, the Black Forest. Vosyes. Haardt, 
< klemcuhl . Tamius, Eifel, Semi Moinitaitis, Xu/ir, Lo/in, 
Mosclk etc.) and NORTHERN GERMANY, with 
23 Maps and 38 Plans. Fourth Edition. L87(>. 6 s. 

SOUTHERN GERMANY and AUSTRIA, including the 
EASTERN ALPS {the Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia etc.) , 
with 18 Maps and 20 Plans. Second Edition. 
1871 . . , ....5s. 

and ANCOI 
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Third Editi 

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PARIS and > 
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CORSICA; with 

on. 1870. 5 s. 

aps and 9 PlaiiS. 

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xcursions to the 
s and 8 Plans. 

Third Edition. 1872. 

ith 2 Maps and 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent portions of ITALY, 
SAVOY and the TYROL, with 21 Maps, 7 Plans 
and 7 Panoramas. Fifth Edition. 1S7 2 . . . 6 s. 

in English, German, French and Italian. Twentieth 
Edition. I S 7 o 3 s. 

July l'6'i'2. 




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With 21 Maps, 7 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. 



All Bujlils reserved. 

'Wo, little book, God send thee good passage. 
And specially let this be thy prajere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 

Chaucer. 1880. 


The object of the Handbook for Switzerland is to 
render the traveller as independent as possible of the 
services of guides, domestiques de place, voituriers, and 
innkeepers, and enable him to realise to the fullest ex- 
tent the exquisite and rational enjoyment of which this 
magnificent country is the fruitful source. 

Since the great increase in the facilities for travel 
afforded of late years by the wide extension of railways, 
the number of travellers on the Continent generally, and 
in Switzerland especially, has enormously increased. A 
fresh impetus has thus been given to the spirit and enter- 
prise of the traveller. Summits are now scaled which 
were hitherto deemed inaccessible, or accessible only to 
the practised step of the chamois-hunter or the hardy 
native, accustomed from boyhood to feats of peril. The 
achievements of the English and Swiss Alpine clubs have 
dimmed the memory of De Saussure, Auldjo, and the 
other pioneers of these icy regions, whilst latterly the 
fair sex have vied in deeds of daring with those by 
whom the dangers of adventure are more appropriately 

The Editor has repeatedly explored the greater part 
of the country described , solely with the object of 
gathering fresh information. The present edition has 
been carefully revised, and provided with all the most 
recent information obtainable before the commencement 
of the summer season. 

As of course infallibility cannot be attained, the Edi- 
tor will highly appreciate any hondfide communications 
with which he may be favoured by travellers, if the 
result of their own experience and observation ; and he 
gratefully acknowledges those already received , which 
have in many instances proved most serviceable. 


The Maps and Plans, the result of much care 
and research, will be of essential service to the traveller; 
they will enable hiin at a glance to select the best 
routes, and very frequently to dispense with the costly 
and uncongenial services of guides. 

Time Tables. Information concerning the depar- 
ture of trains, steamboats, and diligences is seldom to 
be relied upon unless obtained from local sources. If 
Bradshaw is mistrusted, the 'Srhwrizerische Eisenbuhn- 
Coursbuch. , published by Kriisi of Bale, or that of Biirkli 
(40 c), will be found useful. Ziillig's Kurskarte (7f> c.) 
is also a useful publication. 

Altitudes are given according to the Swiss Federal 
Map (reduced to English feet; 1 Engl. ft. = 0,304 S metre 
= 0,938 Paris ft.), and the Populations from data 
furnished by the most recent census. Distances on 
high roads and railways are given in English miles ; 
while those on bridle and foot-paths , mountain-expe- 
ditions, and glaciers are expressed by the time in which 
they are ordinarily accomplished. 

Hotels. Besides the first class-hotels, many estab- 
lishments of more modest pretensions are enumerated, 
which may be safely selected by the 'voyageur en 
garcon', with little sacrifice of real comfort, and great 
saving of expenditure. The scale of charges mentioned 
is either in accordance with the personal experience of 
the Editor, or based on an inspection of numberless 
bills furnished to him by travellers. Hotel charges, 
as well as carriage-fares and fees to guides, are of 
course liable to frequent variation ; but an approximate 
statement of these items will often prove of service to 
the traveller, and enable him to form an estimate of 
his probable expenditure. 


I. Plan of Excursion, etc XV11 

II. Travelling Expenses. Money XX 

III. Hotels and Pensions XXI 

IV. Passports _ XXII 

V. Excursions on Foot XXII 

VI. Maps XXIV 

VII. Guides XXVI 

VIII. Voituriers and Horses ... XXVII 

IX. Posting and Telegraphs . ... XX VII I 

X. Railways XXX 

XI. History XXX 

XII. Constitution and Statistics XXX11 

XIII. Geology of the Alps XXXV 

XIV. Glaciers XLI 

XV. Wrestling-matches XLI1I 


1. Bale 1 

2. From Bale to Bienne (Bern and Neuchatel) through 

the Miinster-Thal :"> 

1. From Del^mont to Porrentruy 5 

2. From Moutier (Miinster) to the Weissenstein .... 6 

3. From Bevilard over the Montoz to Reuchenette ... (i 

3. From Bale to Geneva by Neuchatel 7 

1. Frohburg. Wartburg 8 

2. From Neuveville to the Chasseral 10 

4. Soleure and the Weissenstein. Rothe. Hasenmatt 10 

1. St. Verenathal. Wengistein 12 

5. From Bale to Bern by Herzogenbuchsee 13 

6. From Bale to Lucerne 13 

7. From Bale to Zurich by Olten 14 

1. From Sissach to Aarau by the Schafmatt 15 

2. From the Baths of Schinznach by the Habsburg to Brugg IB 

8. From Bale to Zurich by Waldshut and Turgi ... 17 

9. From Bale to Schaffhausen and Constance .... 19 

1. Hohentwiel 20 

2. The Island of Reichenau 20 

10. From Friedrichshafen (Rorschach) to Constance. Lake 

of Constance 20 

1. From Constance to the Mainau 23 

11. The Falls of the Rhine 23 


Route Page 

1*2. From Schaffhausen to Zurich ... 25 

13. Zurich and the Uetliberg 26 

1. From the I'etliberg to the Albis-Hochwacht 32 

2. From Zurich to Regensberg 32 

14. From Zurich to Lucerne by Zug ... ... 32 

I. The Albis route ... ... .... 33 

l.i. From Ziirich to Bern by Olten, Aarburg, and Herzogen- 

buchsee 33 

Hi. From Ziirich to Friedrichshafen and Lindau by Roman?- 

horn 34 

1. From Miilheim to Constance 34 

17. From Zurich to Lindau by St. Gall and Rorschach . 35 

1. Excursions from St. Gall 36 

2. Excursions from Rorschach 37 

18. From Zurich to Coire (Chur). Lakes of Zurich and 
Wallenstadt 38 

1. From Lachen to Glarus through the Waggithal ... i\ 

2. From Riiti to the Bachtel 42 

3. From Wesen to the Speer 43 

1 From Miihlehorn to Mollis over the Kerenzer Berg 44 

5. The Murgthal 44 

6. From Wallenstadt to Wildhaus in the Toggenburg over 

the Hinterruck ... 4r> 

7. From Mels through the Weisstannen and Kalfeuser valleys 

to Yattis ' . ir> 

li». From Zurich to the Rigi and Lucerne by Horgen, Zug, 

Immensee, and Kiisnacht. Lake of Zug 46 

1. From Horgen over the Horger Egg to the Sihl-Bridge. 
Zimmerberg ig 

2. Felsenegg. Hochvvacht on the Zuger Berg ... 47 

20. Lucerne and Pilatus 41) 

21. From Lucerne to Brunnen by Kiisnacht, Arth and 
Schwyz 54 

1. Rossberg 54 

2. The Mythen ... ... 55 

22. The Rigi . . ... 56 

23. From Lucerne to Como (Milan) by the St. Gotthard. 
Lake of Lucerne 66 

1. Axenstein. Stoss. Frohnalp. Seelisberg .... 71 

2. Grossthal. Kleinthal. ITri-Rothstork . . 73 

3. From Klus through the Erstfelder Thai lo Kngelherg 7n 
1. The Maderaner Thai. The Bristenstock ... 76 
n. The Badus, or Six Madun .... 79 

6. From Airolo through the Yal d'Oesch to the Valley of 

7. From Airolo through the Piora Valley to St. Maria and 
Dissentis (sec R. 79, No. 2) 81 

8. From Airolo through the Canaria Valley over the Nera 

Pass and Vnt.ralp to Andermatt ... .81 

24. From Lucerne to Altorf by Stansstad and Engelberg. 
Surenen 84. 

1. Stanser Horn. Buochser Horn . g5 

2. From Engelberg to the Titlis gg 



Route Page 

25. From Lucerne over the Briinig to Brienz (and Meiringen) 87 

1. From Lucerne to Alpnach-Gestad by land 88 

2. Footpath from Stansstad to Saehseln ... . 88 

3. The Melchthal 89 

4. From the Melchthal to Engelberg over the Storregg or the 
Juchli 39 

5. From the Melchthal to Meiringen over the Melchalp 89 

6. From Giswyl to the Brienzer Rothhorn . . 00 

26. From Lucerne to Bern. Entlebuch. Emmenthal . . 91 

1. From Entlebuch or Trubschachen lo the Napf 91 

27. From Lucerne to Bern by Aarburg and Herzogenbuchsee 92 

28. Bern 92 

1. The Gurten 97 

29. The Bernese Oberland 98 

Plan of Excursion. Conveyances etc. 98 

a. From Bern to Thun 99 

1. From Miinsingen to the Belpberg ... 99 

2. Environs of Thun. Excursions ... 100 

3. From Thun to Freiburg .... . 101 

b. The Niesen 101 

c. From Thun to Interlaken. Lake of Thun . . 103 
1. From Thun by the N. bank nf the lake to I'nterseen 103 

d. Interlaken and its Environs 104 

1. Longer Excursions from Interlaken 107 

e. From Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen. Staubbach . 109 
1. From Zweiliitschinen to Eisenfluh and Miirren . 110 

f. Upper Valley of Lauterbrunnen. Miirren. Fall of the 
Schmadribach Ill 

1. Schilthorn . .... .112 

2. From Lauterbrunnen over the Furke to the Kienthal, and 

over the Diindengrat to Kandersteg 113 

3. From Lauterbrunnen to the Eggischhorn bv the Lauinen- 
thor. . .... .1)1 

g. From Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald. Wengernalp. 
Jungfrau 114 

1. Lauberhorn. Tschnggen 116 

2. From Grindelwald to the Zasenturg over the Eismeer 

(Mer de Glace) US 

3. The Mettenberg .... ... 118 

4. The Mannlichen 11R 
5- From Grindelwald over the Strahlegg, or over the Lauter- 

aarjoch., to the Grimsel Hospice ... 119 

6. Passes from Grindelwald to the Eggischhorn 119 

h. The Faulhorn 119 

1. Rothihom. Schw&rzhorn .... 121 

i. From Grindelwald to Meiringen. The Rosenlaui 

Glacier. Falls of the Reichenbach 121 

1. The Wetterhorn 122 

2. The Grindelalp 122 

k. From Meiringen to Interlaken. Rothhorn. Lake of 

Brienz 12.> 

1. Brienzer Rothhorn 126 

2. From Brienz to Interlaken by the N. Bank of the lake 126 


Route P«f« 

1. The Giessbach 1*' 

1. From the Gie9sbach to the Faulhorn 128 

2. Footpath from the Giessbach to Interlaken on the S. Bank 

of the lake 12° 

30. From Meiringen to Engelberg. Jochpass 128 

1. From the Engstlenalp to the Titlis 129 

2. From the Engstlenalp to the Gadmenthal over the Sitteli 129 

3. From the Engstlenalp to the Melchalp 130 

31. From Meiringen to Wasen. Susten Pass . j . . 130 

32. From Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier. Falls of the 
Handeck. Grimsel 132 

1. The 'Finstere Schlauche' 132 

2. The Urbach Valley 132 

3. From the Falls of the Handeck to Innertkirchen . 133 

4. The Finster-Aarhorn 134 

5. The Aare Glaciers 134 

6. The Little Sidelhorn 135 

7. The Ewig-Schneehorn 135 

8. From the Grimsel to Viesch over the Oberaarjoch . 135 

33. From the Rhone Glacier to Andermatt. Furca . . . 136 

1. From the Furca across the Rhone Glacier to the Grimsel 

Hospice direct. Furcahorner. Galenstock 138 

34. From the Rhone Glacier to Vispach. Eggischhorn . . 139 

1. From Obergestelen to Airolo by the Nufenen Pass 139 

2. Lbffelhorn 140 

3. From Viesch to Andermatten by the Albrun-Pass . . . 140 
4. ' From Viesch to Iselle by the Passo del Boccareccio (Ritter 

Pass) 141 

5. From Viesch to Premia by the Kriegalp Pass . . . 141 

6. Glacier - passes from the Eggischhorn to Grindelwald, 
Lauterbrunnen, and the Grimsel 141 

7. From the Eggischhorn by the Lotschenliicke or the Beich- 

grat to the Lotschenthal 142 

35. From Obergestelen to Domo d'Ossola. Gries Pass. 
Falls of the Tosa. Formazza Valley 142 

1. From the Falls of the Tosa to Airolo by the Pass of 

S. Giacomo 143 

2. From the Formazza Valley to the Val Maggia over the 
Criner Furca 144 

36. From Thun to Leuk and Susten over the Gemmi. 
Baths of Leuk 144 

1. From Muhlenen to Interlaken 145 

2. From Frutigen to Leuk by Adelboden and the Hahnen- 

moos 145 

3. From Kandersteg to the Oeschinen-Thal (see R. 29, f. 3) 146 

4. From Kandersteg to Lauterbrunnen by the Tschingel 
Glacier 146 

5. The Balmhorn . 147 

6. Excursions from Leuk. Torrenthorn. Galmhorn 149 

7. From Inden to Sierre 150 

37. From Thun to Sion. Grimmi. Rawyl 150 

1. The Diemtiger Thai 150 

2. From Lenk to Gsteig ... 151 

3. Excursion to the Source of the Simmen . igj 


Route Page 

38. From Thun to Gesseney by the Simmenthal . . . . 152 

1. From Reidenbach to Bulle over the Klus, or over the 
Badermoos 153 

2. From Cresus over the Chessalle-Eck to the Lac Noir . 153 

3. From Gesseney to Aigle by C'hateau-d"Oex .... J54 

39. From Gesseney to Aigle over the Col de Pillon . . If):') 

1. From Orinont-dessus to Orion bv the Pas de la Croix 150 

2. The Oldenhorn ....." 156 

3. From Gesseney to Sion by the Sanetsch 150 

40. From Bulle to Montreux or Vevay by the Mole'son and 

the Jaman 156 

1. From Albeuve and from Vaulruz to the Mole'son . 157 

2. From Gesseney to Bulle by Montbovon and Gruyere . . 158 

41. From Bern to Lausanne (Vevay). Oron-Railway 159 

1. From Flamatt to Laupen 159 

2. From Romont to Bulle 162 

3. From Chexbres to Vevay 163 

42. From Bern to Neuchatel by Morat. Avenohes. Payerne 163 

1. From Bern to Neuchatel by Aarhcrg and Ins .... 163 

2. From Morat to Payerne 165 

43. Neuchatel and the Chaumont 1 Bo 

44. From Neuchatel to Le Locle by Chaux-de-Fonds , and 
back by Les Ponts 16S 

1. From Neuchatel to Chaux-de-Fonds by the Col des Loges 168 

2. Roche Fendue. Saut du Doubs 169 

3. From Locle to Neuchatel. Diligence road by Les Ponts 170 

45. From Neuchatel to Pontarlier through the Val de Travels 170 

46. From Neuchatel to Lausanne and Geneva. Lake of 
Neuchatel 172 

1. From Yverdon to the Chasseron 173 

2. Creux du Vent 173 

3. From Rolle to Orbe by the Col de Marcheiruz and the 

Lac de Joux ■ . 176 

47. Lac de Joux. Dent de Vaulion 176 

1. From Orbe to Le Pont by Vallorbe 177 

48. Geneva 177 

49. Environs of Geneva. Fernex. Mont Saleve . . . 186 

1. The Voirons 187 

50. From Geneva to Martigny by Lausanne and Villeneuve. 
Lake of Geneva (Northern Bank) 188 

1. The Dole 190 

2. From Rolle to the Signal de Bougy 191 

3. From Lausanne to the Signal and the Grandes Roches . 193 

4. Footpath from Vevay to Montreux and Chillon along the 
slope of the mountain 195 

5. Excursions from Montreux 19 1 

6. From Aigle to Villard. Ascent of the Chamossaire . 200 

7. From Aigle to Ormonts bv the Co] de la Croix . . . 200 

8. The Baths of Lavey . . ' 202 

9. From Martigny or Sembrancher to the Pierre-a-voir . . 21 >l 

51. From Geneva to St. Maurice by Bouveret. Lake of 
Geneva (Southern Bank) 204 

1. From Thonon to Samoens. Dranse Valley .... 205 

2. From St. Gingolph to the Blanchard and Port Valais . . 206 

3. Val d'llliez, and ascent of the Dent du Midi .... 207 


Route Pa * e 

74. From Wadenswyl . Richterswyl, or Bapperschwyl to 
Einsiedeln 2 ,*7 

1. Hoch-Etzel. Schdnboden ■**• 

75. From Einsiedeln to Schwyz and Brunnen .... oUl 

1. Morgarten 3M 

76. From Schwyz to Glarus by the Pragel olW 

1. Wiggis-Chain 304 

2. Glarnisch *tt 

77. From Glarus to Coire through the Sernf-Thal . . . 305 

1. Over the Col de Flims or the Col de Segnes .... 306 

2. Over the Panix Pass 306 

3. From Matt to^Sargans by the Rieseten-Pass .... 306 

4. From Elm to Sargans by the Ramina-Furclen or the Foo Pass 306 

78. From Coire to Andermatt. Oberalp 307 

1. From Versam to Splugen by the Lochli Pass .... 307 

2. Piz Mundaun 308 

3. Lugnetz Valley 308 

4. Piz Muraun 310 

5. From Dissentis over the Lukmanier Pass to Olivone . . 310 

6. From Dissentis over the Sandalp Pass to Stachelberg . 310 

7. From Sedrun over the Kreuzli Pass or the Brunni Pass to 
Amstag . . . 310 

8. Source of the Vorder-Rhein . . . 311 

79. From Dissentis to Bellinzona. Lukmanier .... 312 

1. From Perdatseh to the Cristallinenthal 313 

80. -Priittigau, Davos, Belfort, Schyn 314 

1. From Klosters to Lavin and Sus In the Engadine by the 
Vereina Pass, the Laviner Joch, or the Silvretta Pass . 316 

2. From Davos to Scanfs in the Engadine by the Scaletta Pass 317 

3. From Davos-Dorfli to Siis in the Engadine by the Fluela 317 

4. From Davos to Coire by the Strela Pass 317 

5. From Thusis to Conters 320 

81. From Coire to Poiite (and Samaden) in the Engadine 

by the Albula Pass 320 

82. From Coire to Samaden by the Julier 321 

1. The Stsetzer Horn 322 

2. From Lenz to the Baths of Alveneu and Bergun . . . 322 

3. From Stalla to Casaccia in the Val Bregaglia by the 
Septimer 324 

83. The Upper Engadine from the Maloja to Samaden. Pont- 
resina and its Environs. Piz Languard 325 

1. Lake of Cavloccio. Forno Glacier. Fall of the Ordlegna 326 

2. From the Maloja over the Muretto Pass to Chiesa and Sondrio 327 

3. From Sils-Maria to the Fex Glacier . . .... 327 

4. From Silvaplana to Pontresina by St. Moritz .... 328 

5. From Silvaplana over the Surlej Alp to Pontresina . . 328 

6. Mountain excursions from St. Moritz. Piz Nair . . 329 

7. Muottas. Piz Ot 330 

8. Excursions from Pontresina 333 

84. From Samaden to Nauders. Lower Engadine . . 335 

1. Piz Uertsch. Piz Kesch. Piz Mezzem 336 

2. Piz Griatschouls 336 

3. From Zernetz to St. Maria in the Munsterthal by the 
Ofener and Bufl'alora Passes 337 

4. Piz Mezdi. Piz Linard. Val Tasna. Futschoel Pass . 337 

5. Piz Chiampatsch 338 

6. From the Baths of Tharasp to St. Maria by the Scarl-Thal 338 

7. Piz Pisoc 339 


Route Page 

85. From Samaden to Tirano by the Bernina, and to Colko 

by the Valtellina 339 

1. From the Bernina Hospice to Bormio 340 

2. Piz Lagalp 340 

3. Footpath from the Bernina Inn to Poschiavo .... 340 

4. Pizzo Sassalbo 341 

5. From Tirano to Colico through the Val Tellina . 342 

86. From Tirano to Nauders by the Stelvio .... 342 

1. From Bormio to St. Caterina in the Val Furva . 343 

2. Monte Confinale. Piz Umbrail 343 

3. From Bormio to Ponte in the Engadine 343 

4. From St. Maria (on the Stelvio-route) to St. Maria in the 
Munsterthal by the Wormser Joch (Umbrail Pass) . . 344 

5. The Ortler 345 

6. The Three Holy Springs 445 

87. From Nauders to Bregenz by Landeck and Feldkirch. 
Finstermiinz. Arlberg 347 

1. Valley of Montafun. Scesaplana 350 

2. The Gebhardsberg near Bregenz 351 

3. Pfander. Bregenzer Wald. Schriicken 351 

88. From Coire to Splugen. Via Mala 352 

1. From Thusis to Tiefenkasten bv the new Schyn road . 354 

2. Lake of Liisch 355 

3. Piz Beverin 356 

4. From Andeer to Stalla by the Valetta Pass .... 356 

5. From Caniciil to Pianazzo by the Madesimo Pass . 357 

89. From Splugen to the Lake of Como 358 

90. From Chiaveuna to .Samaden. Maloja 360 

1. From Castasegna to Soglio 361. 

2. The Albigna Valley . . 362 

91. From Splugen to Bellinzona. Bernardino 362 

1. Source of the Hinter-Rhein 362 

92. From Bellinzona to Como (and Milan). Lake of Lugano 365 

1. Monte Camoghe. Monte C'enere 365 

2. Monte Generoso ... 366 

93. Lugano and its Environs . 366 

1. Monte S. Salvadore 368 

2. Monte Bre 368 

3. Monte Caprino 36° 

94. From Bellinzona to Magadiiio and Locarno .... 369 

1. From Locarno to Domo d'Ossola by the valleys of Cento- 

valli and Vigezza 3™ 

2. From Locarno to Airolo by the Val Maggia . 370 

95. Lago Maggiore. The Borromean Islands . . . . 370 

1. Railway from Arona to Milan .... ... 375 

96. From Stresa to Varallo. Monte Motterone. Lake of 
Orta. Val Sesia 375 

1. The Sacro Monte near Orta 376 

2. The Sacro Monte near Varallo 377 

3. From Varallo through the Val Sennenza and over the 

Col di Bottigia to Macugnaga 378 

4. From Varallo to Le Breuil by Gressoney 3'S 

97. From Luino on Lago Maggiore to Menaggio on the 
Lake of Como. Lake of Lugano ....... 3< 9 



98. The Lake of Coino 

1. The Lake of Lecco 

2. From Lecco to Bergamo 

3. By land from Como to Bellaggio via Erba 

99. From Como to Milan 









Maps and Panoramas. 

1. Geueral Map of Switzerland: before the Title-page. 

2 Map of the District between Schaffhausen and Constance: 
BR. 9, 11, 12, 16, 17; between pp. 18, 19. 

3 Map of the Lake of Constance: RR. 10, 16, 17; between pp.20, 21. 

4. Map of the Lake of Zurich: RR. 13, 18, 19, 74; between 
pp. 38, 39. 

5. Panorama from the R i g i K u 1 m : between pp. 62, 63. 

6. Map of the Lake of Lucerne: RR. 14, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25; 
between pp. 66, 67. 

7. Map of the Environs of the St. Gotthard: RR. 23, 24, 30, 31, 
32, 33, 78, 79 ; between pp. 76, 77. 

8. View of the Alps from Bern: between pp. 94, 95. 

9. Map of the Bernese Obcrland : RR. 29, 36; between pp. 98, 99. 

10. Panorama from the Faulhorn: between pp. 120, 121. 

11. Map of the Upper Valais : RR. 34, 35, 63; between pp. 138, 139. 

12. Panorama from the Eggischhorn: between pp. 140, 141. 

13. Map of the Lower Valley of the Rhone, from the Lake of Geneva 
to the Lotschen - Thai . RR. 36, 37, 39, 50, and 60 — 63; between 
pp. 146, 147. 

14. Map of the Lake of Geneva: RR. 40, 41, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51; 
between pp. 188, 189. 

15. Map of the Vallev of Chamouny: RR. 53 — 57; between pp. 
216, 217. 

16. Panorama from the Flegere: between pp. 220, 221. 

17. Map of the Environsof the Great St. Bernard, from Martignv 
to Aosta : RR. 57, 58, 59, 61a ; between pp. 236, 237. 

18. Map of the Environs of Monte Rosa: RR. 61, 64, 65, 66 ; between 
pp. 270, 271. 

19. Panorama from the Gorner Grat: between pp. 272, 273. 

20. Map of the Canton of Appenzell: RR. 18, 67, 68, 71; between 
pp. 276, 277. 

21. Map of Glarus: RR. 72, 73, 76, 77; between pp. 292, 293. 

22. Map of the V order-Rhein thai: RR. 78, 88; between pp. 306,307. 

23. Map of the Upper Engadine and Bernini: RR. 82, 83, 85 ; 
between pp. 326, 327. 

24. Panorama from the Piz Languard: between pp. 332, 333. 

25. Map of the Lower Engadine: RR. 80, 81, 82, 84, 86; between 
pp. 386, 337. 

26. Map of the District from the Lukmanier to the M a 1 o i a ■ RR 23 
79, 82, 89—91 ; between pp. 358, 359. ' ' 

27. Map of the Italian L a k e s : RR. 92— 95, 97, 98 ; between pp. 366 367. 

28. Key Map of Switzerland: after the Index. ' 

Plana of Towns: Bale, Bern, Geneva, Lausanne, Lucerne 
Milan , Zurich. ' 

I. Plan of Excursion. 

Season of the Year. Companions. Distribution of Time. 

The traveller will effect a considerable savins of money and time 
by preparing his plan for a tour before leaving home. If a pedestrian 
expedition is contemplated, delays are often avoided by forward- 
ing luggage by post. By the aid of the following pages it will be 
easy to determine precisely the number of days an excursion will 
occupy , the most convenient resting places — in fact how each 
hour may be disposed of to the greatest advantage, provided always 
the elements favour the traveller. The latter contingency is unfortu- 
nately not always to be relied upon , for in no country is the 
weather more capricious than in Switzerland, a circumstance 
amply accounted for by natural causes. 

Season. It may be accepted as a rule, that the most favour- 
able period for an excursion into Switzerland is from the middle 
of July to the middle of September; for expeditions among the 
higher Alps the latter half of August. 

It frequently happens that snow accompanies rain in elevated 
regions. Thus on July 13th, 1843, the Rigi and the Bernese 
Oberland were visited with so heavy a fall that they were ren- 
dered inaccessible to travellers for several days. On July 2nd, 
1848, the snow on the Gemmi was l'/s ft- deep, and did not 
disappear for some days. These are, however, exceptional ocur- 
rences; in ordinary seasons the snow disappears from the Rigi and 
the route through the Bernese Oberland at the beginning of June, 
but not till later on the Furca, the Grimsel, and the Gemmi. 

Companions. A party of two can be accommodated in a one- 
horse carriage or in the same room at a hotel , whilst a third 
would often be found 'de trop'. The more the number is ex- 
tended, as a general rule, the greater are the inconvenience and 
the certainty that many of the true objects of travel will be 
sacrificed. The single traveller who has attained some pro- 
ficiency in the language of the country will most speedily become 
acquainted with the people, their characteristics, and their land, 
as he is necessarily compelled to seek such society as the occa- 
sion affords. 

B/BPEKEK, Switzerland. 5th Edition. b 


Distribution of Time, lour Weeks, as the annexed plan 
shows, will suffice for an active and observant ' traveller to visit 
the most interesting portions of Switzerland. A greater or less 
proportion of walking may be indulged in as inclination prompts. 

By the first steamer in l'| 2 hr. from Friedrichshafen to Constance , by Days 
railway (R. 9) in 13/ 4 hr. to Schaffhavsen, by railway in 10 min. to 
Dachsen. On foot in ] |4 hr. to the Castle of Lav/en, visit the 
Falls of the Rhine ; cross the Rhine below the falls, ascend to Nev- 
hausen (R. 11), return by the railway - bridge to Dachsen, and in 

2 hrs. by railway to Zurich 1 

Zurich and the Vetliberg (R. 13), Lake of Zurich (R. 18) .... 1 
From Zurich in 1 hr. to Horgen by first steamer, to Zug in 3 hrs. by 
diligence (or from Zurich to Zug by railway in l'| 4 hr.), and to 
Immensee or Arlh in 1 hr. by steamer, or from Arth to Goldau: 
On foot to the Rigi-Kulm in 3*/ 2 hrs. (RR. 14, 18, 19, 21, 22) . . 1 

Descent from the Rigi in 2'|2 hrs. to Waggis, by steamer in '|s hr. 
to Lucerne (RR. 22, 23, 20) 1 

By steamer on the Lake of Lucerne in 2 3 /4 hrs. to Flilelen, by carriage 
in 2 hrs. to Arnstag, on foot in 5 hrs. to Andermatt by the St. Gott- 
hard route, in 6 hrs. to Hospenthal. or 7>|j hrs. to Sealp (RR. 23, 33) 1 

By diligence over the Furca to the Glacier of the Rhone, on foot by 
the Maienwand and the Grimsel to the Hospice (R. 33) ; from Ander- 
matt to the Hospice in 7 hrs 1 

On foot to Meiringen by the Haslithal (Fall of the Aare at the Hand- 
eck) in 6 hrs. from the Hospice (R. 32) 1 

On foot from Meiringen (Falls of the Reichenbach) through the Ber- 
nese Oberland, by Rosenlani and the Scheideck, to Qrindelwald; from 
Meiringen to the Scheideck 5'la hrs., thence to Grindelwald 2>|2 hrs. 
Glacier of Grindelwald (R. 29g) 1 

By taking an additional day, the Faulhorn may be ascended from 
the Scheideck (4 hrs.), descent to Grindelwald 3 hrs. (R. 29 h, i). 

On foot from Grindelwald by the Wengern Alp in 8 hrs. to Lauler- 
brunnen (Staubbach), and thence by carriage to Interlaken in l'fe hr. 
(R. 29f e) . . . . 1 

If Lauterbrunnen be made the resting-place on the following day, 
Milrren and the cascade of Schmadribach (R. 29f) may be visited. 

Morning at Interlaken; by steamer in 1 hr. to the Giessbaeh 
(R. 29d, 1) 1 

The following morning return to Interlaken by steamer in 1 hr., by 
omnibus in 1 J2 hr. to Neuhaus, thence by steamer in 1 hr. to Thun 
(R. 29 e), by carriage in 1 hr. to Wimmis (pedestrians leave the 
steamer at Spiez and proceed in l'|i hr. to Wimmis) ; on foot or 
horseback in 5 hrs. to the summit of the Niesen (R. 29 b) . . . 1 

Descent from the Niesen to Frutigen in 3>J« hrs. ; thence by carriage 
in 1 3 |4, or on foot in 2'|2 hrs. to Kandersteg (R. 36) 1 

On foot from Kandersteg in 7 hrs. over the Gemmi to the Baths of 
Leuk (R. 36) i 

On foot to Stisten in 2'|2 hrs. (R. 36), by carriage in 2 hrs. to Vis- 
pach (R. 63), on foot to St. Nicolaus in 4'| 4 hrs. (R. 65) ... . 1 

On foot to the Riffel in 8 hrs. (R. 66) '.'.'. 1 

On foot from the Riffel Inn to the Gorner Grat and back 3 hrs ■ in 
the evening to Zermatt 2 hrs. (R. 66) ' ' j 

Return on foot to Vispach in 8 hrs. (R. 65) ••..... 1 

By diligence in 5 hrs. to Sion, thence by railway in 1 hr. to Afar 
tigny (R. 63) . . , j 

On foot to Chamouny by the Col de Balme or the Tfte Noire in 9 hrs 
(RR. 55, 56) •-..'. 1 



Chamouny (R. 54) 1 

By diligence to Geneva in 6*jj hrs. (K. 53) 1 

Oeneva and its Environs (RR. 48. 4il) 1 

By steamer on the Lake of Geneva in 3 hrs. to Lausanne, auuie hour;. 
at Lausanne, and in the evening by last steamer in l'Jj hr. to 

Villeneuve (R. 50) I 

On foot to Chillon, Montreux, Clarens, Vevay (R. 50), 3 hrs. walking ; 
but by halting at the various points of attraction an entire day 

may be spent 1 

By (diligence and) railway from Vtruii to Freiburg in -i ■ , = hrs. (It. 11) I 

By railway to Bern in 1 hr. (R. 41 1 1 

By railway to Bale in 4 hrs. (R. 5) . . . . . .1 

Should the traveller have a few days more at command, they 
may be devoted very advantageously to Eastern Switzerland 
(Appenzell, Bad Pfaffers, Via Mala, Lpper Engadine), whence the 
Italian Lakes are conveniently visited. Rorschach (p. 37) or 
Ziirich is recommended as head-quarters (romp. R. loj. 

On foot from Rorschach to Ileiden, to Trogen 1 >y the Kaien, and to Days 
Oats by the Gabris, in all 7 hrs. (R. 67) .... 1 

On foot from Gais to Weissbad, to Wildkirchli, and the Ebenalp ; re- 
turn to Weissbad, thence to Appenzell, 6 hrs. (R. 67) ... . I 

On foot from Appenzell to Gais, and to Altstadten in the Valley of 
the Rhine bv the Stoss in 5 his. (R. 67), by train in l'|j hr. to 
Ragatz (R. 68) 1 

Pfaffers and Voire (RR. 69, 70) 1 

By diligence in 3 hrs. to Thtisis, on foot in 3 hrs. by the Via Mala 
as far as the third bridge over the Rhine, and return to Thusis 
(R. 88), on foot in 4 hrs. by the Schyn Pass to Tiefenkasten (R. 80) 1 

By diligence in 6>|a hrs. over the Albula Pass to Ponte (R. 81), and 
in 40 min. to Samaden (R. 84) ; on foot in I»/a hr. to Pontresina 
(R. 83) i 

Ascent of the Pit Languard (R. 83) .... 1 

By diligence in 7'|j hrs. over the Bernina to Tirano, thence by .Vleu 
sagerie to Sondrio in 3 hrs. (R. 85) (or by diligence in 8'j a hrs. 
over the Maloja to Chiavenna and Colico) ... I 

By Messagerie to Colico in 5 hrs. (It. 85), thence by steamer to t.'omu 
in 3 hrs. (R. 98) (Train to Milan in l'|j hr.) I 

Return by the Lake of Como as far as Menaggio ( Villa Carlolta, p. 383, 
and park of the Villa Serbelloni, p. 384), and by Porlezza to Lugano, 
see p. 380 l 

Bv diligence from Lugano in 2 hrs. to Luiuo (R. 97), by steamer to 
'the Borromean Islands in l'| 2 hr., and to Arona in 1 hr. [Railway 
to Turin, Genoa (in 6 hrs.) etc., see Baedeker's X. Halt/] ... 1 

By omnibus in 3 hrs. to Orta on the lake of that name, by rowing- 
boat to Omegna in l'|z hr., by carriage or on foot to Gravellona 
(R. 96) lor on foot in 3 hrs. to the Sacro Monte (p. 376), and by 
the Monte Motterone (p. 375) to Stresa (p. 374), or to Bareno (p. 373)], 
and by diligence to Domo iTOssola (R. 63) 1 

By diligence over the Simpion to Brieg and Vispach (R. 63) . . . I 

Instead of the passage of the Bernina (R. 85), choice may be 
made between the Spliigen (RR. 88, 89). and the St. Gotthard 



(R. 23). The St. Gotthard is the most beautiful of all the Al- 
pine passes, after which the Spliigen and the Simplon possess 
equal claims ; the former is more interesting on the N., the latter 
on the S. side. The pass of the Great St. Bernard (R. 58). pre- 
sents the fewest points of interest, irrespective of its hospice. 

The following Alpine Excursion is recommended to ro- 
bust and practised pedestrians, as one of the most imposing in 
Switzerland: From Chamouny by the Col de Bonhomme, the Col 
dc la Seigne, Courmayeur, the Col de Ferret (R. 57), thjj hospice 
of the Great St. Bernard, Aosta (R. 58), Chatillon, the Matter- 
joch, Zermatt (.R. 66) , Saas , Monte Moro , Macugnaga (R. 64), 
Varallo , Orta, and Monte Motterone to Lago Maggiore (R. 95). 
The excursion will occupy 10 or 11 days of 9 to lOhrs.; guides 
not absolutely necessary, but desirable for the passes. 

The most celebrated Points of View, for the most part easy 
of access and much frequented, are : 

1. In the Jura (the Alps in the distance, the lower mountains of 
Switzerland to the N.E. in the foreground, and more to the E. the lakes 
uf Bienne, Neuchatel, and Geneva) : Hotel Schweizerhof (pp. 23, 25) near the 
Falls of the Rhine; the Weissenstein (p. 1 1) near Soleure ; the highest point 
of the old road from the Miinsterlhal ahove Bienne (p. 7) ; the Chaumont 
(p. 167) and the Col des Loges (p. 168) in the canton of Neuchatel ; the 
Signal de Bougy (p. 190) and the Dole (p. 190) in the Canton de Vaud. 

2. Nearer the Alps or among the Lower Alps: 

(a). .N. of the Alps : the Kaien (p. 278) and the Chapel of S. Antony 
(p. 278) in the canton of Appenzell ; the Uetliberg (p. 31) near Zurich; 
the Rigi (p. 56), Mythen (p. 55), Pilatus (p. 52), and the Frohnalp (p. 71), 
near the Lake of Lucerne ; the Niesen (p. 101) near the Lake of Thuri ; the 
Jaman (p. 158) in the canton of Freiburg ; the Saleve (p. 187) in Savoy, 
near Geneva. 

(b.) S. of the Alps : park of the Villa Serbelloni (p. 384) on the Lake of 
Como ; Monte Generoso (p. 366) and Monte S. Salvadore (p. 368) near the Lake, 
of Lugano; Monte Motterone (p. 375) between the lakes Maggiore and Orta. 

d. Among the High Alps: the Piz Languard (p. 332) and Piz Ot 
(p. ddO) in the canton of the Grisons; the Schynige Platte (p. 107), the Paul- 
'torn (p. 119), the Mannlichen (p. 118), the Wengern Alp (p. 114), Miirren 
(p. 112) and the Schilthorn (p. 112) in the Bernese-Oberland ; the Torrenthorn 
(p. 149), the Bella Tola (p. 250), the Gorner Grat (p. 272), the Eggischhorn 
(p. 141) in the Valais ; the Col de Balme (p. 227) and the FUg'ere (p. 220) 
near Chamouny. 

II. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

The expense of a tour in Switzerland depends entirely upon 
the resources, habits, and inclination of the traveller. The pe- 
destrian's daily expenditure may (excl. guides) be estimated 
at about 10 «., if he frequents the best hotels; but a considerable 
saving may be effected by selecting houses of more moderate pre- 
tensions, and avoiding the mid -day tables d'h6te. The traveller 
who avails himself of all the public conveyances, frequents the 
best hotels, and in mountainous districts engages the services of 
horses and guides , must be prepared to expend 20—25 » per 


diem at least. If ladies or children be of the party, the expenses 
are rather proportionally increased than diminished. 

The Swiss monetary system was assimilated to that of France 
in 1854. Coins of 5 , 2, 1, and i/ 2 fr. in silver; 20, 10, and 
5 Happen (centimes) in plated copper; 2 and i Happen in 
copper. 1 fr. = 100 Rappen = (in German money) S Silber- 
grosohen or 28 Rhenish kreuzers = 9 3 / 4 d. French gold is the 
most convenient coin , especially for N. Italy. German florins 
(2 fr. 15 c), in the larger towns and hotels of the N. and E. of 
Switzerland, are exchanged for 2 fr. 10 c, dollars (3 fr. 75 <-..) 
for 3 fr. 70 c. English sovereigns (25 fr. ) and banknotes are 
received at the full value at all the principal hotels and towns in 
Switzerland and N. Italy. The circular notes of 10 £., issued by 
many of the English banks, are recommended as a safe and con- 
venient form for transporting large sums. 

III. Hotels and Pensions. 

Switzerland may be said to have a specialty for hotels ; few 
better are to be met with in any part of the world. The modern 
establishments at Geneva, Vevay, Zurich, Lucerne, and lnterlaken 
are models of organization on a most extensive scale. The 
smaller establishments are often equally well conducted ; indeed 
in French and German Switzerland a really bad hotel is rarely 
met with. 

The ordinary charges in the first-class hotels are : Bedroom 
2 fr. and upwards , table d'hote without wine at 1 o'clock 3 or 
4 fr. , at 4 o'clock or later 4 or 5 fr. ; breakfast (tea or coffee, 
bread, butter, and honey) l 1 /) f r - in tne public room, 2 fr. in 
the apartment of the traveller, wax-candle 1 fr. , service 1 fr. ; 
supper generally h la carte. 

In the hotels of more modest pretension the following charges 
may be accepted as the average: bedroom l 1 /., fr., breakfast 1 fr., 
table d'hote 2 to 3 fr. , service discretionary , no charge for 
bougie: in fact about half the charges of the first-class establish- 
ments. It generally happens that the best accommodation in 
the largest hotels is reserved for families , whilst the solitary 
pedestrian finds himself no better off than he would have been 
in a less pretentious establishment, and no corresponding re- 
duction is made in his bill. 

It must also be admitted that the estimation in which hotels 
are held varies very much with the temperament of the visitors 
themselves. Some are more exacting than others, give orders 
totally at variance with the customs of the country, and express 
great dissatisfaction if their wishes are not immediately complied 
with, the unreasonableness of which requires no comment. 

xxii rv. PASSPORTS. 

In the dull season (October to June) many hotels are con- 
verted into 'Pensions' or boarding-houses, in which guests are 
received by the week on terms ranging from 3 to 8 fr. per diem. 
This charge comprises bedroom , breakfast , table d'h6te without 
wine, and supper (tea, bread and butter, and cold meat); attend- 
ance about 5 fr. per month. Establishments for this express 
object abound in the neighbourhood of Lucerne, Geneva, Inter- 

laken, etc. 

Wine is generally a source of much vexation. The ordinary table 
wines are often so bad that refuge lias to be taken in those of a more 
expensive class, which is indeed the very aim and object of the landlord. 
The wisest course is to select a wine which is the growth of the country ; 
in N. and E. Switzerland the produce of Schaffhauten or Winterthur is 
recommended, in the Grisons Malans (p. 284), in the W. of Switzerland 
Lacdte (p. 190), Lavaur (p. 193), Tvorne (p. "300), and Kevchdtel (p. 166). 

If a Prolonged Stay is made at an hotel, the bill should be de- 
manded every 3 or 4 days, by which means errors, whether accidental or 
designed, are more easily detected. In the case of a departure early in 
the morning, the bill should be obtained over-night. It is a favourite 
practice to withhold the bill till the last moment, when the hurry and 
confusion render overcharges less liable to discovery. 

IV. Passports. 

In Switzerland and N. Italy as well as ill Austria passports 
are now unnecessary. On the whole, however, taking into con- 
sideration that these documents are issued by the English For-, 
eign Office on very inexpensive terms , and moreover that cases 
of unexpected difficulty may arise , when they are of service 
to the traveller by proving his identity and respectability, it 
is unwise not to be provided with a passport. The following 
are the principal passport-agents in London : Lee and Carter, 
440 West Strand; Dorrel and Son, 15 Charing Cross; E. Stan- 
ford, 6 Charing Cross; W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street. 

In France the obnoxious system has been revived in 1871, 
and the passport must be provided with the visa (10 fr.) of 
a French ambassador or consul, a fact which should be borne in 
mind by the traveller who intends proceeding to, or returning 
from Switzerland via France. 

V. Excursions on Foot. 

The pedestrian is unquestionably the most independent of 
travellers; beyond all others he is able, both physically and 
morally, to enjoy a tour in Switzerland. 

Disposition of Time. The first golden rule for the pedestrian 
is to start on his way betimes in the morning. Where the con- 
stitution permits it, a two hours 1 walk may be accomplished be- 
fore breakfast. At noon a glass of good wine or beer, if obtain- 
able, with cold meat, or bread and cheese, form a suitable repast. 


— Repose should be taken during the hottest hours , and the 
journey then continued till 5 or 6 p. m. , when a substantial 
meal (evening table d'hote at the principal hotels) may be par- 
taken of. The traveller's own feelings will best dictate the hour 
for retiring to bed. 

Luggage. The greatest drawback to the pleasure of an ex- 
cursion is a superabundance of baggage ; to be provided with an 
actual sufficiency and no more , may be considered the second 
golden rule for the traveller. It is impossible to over-estimate 
the comfort of being independent of that industrious fraternity 
who make a prey of the overburdened traveller. Who has not ex- 
perienced the exultation which attends the shouldering of the knap- 
sack or wielding of the carpet-bag, on quitting a steamboat or rail- 
way station? Who in his turn has not felt the misery of that moment 
when, surrounded by his 'impedimenta' , the luckless tourist is 
almost distracted by the rival claims of porters, touters. and com- 
missionaires? A light 'gibeciore' or game-bag, such as may be 
procured in every town, amply suffices to contain all that is 
necessary for a fortnight's excursion. A change of flannel skirts 
and worsted stockings, a few pocket-handkerchiefs . a pair of 
slippers , and the necessary 'objets de toilette' may be carried 
with hardly a perceptible increase of fatigue ; a piece of green 
crape or coloured spectacles to protect the eyes from the glare of 
the snow, and a leather drinking-cup will also prove serviceable. 
The traveller may have a more extensive reserve of clothing, 
especially if he proposes to visit towns of importance, but even 
these should be contained in a valise, which he can easily wield, 
and may forward from town to town by means of the post. 

Rules. The enthusiastic traveller should curb his ardour at 
the outset of his excursion, and begin by moderate performances, 
which should rarely exceed ten hours a day. Animal spirits 
are too often in excess of powers of endurance ; overstraining the 
energies on one occasion sometimes incapacitates altogether for 
several days. No little discrimination is often requisite to deter- 
mine when walking should be abandoned for the ease of a car- 
riage ; but all these experiences will be acquired without the aid 
of a guide-book. Suffice it to say. when a mountain has to be 
breasted , the prudent pedestrian will pursue the -even tenor of 
his way' ('■chi va piano va sano; chi va sano va lontano') with 
regular and steady steps; the novice alone indulges in 'spurts'. 
If the traveller will have a third golden maxim for his guidance 
it may be: 'When fatigue begins, enjoyment ceases'. 

Excursions amongst the Higher Mountains should not be 
undertaken before July, nor at any period after a long continu- 
ance of rain or snow. Glaciers should, if possible, be explored 
before 10 a. m., after which hour the rays of the sun soften the 


crust of ice formed during the night over the fissures and cre- 
vasses. It is hardly necessary to state that Exptrienced 
<i aides are absolutely indispensable for such excursions. 

The anticipations of a tour in Switzerland, which is usually 
painted 'couleur de rose', not unfrequently receive a rude shock 
from actual experience. The first Night in a Chalet dispels 
many illusions. Whatever poetry there may be theoretically in 
a bed of fodder, the usual concomitants of the cold night-air 
piercing abundant apertures, the ringing of the cow-bells, the 
sonorous grunting of the swine, and the undiscarded garments, 
hardly contribute to that refreshing slumber of which the wearied 
traveller stands so much in need. 

Over all the movements of the pedestrian the Weather 
holds despotic sway ; those who claim acquaintance with the 
elements and their signs will tell him of numberless indications 
by which either foul or favourable weather may be predicted. 
It is wise, before undertaking a long or difficult expedition , to 
consult these would-be prophets, whose prognostications, although 
not infallible, may often prove of value. 

Health. Finally a word may be acceptable on the subject 
of the Wounds and Bruises which few altogether escape in 
a protracted excursion. Tincture of arnica is efficacious in cases 
of this kind; and, indeed, if rubbed on the limbs after much 
fatigue, it braces and invigorates. 

Saturnine ointment is serviceable in Inflammation of-the 
skin, an inconvenience not unlikely to arise from exposure to the 
glare of the sun on the snow. Others recommend cold cream, 
and, especially for the lips, collodion, glycerine, etc. 

For I) iarrhoea, 15 drops of a mixture of equal parts of 
tincture of opium and aromatic tincture may be safely taken 
every two hours until relief is afforded. The hornfflopathie 
tincture of camphor is also recommended. 

VI. Maps. 

1. Maps which comprise the whole of Switzerland on 
one sheet (mounted on linen): 

*Zie()lers Map of Switzerland (1 : 380,000), with explanations 
and index, pub. by Wurster and Co. at Winterthur, 4th Fd 1800. 
Price 1'2 l'r. 

Zieyler's llypsomelr. Map. (1 : 380,000), 4 sheets '20 l'r. 

Leuthold's Map. (1 : 400,000), pub. by Leuthold of 55 ii rich, 10 fr. 

Keller's Map (1 : 4f)0,000), without plans 6, with plans 7 fr. 
*Leiizin<icr's Map (1:400,000), a reduced copj „f Dnfour's 
Map, pub." in 1807. Price 10 fr. 

'1. Topographic Maps on a larger scale: 



a. Of the whole of Switzerland. 
"Topographic Map of Switzerland, from surveys made by order 
of the Federal authorities (under the superintendence of General 
Dufour); scale 1:100,000; 25 sheets, each 1 to 2>/ 2 fr. (not 
mounted). Altitudes in French metres. The following sketch 
exhibits the districts embraced by each. — A copy of this map 
on the reduced scale of 1 : 250,000, which will comprise the 
whole of Switzerland in 4 sheets, is in course of execution. 
The two N. and the S. W. sheets have been recently completed. 

6. Of single Cantons. 
Maps on a still larger scale, also based on ordnance surveys. 
Aargau, scale 1 : 50,000, 4 sheets, each 4 fr. 
*Freiburg, 1 : 50,000, 4 sheets, each 5 fr. 
*St. Oall and Appenzelt, 1 : 25,000, 10 .Maps, in 4 sections, 
each 7 fr. 

Olarus, 1 : 50,000, by Ziegler, 6 fr., mounted 9 fr. 
"Geneva, 1 : 25,000, 4 sheets, the whole 12 fr. 
Thurgau, 1 : 80,000, 1 sheet, 6 fr. 
Orisons, 1 sheet, mounted 5 fr. 

"Zurich, 1 : 25,000, 32 sheets, each i/ 2 to 2 fr. (Nos. 18, 21, 
22, 26, 27, 31 contain Zurich, the Uetliberg, and the Lake). 
3 Reliefs. 

M. E. Beck of Bern is about to publish an admirable relief- 
map of Switzerland on the scale of 1 : 100,000, area 60 sq. ft,, 
25 fr. per sq. ft. Beck's reliefs on a smaller scale are also well 


executed: Switzerland (1 : 500.000) in one map, 18 fr.. coloured 
25 fr. ; another (1 : 900.000) 8 fr.. to fold up 10 f r ; Interlaken 
andtheOberland(l : 200,000) () fr. ; Lake of Lucerne (1 : 200,000) 
7 fr. ; Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald 5 fr. ; Valley of Engelberg 
• '> fr.; Simplon route and valleys of Vispach (1 : 200,000) 8 fr. 
Bvrgy* relief-maps, published by Georg at Bale, aTe also 
well executed. 

VII. Guides. 

On such beaten tracks as those of the Kigi, Pilatus, Wengern- 
Alp, Faulhorn, Scheideck, Grimsel, Genimi, etc., the services of 
a guide may well be dispensed with by the robust pedestrian. 

]f the traveller wishes to disencumber himself of his knap- 
sack , the first urchin he meets will gladly transfer it to his 
shoulders for a trifling gratuity. For the more difficult and 
dangerous routes, however, guides are absolutely indispensable ; 
they will be found, as a class, to be intelligent and respectable 
men, well versed in their duties, and acquainted with the people 
and resources of the country. 

The great depots for guides are Thun . Interlaken, Grindel- 
v>ald, Meiringen, Lauterbrunnen. Lucerne. Arth, Zug, Martigny, 
Chamouny, Zermatt. and Pontresina ; for traversing the Alps at 
any point, guides are always to be met with in the neigh- 
bouring villages. The ordinary Pay of a Guide is from 6 to 
8 fr. for a day of 8 hrs. He is in most cases bound to carry 
from 15 to 20 pounds of baggage, and to hold himself at the 
entire disposition of his employer, whose temporary servant he 
is. They usually demand 6 fr. a day for the return home; but, 
as they have nothing to carry, better terms may occasionally be 
made with them . and they are bound to return by the shortest 
practicable route. 

Although a guide entails a considerable extra expense upon 
the traveller, the latter generally receives an ample equivalent. 
A good guide will point out a multitude of objects which the 
best maps fail to indicate: he furnishes much useful and inter- 
esting information up manners and habits, upon battle-fields 

arid historical incident- . on military route* and positions; and 
when the traveller reaches his hotel . wearied with the fatigues 
of the day. the many little services his guide can render him 
will often be found invaluable. 

Amongst a party of 3 or I the expense of a guide is of 
course greatly diminished; but as he is not bound to carry more 
than 20 pounds of baggage , they may more advantageously en- 
gage a horse or mule, the conductor of which will serve all the 
purpose 6 of a guide on the ordinary routes 


Adult porters are entitled to 75 cent, ov 1 fr. an hour, when 
not engaged by the day, return included. It is advisable to come 
to an express understanding previous to engaging their services, 
a sum being agreed upon which shall comprise food, return, 
and the inevitable 'pourboire' , or extra gratuity. This is the 
surest way to avoid after disputes and discussions. A certain 
amount of good fellowship and confidence should subsist between 
the traveller and the individual who is perhaps to be his sole 
companion for some days. The judicious traveller will know 
when to make with advantage the offer of a cigar or the spirit- 
flask, such attentions on his part being seldom thrown away. 

Travellers desirous of engaging a thoroughly trustworthy guide 
should be careful to select one of the Certificated. The 
guides of this class are required to pass an examination , and 
are furnished with legal certificates of character and qualifications. 

VIII. Voituriers and Horses. 

Good vehicles are to be met with in all parts of Switzerland, 
but should be inspected before any engagement is made. If the 
journey is to be of considerable length , it is judicious to have 
a Written Agreement, which it is usual for the voiturier to 
conclude by depositing a sum with his employer as earnest- 
money, afterwards to be added tn the account. The traveller has 
the right of selecting the hotels where sojourn for the night is 
to be made , the driver being entitled to determine where rest 
during the day shall be taken. 

The ordinary charge for a carriage with one horse is to fr. 
per diem , with two horses '25 fr. In the height of summer 
slightly increased terms are demanded ; the driver expects 1 fr. 
per horse as a gratuity. Like the guides, the voiturier demands 
the return-fare to the place where he was engaged, and it is of 
course to the interest of the traveller so to arrange his journey 
that he may discharge his carriage as near as possible to the 
home of the driver. 

Return-conveyances may frequently be obtained for 10 to 
15 fr. per day , but the use of them is in some places strictly 
prohibited . 

From 30 to 40 miles is the average day's journey, a halt being 
made of 2 or 3 hours about noon; but longer distances than 
these should be agreed upon for the return. 

In mountainous districts . inaccessible for heavy carriages, 
small vehicles or 'chars-a-bancs' , accommodating two persons 
only, are employed; they cost from 12 to 15 fr. per diem, fees 

A Horse or Mule costs 10 to 12 fr. per diem; the con- 
ductor expects a trifling additional gratuity (1 — 2 fr.). If h« 


cannot return with his horse on the same day to the spot whence 
he started, the following day must be paid for; for example 
a horse from Hospenthal to the Grimsel is charged 20 fr., 
because the double journey cannot be accomplished in a day. 
The robust pedestrian will of course prefer to dispense with the 
assistance of a horse; a prolonged ascent on horseback is at- 
tended with much fatigue, whilst the descent is positively disagree- 
able. For the fair sex the 'chaises-a-porteurs' are recommended, 
but even ladies may without difficulty attain the most frequented 
summits on foot. 

IX. Posting and Telegraphs. 

The postal communications in Switzerland, considering the 
mountainous nature of the country, are admirably organised, 
although somewhat slow. The public conveyances for travellers 
are under the immediate control of government, and are gene- 
rally well fitted up and provided with respectable drivers and 
conductors. Private posting is prohibited by law , but the pri- 
vate diligence or the 'Extrapost' furnished by the postal autho- 
rities forms a satisfactory substitute. The network of diligence 
routes under the supervision of government covers the whole 
country, embraces the Alps, and extends for a considerable 
distance into N. Italy. 

Diligences. The fare in the coupe in front, and (in sum- 
mer) the banquette on the top of the vehicle is on ordinary 
routes 80 c. per league of 3 M. , on mountainous routes 1 fr. 
15 c. per league; the fare in the interieur 65 c. and 1 fr. 
respectively. Children Of 2 — 7 years of age pay half-fare. Each 
passenger is allowed 40lbs. of luggage free; overweight is 
charged for at the ordinary postal tariff. Supplementary car- 
riages are provided when the diligence is full. These are often 
light, open vehicles, preferable to the lumbering 'Postwagen'. 
A seat in one of them may generally be procured by arrange- 
ment with the conductor. As a rule 'passengers are consigned 
to the intfrieur or to a supplementary carriage in the order in 
which they are booked. If therefore the traveller has failed 
to secure a coupe" or banquette seat by early application , he 
will probably succeed in avoiding the objectionable interieur by 
delaying to take his ticket till the diligence is about to start. 
The average speed of these sedate 'mail-coaches' of Switzerland 
including stoppages, is about 6 M. per hour on level, and 4 M. 
per hour on mountainous routes. 

Private Diligences. A diligence may be hired by a party at 
any of the principal stations, provided they engage all the seats 
at a charge of l'/a fr. each per league on ordinary, or 13/ 4 fr. 
on mountainous routes. The vehicle is then placed entirely at 


the disposal of the travellers, who may halt for meals, etc. 
wherever they desire. 

Extrapost. This is the term applied to the Swiss system of 
posting, which as already observed is managed by government. 
The charge for each horse is 5 fr. per stage of three leagues 
(9 M.); that for the carriage varies (2 — 4 fr.); the driver's fee 
is left to the discretion of the traveller. A conveyance of this 
kind may be ordered at any post-office. 

The official time-tables of Burkli, published at Zurich arc 
recommended for reference. The local notices of the hours of 
departure and arrival should also be consulted at the post-sta- 
tions themselves. 

Seats for the principal routes may be secured several days 
in advance by personal application, by letter, or even by tele- 
graph, addressed to the post-office at the starting place. Where 
the communication is partly by steamer (e. g. the St. Gotthard, 
Briinig, Coire-Milan routes, etc.) tickets may be obtained on 
board without additional charge. 

Luggage, which ought to be carefully and distinctly addres- 
sed, should if possible be booked half-an-hour or an hour before 
the time of starting. 

The High -Bo ads in Switzerland are measured by Kilometre*, 
or by eighths of leagues ( l / H Stunden , each about 3 furlongs). 
1 kilometre = 1093.6331 Engl, yds., or about % Engl. M. 
The distances are given in the Handbook in English miles, except 
in mountain expeditions , where hours are the usual and more 
convenient standard of distance. 

Letters (prepaid) : to any part of Switzerland (10 grammes 
in weight, about 1/3 oz 10 c. , if within a radius of 6 M. 5 c 
only; Germany and Austria (15 grammes, about '/ 2 oz ) -•-> r ■ 
France , Belgium and Italy (10 gr.) 30 c. ; Netherlands and 
Great Britain (15 gr.) 30 c. ; Russia (15 gr.) 50 c. ; N. America 
(15 gr.) 80 c." 

Post Office Orders , issued within the limits of Switzerland 
only, must not exceed 500 fr. for the larger, 200 fr. for the 
smaller towns. Charge 20 c. for an order not exceeding 100 fr., 
10 c. more for each additional 100 fr. — With regard to money- 
orders to foreign countries, a convenience of which the traveller 
will rarely have occasion to avail himself, information may br 
obtained at all the principal offices. 

Telegraph - Communication extends all over Switzerland, 
Zofingen (p. 13) being the central office. The tariff is as follows 
For 20 words 1 /2 tr., for every 10 words more 25 c, within the 
limits of Switzerland. 

By the law which regulates the telegraphic service it is en- 
acted that 'dispatches may be delivered at any post-office , and 
if the office is not also a telegraphic office, the dispatch shall 


be transmitted without delay to the nearest. are 
also received at all the railway-station-, , for which an additional 
charge of 50 o. is made. 

X. Railways. 

The Carriages on the German Swiss lines (like those of 
Wiirtemberg , Austria , and Lombardy) are constructed on the 
American principle, generally accommodating 72 passengers, and 
furnished at each end with iron steps of easy access , protected 
by a roof. Throughout each carriage, and indeed the entire train, 
a passage runs , on either side of which the seats are disposed. 
This arrangement enables the traveller to shift his position at 
pleasure provided the carriage be not unusually crowded , and 
facilitates a survey of the district traversed. 

The carriages on most of the French Swiss railways are 
of the ordinary construction , and inferior in comfort to those 
of the other lines. In French Switzerland the tickets of the 
passengers are inspected as they leave the waiting-room . and 
given up at the ' Sortie on their arrival. 

Luggage. Each passenger is allowed '20 lbs. , but if this 
weight be exceeded, 1/2 cwt. is charged for. Travellers provided 
with direct tickets from the German to the Swiss railways , or 
vice versa , are recommended to assure themselves of the safety 
of their luggage at the frontier (Bale, Friedrichshafen, Lindau. 
Rorschach, Romanshorn). 

Return-tickets are issued on most of the Swiss lines at re- 
duced rates, some of them available for several days (Sunday- 
tickets). Excursion-tickets at very moderate rates are also issued 
by some of the companies for certain routes or circuits , in- 
formation concerning which will be found in the time-tables. 
These, however, cannot be recommended to the ordinary traveller, 
as they tend greatly to hamper his movements and to deprive 
him of the independence essential to enjoyment. 

XI. History. 

The limits of this work necessarily preclude more than a brief histo 
i-ieal sketch of the interesting country and people the traveller is now visit- 
ing — a country, the beautiful and romantic .scenery of which can hardly 
be surpassed in any quarter of the globe — a people celebrated above all 
others for the spirit >>( irc.doiu and independence by which they are ac- 
tuated. It is hardly necessary to carry the reader back to the period of 
the subjugation of Helvetia (the ancient Switzerland) by the Roman legions ■ 
traces of that subjugation still exist in the Romanic language common to 
this day in a part of .Switzerland. Under the Roman sway Helvetia enjoyed 
a flourishing trade, which covered the land with cities and villages and 
Christianity was introduced with its attendant blessing of civilization. 

A great irruption of barbarians was however destined to sweep through 
the peaceful valleys of the Alps, before which Roman civilization fled 
and Burgundians, Alemanni, Ostrogoths, and Huns settled themselves 
In different parts of the country. The Alemanni and BurgundUni 


introduced their laws and customs, and the greater part of the country 
was occupied by the former tribe. To each soldier was allotted a farm's 
a judge or centgrave (Graf) was placed over a hundred of these farms : 
several of these hundreds or cents constituted a Gau (whence Thurgau, 
Aargau, etc.), and the centgraves were under a duke. 

In process of time the entire country fell under the sway of the French 
or Frankish empire, but the old constitution was retained. Christianity, 
which for a while had succumbed before the inroads of the barbaric hordes. 
■ once more exercised its mild and benignant influence, and the devastated 
fields again waved with crops of grain. On the partition of the Frankish 
empire amongst the Merovingians, Switzerland was divided between two 
sovereigns, one ruling over Alemannian, the other over Burgundian Switzei- 
land. Under Pepin the whole country was re-united, and during the energe- 
tic reign of Charlemagne the arts and sciences were cultivated and nourished. 
Under his feeble successors the centgraves or counts became more and 
more independent of royal authority, and eventually made their 'Gaus 
hereditary \ one of thein, Rudolph, at the close of the 9th century, estab- 
lished the new kingdom of Burgundy, whilst the counts in other parts of 
Switzerland conducted themselves like princes, and exacted vassalage from 
the people in their respective jurisdictions, whence arose a multitude of 
independent and complicated governments, the chiefs of which were per 
petually at warfare with one another. 

The most powerful probably amongst these feudal families was that of 
Hapsburg, and many inferior lords sought its protection. At the close of 
the 13th century, Eudolph of Hapsburg, as king and emperor of Germany, 
held a court in Helvetia ; his rule was wise and salutary. Not so that of 
his sons Rudolph and Albert, who encroached upon the rights of the Swiss 
people. The latter, who succeeded to the imperial power in 12118, by the ty- 
ranny and obstinacy of his rule, gave rise to the first confederacy of the 
Swiss cantons. That interesting epoch, the meeting of the 33 brave patriots 
on the Rutli, a solitary spot on the Lake of Lucerne, on the night of Xo 
vember 7th, 1307, is known to every one who has a moderate acquaintance 
with general history (see p. <2|. The three Waldstadte, or forest-states, 
as the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden were termed, rose, deposed 
the obnoxious governors whose rule had been marked by the most odious 
tyranny and oppression, and destroyed the strongholds which so long had 
overawed the country. Henry VII., who succeeded Albert, continued the 
rights of the forest-cantons, but the warlike spirit of the people had been 
too much fostered ; civil wars were kindled between neighbouring cantons, 
whilst the house of Austria obstinately endeavoured to recover its lost 
swav and eventually the Emperor Frederick III. called to his assistance 
a French army, for' the protection of his family estates and rights. ^ In 
1444 another Thermopylte was fought at the village of St. Jacob near Bale, 
where. 1600 Swiss withstood 20,000 French under the Dauphin Louis. The 
Swiss next gave provocation to Charles the Bold, the powerful duke of 
Burgundy, who invaded their country, but was signally defeated in the 
memorable battles of Grandson (see p. 174), Morat (p. 164), and Nancy 

(1476 77). From this period the confederated cantons were acknowledged 

by foreign countries as the Swiss League. In 1481 Freiburg and Soleure 
were united to them. 

In 1499 the Swabian war broke out, in which Switzerland had gained 
six important victories, when peace was concluded by the treaty of Bale. 
Bale, Schaffhausen, and Appenzell were next admitted into the confederacy. 
In 1512 the Swiss obtained from Milan the Italian bailiwicks which now 
form the canton of Ticino. 

About this period the grand work of the Reformation began in Switzei 
land. Zwingli (see p. 33) here opposed indulgences at the same time as 
Luther in Saxony, but went further in the work, particularly in simplifying 
the mode of worship, explaining the doctrine of the Eucharist, etc. In 1524 
he had the gratification of seeing his doctrines adopted by the great Coun- 
cil of Zurich, and his influence among the Swiss Protestants continued 
unimpaired for the remainder of his life. The great religious struggle of 
the Reformation, glorious and important as it undoubtedly was in its ulti- 


mate results, sowed hitter jealousies between the reformed and Rom. Ca- 
tholic cantons, from which disastrous consequences ensued ; hut a better 
and gentler spirit at length prevailed, and the first religious peace was 
concluded in 1529. 

Singular to relate, during the Thirty Years'' War the Confederacy main- 
tained a strict neutrality, and by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 the complete 
separation of Switzerland from the German Empire was solemnly acknow- 
ledged. During the 18th century, and until its close, the Swiss were 
rarely implicated in foreign politics, but were not free from internal dis« 
sensions; this respite from foreign hostilities was, however, highly fa- 
vourable to the commerce, agriculture, and literature of the country. In 
every department of science, both at home and abroad, the Swiss of the 
18th century acquired a very high reputation, as the names of Haller, Rous- 
seau, Lavater, Bodmer, Gessner, Fiissli, John v. Miiller, Pestalozzi, and 
many others amply testify. 

In 1790 new troubles arose ; although the Swiss had at first maintained 
a rigid neutrality in the wars of the French Revolution, French power and 
intrigue gradually deprived them of their former constitution, and at length 
converted the Swiss Confederacy into the Helvetic Republic, under an exe- 
cutive directory of five persons. The oppressive and arbitrary conduct of 
the French soon made the new form of government contemptible. Aloys 
Reding, a man of enterprising spirit, and a member of a family already 
distinguished in the annals of Switzerland, formed a plan for overthrowing 
the new constitution, but the- sole and unhappy result of these endeavours 
was a civil war. Ultimately Napoleon, in 1803, restored the cantonal sys- 
tem. At this period the cantons were 19 in number, viz: Schwyz, TJri, 
Unterwalden, Bern, Zurich, Lucerne, Glarus, Zug, Appenzell, Schaffhausen, 
Freiburg, Soleure, Bale, Grisons, Vaud, Ticino, St. Gall, Thurgau, and 
Aargau. Neuchatel, which had been ceded to Napoleon by Prussia, was 
granted by him to General Berthier as a sovereign principality. In 1814 
the relations of Neuchatel to Prussia were restored, and together with 
Geneva and the Valais, it became incorporated in the confederacy of the 
Swiss cantons, raising their number to 22. 

In 1830 considerable disturbances took place in the confederacy; the 
advance of liberal principles had been rapid, a universal desire for reform 
pervaded the cantons, and general risings took place in various parts of 
the country. In the democratic cantons the desired reforws were so wisely 
and promptly granted, that little jeopardy was occasioned to the public 
peace ; in the aristocratic cantons the opposition was stronger, and the 
proposed reforms were effected with greater difficulty, but eventually the 
following concessions were made by the confederacy generally to the 
popular demands: the extension of the right of election, the liberty of the 
press, the abolition of privileges, the inviolability of the person, with 
other liberal institutions. The civil dissensions, however, which these 
events gave rise to, were the forerunners of the war (Nov. 1847) of the 
Sondeibund (Separate League), happily of brief duration ; in 1848 a new 
federal constitution was inaugurated, highly conducive to the general 
prosperity and welfare of the country. No event of consequence has since 
occurred to disturb the public tranquillity, which it is earnestly hoped 
may long continue. 

XII. Constitution and Statistics. 

The Federal Constitution of Sept. 12th, 1848, contains among others 
the following articles : 3. The cantons are sovereign, in as far as their 
sovereignty is not limited by the Federal Constitution. 13. The Confede- 
racy is not entitled to maintain a standing army. Without the consent of 
the Confederacy no canton is permitted to maintain more than 300 regular 
troops. 23. Custom's dues are levied by the Confederacy alone. 33 The 
postal system is conducted by the Confederacy. 39. The expenditure of 
the Confederacy is defrayed: (a) by the interest of the Federal war-fund- 
(h) by the duties levied at the frontiers; (c) by the revenue derived from 
the postal system ; (d) by the produce of the gunpowder commission ■ 


<e) by the produce of taxes levied by consent of the Federal Assembly. 
41. Every Swiss of Christian confession is at liberty to settle where he 
pleases. 43. Foreigners cannot become naturalised without first having 
resigned their original nationality. 44. All religious sects are tolerated' 
45. The freedom of the press is granted. 57. Foreigners whose presence 
is regarded as prejudicial to the interests of the Confederacy may be 
ejected. 58. The order of the Jesuits is rigorously excluded from every 
part of Switzerland. 

The following articles concern the 'Federal Authorities' : 60. The 
supreme power is vested in the Federal Assembly , consisting of the 
National Council and the Council of the States" 61. The National 
Council is composed of deputies , one being selected from each 20,000 
of the entire population , and one at least from each canton. 63. Every 
Swiss who has attained the age of 20 years is entitled to a vote. 64. Any 
Swiss layman entitled to vote may be elected. 66. The National Council 
is elected for 5 years. 69. The Council of the States consists of 44 
4eputies from the cantons, 2 from each canton. 83. The Federal Council, 
the highest executive and administrative authority, consists of 7 members. 
84. The members are elected by the Federal Assembly for 3 years. 91. 
The several members of the Federal Council superintend the administration 
of the different departments (military, interior, finance, commerce, etc.). 
94. The Federal Tribunal (consisting of 11 members) decides all legal 
questions which concern the Confederacy. 101. The court of assizes, with 
a jury, decides cases of breach of discipline on the part of officials, high 
treason and insubordination, political offences, etc. 

Area and Population 

according to the decennial census of Dec. 1st, 1870. 











p. sq. 

1) Zurich . . 








2) Bern . . . 








3) Lucerne . . 








4) Uri . . . 








5) Schwyz . . 








6) Vntericald . 

33, 5 







7) Glarus . 

29, 8 







8) Zug . . . 








9) Fribourg 








10) Soleure . . 








11) Bdle-ville . 








Bdle-camp . 








12) Schaffhausen 








13) Appenzell . 

(Rhodes ext.) 






48,726' 4,554 

(Rhodes int.) 






11,909 1,631 

14) St. Gall . 






191,015 2,178 

15) Grisons . . 








16) Aargau . . 








17) Thurgau 








18) Ticino . . 








19) Vaud . . 








20) Valais . . 








21) Neuchatel . 








22) Geneva . . 








Total • . • | 








Census of 1860 








Increase . . | 

— | 


89,019; 2793 


161,925 76 



d. 5th Edi 




Switzerland has therefore ;i population of 165 per Eng. sq. M. (Alpine 
Switzerland 52, tin', remainder about 244). Geneva is the most populous 
• anton (847 per sq. M.)- the Grisons the least (33 per sq. M.). Of every 
1000 souls 585 are Prot.', 411 Rom. Cath. , 2 Sect. , 2 Jews; of these 702 
speak German, 226 French, SSItalian, and lTRomansch. Of the 556,000 house- 
holds of Switzerland 465,000 possess landed property ; of the entire popula- 
tion nl2.669.095 about 500,000 only have no landed possession. In Switzer- 
land 1 person out of 20 lives by alms, in England 1 out of 8, in France and 
Holland 1 out of 9. Of 100 sq. leagues of land 20 are pasture, 17 forest, 
tl arable, 20 meadow. 1 vineyards, and 31 uncultivated or occupied by 
water, roads, dwellings, etc. 

Education. The German part of Switzerland possesses three Univer- 
sities;, those of Bale, Bern, and Zurich, with 115 professors, 30 private tutors, 
and 500 students. French Switzerland possesses three Academies, those of 
Geneva , Lausanne, and Neuehatel, with faculties of theology , philosophy, 
and jurisprudence, 45 professors, and 370 students. About 70 of the latter 
:it Geneva are foreigners , chietly French Protestants. The Federal Poly- 
technic at Zurich , founded in 185o , also deserves mention ; it possesses a 
philosophical faculty and 46 teachers, some of them professors at the uni- 
versity, and is much frequented by foreign as well as native students. 

The Army consists of the Bundes-Anszuy (Elite Federate) and the lie- 
serve, consisting of the able-bodied male population between the ages of 
20 and 34; and the Landwehr, composed of men, not included in the above 
classes, up to their 44th year. To the two first classes belong 105,463 in- 
fantry soldiers, 9227 riflemen. 3006 cavalry, 10,656 artillery, 12 park-coin- 
panics with 2870 men , 2332 sappers and miners , etc. , forming a total of 
133,949. The number of the Landwehr is computed at 67,000. — The 
"Cadets' Institute" provides an admirable preparatory training for military 
service in Switzerland. This is an arrangement by which the pupils 
('cadets') of all the principal schools receive instruction in military tactics, 
being provided by government with muskets and cannons (2 and A pounders) 
for the purpose. On these occasions they wear a uniform ; and their 
annual reviews , when the cadets of several cantons frequently assemble, 
are a source of boundless delight to these embryo warriors. 

Industry. According to the most recent statistics of Switzerland, 
1.900,000 souls are supported bv agriculture. The number of cattle (oxen, 
sheep, and goats) amounts to 2,200,000, valued at 6,400,000 I. The annual 
export of cattle is 85,000 (50,000 oxen); import 194,000 (67.000 oxen). 
17,000 tons of cheese are annually manufactured, of which 7000 tons are 
exported. — The manufactories employ 180,000 persons , the handicrafts 
150,000. In the canton of Bale 1,400,0000 pounds' worth of silk ribbon is 
annually manufactured by 6000, in the canton of Zurich about 1,600,000 
pounds' worth of French silks by 12,000 operatives. The manufacture of 
watches and jewellery in the cantons of Neuchatel, Geneva, Vaud, Bern, 
and Soleure occupies 36,000 workmen , and represents an annual sum of 
1 .800,000 I. ; 500,000 watches are manufactured per annum , 3 |7ths of the 
number being of gold, i;;ths of silver. St. Gall and Appenzell produce 
annually about 400,000 pounds' worth of embroidery, which occupies 6000 
hands. The printing and dyeing factories of Glarus mamifacture goods to 
the value of 600,000 I. per annum. The manufacture of cotton goods employs 
upwards of 1 million spindles, 4000 looms, and 20.000 persons; hand-looms 
..s.000 persons : straw-plaiting (Aargau , Lucerne, Bale) 30,000 ; machine- 
building (principally at Zurich) 6000. The total imports amount to 
12.800,000 I., the exports to 11,600,000 /. annually. The industrial prospe- 
rity of Switzerland is mainly attributable to the moderation of the import- 
duties, which enables its products to compete successfully with those of 
every European mart. The highest import -duty levied '(on articles uf 
luxury) amounts to 12 s. per cwt. 


XIII. Geology of the Alps, f 

Alps is the term applied to the vast mountain ranges which extend 
from Nice on the Mediterranean Sea towards the N.E. through southern 
France, Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Styria, to the Leitha on the Hunga- 
rian frontier. Of these the highest are the Central Alps, situated in Savoy 
and Switzerland. They are subdivided into the Pennine Alps (p. *239) ex- 
tending from the Col de Bonhomme (p. 231) to Monte Rosa (p. 263), and 
including Mont Blanc (p. 222) ; the Lepontine or Sic iss Alps, extending from 
St. Gotthard (p. 80) to the Vogelberg (p. 363) ; and the Rliaetian Alps, ex- 
tending from the sources of the Hinter-Rhein (p. 302) over the Bernina 
(p. 331) to the Ortler in the Tyrol (p. 345). The central point of tliem- 
ranges is the Furca and St. Gotthard group, from which the Alps of the 
Valais and Grisons branch in a southerly, and the Bernese and Rhenish Alps 
in a northerly direction. 

According to their elevation the Alps are usually divided into the 
Higher Alps, or those portions above the snow-line (8000' on the N. , and 
8800' on the S. side) ; the Middle Alps , or those portions between the 
region of perpetual snow and the boundary of the growth of trees (4500') : 
and the Lower Alps, or those between 4500' and 2000' above the level of 
the sea. 

In Switzerland three districts may be distinguished, differing essen- 
tially in their geological formation. A line drawn from Schaffhansen through 
Aarau and Sfeuchdtel to the base of Mont Bole, N. of Geneva, separates 
two of these districts from each other, the J u r a Range from the Swiss 
Hill Country. The latter extends to the base of the Alps, which con- 
stitute the third and most important of these districts. 

The formation of the Jura Range consists essentially of strata 
remarkable for their repleteness with organic remains , and also 
known as the 'Jura formation' in other parts of central Europe. The 
subdivisions of this formation, its stratification, and the remains, 
principally of shell-fish , which characterise the different strata , are well 
known. The position of the strata resembles the surface of a troubled sea, 
or numerous layers of cloth , placed one upon another and subjected to 
lateral pressure. On the borders of the Black Forest, and in the 
greater of these layers , which extend southwards beyond Bale , the lower 
strata of the Triassic System, the Kevper Marls, Muschelkalk, and 
Buntsandstein, are the most prominent, and all organic remains which they 
contain differ from those of the Jura group. From the lake of Bienne, in 
a southwesterly direction, more recent strata occur, belonging to the creta- 
ceous system, and known as Neocomian Deposits. 

At the base of the Jura these strata are covered by a far more recent 
formation, which comprehends the entire district of the Swiss Hill Country, 
in its turn bounded by the lower Alps , of which the Rigi is the most 
celebrated from the magnificence of its view. This formation belongs to 
the section of the Tertiary System known as Meiocene, the vast beds 
of conglomerate contained in which are called y a gel fine (p. 5-t). It is. 
geologically, a very recent formation, and proves what vast transforms 
tions the earth's surface has undergone at a comparatively recent date. 
The larger towns of Switzerland are situated in this district: St. Gall, 
Zurich, Lucerne, Soleure, Bern, Freiburg, Lausanne, and Geneva, as well as 
the two large basins of the lakes of Geneva and Constance. 

The strata of the Meiocene contain in two sections remains of fresh- 
water animals and plants (found in abundance at the quarries of Oelmingen), 

+ The most recent geological researches in Switzerland and special 
maps of the Alps and Jura are to be found in the 'Beitrage ~nr Geologie 
der Sclmeh' (published bv Dalp of Bern at the expense of government). 


and in an intermediate section remains of marine animals. The Fag el- 
flue consists essentially of boulders and rounded stones belonging to 
formations entirely foreign to the Alps of the present day. In order to 
account for this, it is conjectured that at the period of the formation of 
this rock a chain of lower hills , consisting of various species of granites, 
porphyries , quarzites , etc. , formed the spurs of the higher Alps. The 
Nagelflue mountains are formed by the deposits of those ancient streams 
which unquestionably descended from the region of the Alps ; and their 
occurrence in a number of different districts indicates the various directions 
in which these rivers must have flowed. 

The position of the strata deviates little from their original , nearly 
horizontal direction, and takes the form of a basin between the Alps and 
the Jura range, the shores of the former Meiocene sea. At the distance, 
however, of about 7 M. from the base of the Alps , the inclination of the 
strata alters, and from this point onwards, turned towards the S.E. in the 
direction of the Alps, becomes more and more abrupt. From Rorschach as far 
as the Lake of Thun two undulating folds of the strata , protruding over 
each other chiefly from S. to N., are traceable in this sub-alpine Meiocene 
formation. This position can only have been occasioned by some vast 
convulsions in the solid crust of the earth after the first deposit and con- 
solidation of the strata, and may be regarded as a prelude to the compli- 
cated rock-formation of the Alps themselves. Almost the entire hilly 
country, and even the lower slopes of the Jura are covered with in- 
numerable Erratic Blocks and glacier detritus. The nature of the rock 
and the origin of the blocks, as well as their disposition in moraines, 
render it probable that during the ice-period the glaciers of the Rhone, 
Aar, Reuss , Limmat , and Rhine covered the entire district. To these 
formations, moreover, the soil is indebted for its remarkable fertility. 

The N. boundary of the Swiss Alps extends from the 1. bank of the 
Rhine, a short distance below the influx of the III (p. 350), in a zigzag line 
S.W., to Vevap on the Lake of Geneva. The S. extremity of this mighty 
range is in the vicinity of the Lake of Lugano, while the E. portion extends 
into Piedmont and the Austrian states. 

On the Northern Side of the Alps a belt , varying in diameter , com- 
posed of fossiliferous formations , is distinguishable from the main portion 
of the rocks. These formations were formerly known by the general 
denomination of Alpenkalk stein (Alpine Limestone), but have in more 
recent times been ascertained to consist of three distinct groups, belonging 
to the Eocene, the Chalk Formation, and the Jura Formation. 
Towards the E. frontier of Switzerland, in the cantons of St. Gall and 
Glarus, portions of this belt of a still more remote date occur, and are 
considered to belong to the Triassic System. 

The rocks of these formations on the outskirts of the Alps bear so little 
similarity to others of the same formations on the N. and W. side of this 
great range in Germany and France , that is has been a matter of the ut- 
most difficulty to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion on the subject. The 
limestones, which occur in the former in enormous masses, are of a dark- 
grey, or nearly black colour, of a close texture, slightly crystalline, veined 
with a network of calcareous spar, and bearing a close resemblance to the 
limestones which usually occur in older formations. Hence arose diffi- 
culties of classification , which were not solved until attention was drawn 
to the organic remains found in this northern belt of the Alps. These 
form the sole clue to the labyrinth of Alpine formations, and prove a surer 
and more trustworthy criterion, in proportion as a minuter acquaintance 
is made with the organic remains in the adjacent districts. 

Thus the same organic remains have been found here as those which 
occur in the Eocene Strata near Paris, and it has been satisfactorily proved 
that these recent formations have participated in the same irregularities 
which have taken place in the Alpine chain. A similar relation has been 
observed between the chalk formations and the Jura Group on the northern 
boundary of the Alps. A variation in the character of the organic remains 


tends to prove that the Jura strata must have been deposited in the depths 
of the ocean, while those to the N. of the Swiss hill-country were probably 
formed on the beach or shallower portions of the sea. 

The relations between these three formations, the Eocene, the Chalk, 
and the Jura groups, which are invariably found in juxtaposition, are of 
an extremely complicated nature. The strata are upheaved in the most 
contorted forms , and present the appearance of having been folded to- 
gether, so that among the higher and more inaccessible mountains it has 
been a task of the utmost difficulty to ascertain the extent of these for- 
mations. Difficult as it may be to account for some of these phenomena, 
it has , at least , been clearly proved by the indefatigable researches of 
eminent Swiss geologists , that these strata have been upheaved from the 
depths of the ocean in which they were deposited, pressed together, and 
forced aside (i. e. to the N.) by the principal formations of the Alpine 
chain. This accounts for the fact that the lowest strata are frequently 
found on the surface. 

The Central Alpine Zone consists of rocks of an entirely different 
character. The principal masses are generally composed of gneiss, which 
towards the centre changes to granite and protogine. Adjacent to the 
gneiss occurs the mica-schist and talcose schist, and in the gneiss itself 
may be distinguished the mica-gneiss and the talcose. Although these are 
precisely the same rocks which everywhere constitute the earth's crust, 
geologists have not yet succeeded in reducing the phenomena of the con- 
struction of the Alps to fixed laws, — a fact which cannot excite surprise, 
when the same difficulties have been experienced in the case of far less 
complicated formations. 

Studer, the eminent Swiss geologist, himself confesses that even in the 
case of the best-known central masses of gneiss , those of Mont Blanc, the 
Finsteraarhorn, and the St. Gotthard, far too little has been ascertained 
to admit of their limits being laid down with any certainty. 

Intermingled with the central masses of gneiss, Schists also occur 
to a great extent , sometimes in the form of Hornblende and Hornblende 
Schist approaching the already mentioned crystalline schists of the central 
masses, sometimes as green-schist, analogous to serpentine, easily recogni- 
sable as a sedimentary formation. These also contain Anthracite and nu- 
merous impressions of plants, and may undoubtedly be considered to belong 
to the Coal Formation,* — a fact of the utmost importance in the study of 
the Alpine structure. 

Older sedimentary deposits are not known with certainty to occur in 
the Swiss Alps , but are found in the eastern continuation of the Alpine 
chain. Of the strata, usually situated between the coal-formation and the 
Jura-group, some indeed occur in the Swiss Alps, as sandstones, conglo- 
merates (Verrncano, 'Rauchieacke\ Dolomite, Oupsiim. etc.); but the order 
of these is so far from persistent, that, although well known in the E. 
prolongation of the mountain chain, and in the adjacent S. zone, and classed 
under the Triassic System, no satisfactory account can be given. 

In the heart of Switzerland, and on the extreme northern verge of the 
central zone, rises the Central Mass of the Finsteraarhorn from the Lotschen- 
thal to the Todi. In the centre of this range , where it is intersected by 
the routes of the Grimsel and the St. Gotthard, the Granite attains its 
most important development, and at the same time the Anticlinal 
Axis, or contorted ('fan-shaped') structure of the gneiss is most strongly 
marked. Here too, on the N. side, the most striking irregularity is observed 
in the contact of the gneiss and its associated quartz-rock with the ad- 
joining Jura-limestone. In the diagonal line from Lauterbrunnen and 
Qrindelwald to Viesch the fan-shape is fully developed, on the X. side the 
strata decline towards the S., in the VienrherhSrner they are vertical, whilst 
on the route from the Eggischhorn (p. 141) to Viesch they assume a H. di- 
rection ; the same is the case in a section of the Grimsel (p. 136). At the 
extremities of the gneiss, on the other hand, a uniform and abrupt descent 
towards the S. has been observed. 


The contact of the crystalline and sedimentary formations is most 
strikingly exhibited on the N: verge of this group, in the profound valleys 
and fissures rent through the entire mass by mighty convulsions. The 
Gatternthal (p. 252) is a locality admirably adapted for arriving at a more 
accurate acquaintance with these phenomena. The limestone and slate- 
strata of the precipices of the Altels and Doldenhorn (p. 146) are extremely 
contorted in their position ; the base is Granite. 

The summit of the Jungfrau (p. 115) consists of gneiss-granite, into 
which two masses of Jura-limestone have inserted themselves horizontally, 
their extremities being , as it were , folded back. This psendo-interstrati- 
fication must have taken place whilst the disrupting granite was in a liquid 
state. The Eiger and Monch (p. 116), the Mettenberg (p. 118), the Wetterltorn 
(p. 122), and above all , the upper portion of the Urbachthal (p. 132) and 
the narrow ridge between the Tossenhom and Gstellihorn display the sam? 
phenomena. Even the extremities of these inserted masses of limestone 
contain organic remains of the Jura-formation. This affords a clue to the 
structure of the Alps , but if it be considered as evidence that the epoch 
of these convulsions is more recent than the Jura chalk and eocene periods, 
the soundness of the proposition may be questioned. 

Almost adjoining this Central Man of the Finteraarhorn is that of the 
St. Gtotthord; of an intervening layer of slate and limestone, isolated 
fragments or 'nests' of marble are now the sole indications. At the level 
of the St. Gotthard Lakes, Granite occurs in the heart of this mass , at 
the Gemsboden Gneiss , above Hospenthal Mica- Slate; at Andermatt the 
inclination is towards the S., at Airolo towards the N., the Fan-Struc- 
ture being here distinctly exhibited, which extends E. as far as the gra- 
nite can be traced. 

In the beautiful intersection of the Lukmanier (p. 313), these pheno- 
mena are repeated ; the S. portion of the fan becomes more expansive as 
it extends towards, the E. The surface, the situation of the watershed, and 
the summits bear no relation to the axis of the fan ; the present configu- 
ration of the mountain-chains and valleys cannot therefore have been oc 
casioned by the upheaval of the granite. 

The St. Gotthard possesses a rich treasure in its Minerals (pp. 67, 
79). Those in the external central masses display a great uniformity, the 
same species occurring at Oisans , on Mont Blanc, on the Finsteraarhorn , 
and on the St. Gotthard: such are the micaceous iron-ore, titanite , sphene, 
fluor-spar, apatite, axinile, tourmaline, and the entire series of zeolites. 

On the 8. frontier of the Valais, from the Great St. Bernard over the 
lofty summits of the Dent de Rang, Dent Blanche, and the Matter/torn, as 
far as the Weisshorn and Simplon, extends a range of crystalline felspar- 
rock, which may not only be regarded as a central mass entitled to rank 
with others , but even as the true Central Chain of the Swiss and Italian 
High Alps. The highest summits of the Alps, Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa, 
though not within the limits of this mass , are in its immediate vicinity. 
— It forms a transition from the fan-shaped mountains , situated nearer 
the external (N.) zone of the Alps to the more horizontally extended gneiss 
masses which form the internal zone. The fan shape is not easily dis- 
tinguished, the symmetrical arrangement of the different species of rocks 
is wanting ; interstratifications of marble and limestone are more frequent, 
serpentine and gabbro occur , and in the S. part even syenite. This Cen- 
tral Mass is moreover especially remarkable for its intimate connection 
with the associated Slates; the strata are in some places strangely inter- 
mingled, whilst in others they gradually blend. Gneiss and Grey Slate 
often occur as an inseparable mass, and give rise to one of the difficult 
problems in geology. The basis, a variety of protogine, is termed Artesine, 
and seldom protrudes through the snows and glaciers of the highest moun- 
tains. On the Matterhorn and in its vicinity the level of the Green State, 
which forms the summit of this gigantic mountain, is observed to vary as 
much as 3000', the basis being Gneiss and Mica Slate, unbrokenly connected 
with each other, as Giordano has demonstrated. Erosion followed by 


slips can therefore alone account for the phenomenon of this isolated, tooth- 
like peak, which must be regarded as but a scanty remnant of a once far 
more massive chain. 

Towards the S.W. the masses of Mont Blanc and the Aiguilles Rouges 
stand in the same relation to these central masses as those of the St. Gott- 
hard and Finteraarhorn to the N.E. In these the Fan- Structure and 
the Granitic Basis agaimbecome fully developed. The N.E. or nearly 
N. extremities alone of these masses extend into Switzerland, to the S.W. 
of the canton of Valais as far as Martigny. 

In the Alps of Ticino Gneiss and Mica Schist predominate. The pecu- 
liar character of the central mass hitherto followed in the species of rocks 
and phenomena of structure almost entirely disappears. The dubious 
Chlorite, Talcose, and Mica Schists no longer intermingle with 
the rocks of the basis, but occupy a distinct position on the external zone. 
The Gneiss predominates in the valleys and lower slopes, the Mica 
Schist in the higher mountain regions, forming, for example, the ridge 
and summits of the Campolongo Pass as far as the Pizzo Forno, an im- 
portant point for trigonometrical measurements. 

The structure is here extremely complicated , the disruption of the 
rock horizontal, and the lamination of the mica-schist nearly vertical; the 
formation of the basis is much contorted and fractured. 

In the upper Val Maggia a meridional direction of the mountain- 
strata appears, completely at. variance with their general direction of the 
portions of the Alps already considered, and the principal direction of the 
entire range. This variation is not confined to the little-known mountains 
of Ticino, but may be traced as far as the Upper Engadine, and pre- 
dominates in the entire chain from the upper Val Maggia to the Maloja, 
5i M. in length, and from Chiavenna to Vals, or about 32 M. in breadth. 
This direction and the inclination of the strata towards the E. appear to 
be indications of the ancient A nip hi I heal re of mountains which is con- 
jectured to have enclosed Piedmont, previous to the changes in the earth's 
crust which occasioned the present configuration of the Alps. 

The gneiss which particularly characterises Ticino, first occurs in the 
W. in the basis of Monte Rosa and the precipices and cliffs of the valley 
of Macugnaga (p. 263), the grandest basin in the Alps. In the higher regions 
it blends with the Mica- Schist, of which the four principal peaks of 
Monte Rosa appear to be exclusively composed. The Main- Group rests 
on a Meridional Chain, a huge wall of rock, which from Stalden 
(p. 267) above Vispach to Ivrea at the S. base of the range has a length 
of 50 M. and throughout half of this extent an altitude of not less 
than 10,000'. This forms a dyke or barrier between the Pennine and 
Lepontine Alps. 

In a similar manner the Adula Range, to the E. o. the Alps ot 
Ticino, though less elevated, forms the boundary between the Lepontine 
and Rhaetian Alps. This broad mass is bleak and desolate , without 
strongly defined summits, and covered with snow and glaciers which 
rarely descend from the heights, the declivities being too precipitous, and 
not penetrated by valleys. This is the cradle of the Rhine (p. 362J. The 
meridional valleys are longer and formed at a greater depth. 

In the entire extent of the group, the strata decline towards the N.E. 
and E. Gneiss therefore constitutes the basis in the Val Blegno. Indi- 
cations of a barrier between the Adula Range and the Alps of Ticino are 
observed in the limestone and marble masses contained in the gneiss near 
Rosso and Landarenca in the Val Calanca, which form the associating 
links between the black slates of S. Bernardino and those of the Val 

The Gneiss Mass which extends along the Spliigen Route from 
Schams to the Roffla (p. 357) and Ferrera (p. 356) attains its most complete 
development in the snowy and glacier -clad summits of the Sureta 
Alps. The peculiarities of this Central Mass are particularly remarkable 
in the vicinity of the Spliigen Pass. The Roffla consists of porphyric or 


Granitic Gneiss. At the SplUgen Pass, as well as along the entire limit 
of the crystalline schists, gneiss, mica schist, and calcareous Slack and 
Green Schists, intervening rocks occur, of which the predominating 
are 'Rauchaacke\ perforated with the so-called 'chamois caverns', 
marble, and slate, which in some cases tend to the mica-schist and gneiss, 
in others to the clay-slate. Thus it is also at the Via Mala (p. 355), be- 
tween the slate of which and that of Curver a series of dolomite gneiss and 
limestone intervenes , the apparent continuation of the talcose, calcareous, 
and felspar masses of the Nezza and Albine Alps. 

The Crystalline Slates which extend from this point to the S. 
adjacent zone, scarcely admit of a general classification. They are partly 
.dependent on masses of granite and syenite, and partly vary between 
chlorite schist, hornblende, mica schist, and gneiss, without assuming a 
definite character. The position of the strata and lamination cannot be 
reduced to primary laws. 

The lofty range of the Bernina, on the frontier of the Orisons and 
Valtellina, rises as a Central Mass in the space between the Val 
Camonica and the Upper Engadine. Its gneiss is intersected at Cavaglia 
(p. 340) and Pisciadella by the two Bernina routes, and is almost entirely 
encircled by granite, hornblende, and serpentine, which occurs in none of 
the other central masses. The structure of the Bernina exhibits no 
tendency to the fan-shape, the rocks being exclusively schistous, and 
differing from the granitic gneiss and protogine granites of the N. and W. 
central masses. The declension of the strata is always to the N. and N.E. 
The Granite of Brusio ( p. 341) appears in the huge slate formation 
declining to the N. as a considerable intervening layer only, as on both 
sides the inclination of the gneiss and mica slate is the same. 

The Central Mass of the Silvretta, between the Engadine and Vorarl- 
berg exhibits, in common with the more western central masses on the 
verge of the Central Zone the Fan Shape d structure, the Super- 
position of the Crystalline Slates over the Jura and more Recent 
Strata, and the occurrence of Granitic Gneiss in the axis of the 
fan. Another characteristic of this mass is the vast extent of the Horn- 
blende Schists which partially supersede the gneiss, and the meridional 
extension of the associated varieties of rock, so that the longitudinal axis 
of the mass corresponds neither to the direction of the lamination nor the 
watershed. The Granite, which from the W. extremity forms the axis 
of the range, extends over the eminences of the Silvretta, Fermont, and 
Jamthal snow-mountains from the source of the Landquart (p. 284), and 
the III (p. 350). 

An attempt has thus been made to trace the central masses from the 
centre as far as the K. and W. limits of Switzerland. 

Alpine Farming. In spring, as soon as the snow melts on the N. side 
of the Alps, and the first herbage makes its appearance, the cattle are 
released from their winter confinement, and driven to the' lower pastures; 
about the middle of June higher regions are ascended, and at the com- 
mencement of July a portion of the herds attain the most elevated 
pastures. At the beginning of September they descend to the lower 
districts, and about October 10th return to the valleys and their winter- 
quarters. In summer the best cows yield from 15 to 20 quarts of milk 
daily, from which, during the pasture season of 4 months, about 2 cwt. 
of cheese is prepared, realizing on an average 50 cent, per pound. The 
best quality of cheese is produced on pastures 3000' above the level of 
the sea. the most favoured districts being the valleys of the Emme (p. 92), 
the Simmen (p 153), and the Sarine (p. 154). The herdsman ( Senne) with 
his boys has abundant occupation in assembling his 80 or 80 cows twice 
daily to be milked, in superintending the preparation of the cheese, and 
cleaning the vessels employed in the process. The stables or huts 
(Fr. Chalet, Ger. Sennhiitte) in which the cattle and herdsmen are housed 
during the night, and the cheese manufactured, are rudely constructed of 
pine-logs, and not always impervious to wind and rain; the flat roofs 


consist of broad, oblong, or square pieces of wood, secured by heavy 
stones. The chalets of the better class are usuallv divided into three 
compartments, the largest containing the fire-place and milk cauldron, 
another being the dairy, or cheese-manufactory, and the third a sleeping 
room. The entire furniture consists of a wooden bench and table. Although 
the vicinity of these huts is generally dirty and uninviting , they will be 
hailed with no little satisfaction by the hungrv wayfarer, as thev usually 
afford excellent milk, fresh butter, cheese, and bread. In elevated and 
remote regions even this Alpine fare is not always to be obtained, whilst 
in much-frequented districts other refreshments'— coffee, wine, honey, 
eggs, and even a not uncomfortable couch of hay may be found at the 
chalets. A large proportion of the huts with which certain districts are 
so thickly strewn, and which in appearance do not differ from these rude 
mountain-dwellings, are receptacles for hay only. 

For the Preparation of Cheese, the freshest milk, or that from which 
the cream has already been removed, is employed according to the quality 
of the cheese to be manufactured. The cheese having been separated from 
the whey by means of rennet, and pressed, is placed in the magazine, 
where it is turned daily, and moistened with cloths saturated with salt- 
water. If the whey is not employed for sanitary purposes, an inferior 
quality of cheese ('Zieger') is again prepared from' it. The residue serves 
to fatten the pigs which arc frequently kept for this purpose on the 

The term '■Alp , employed so frequently in the following pages, signi- 
fies a mountain-pasture. 'Matlen' is a term applied to the richer and 
less elevated meadow-land. 'Graf denotes a mgged and precipitous 

XIV. Glaciers. 

The somewhat granular snow (Xeige Grenuej which falls in the most 
elevated Alpine regions, above the snow line (£000'), accumulates in the 
valleys and clefts of the rocks, is partially melted during the day. espe- 
cially in the lower districts, and during the night is converted into a solid 
frozen mass. Thus, layer by layer, is foimed the Glacier, the most 
striking feature of the Alpine world, a stupendous mass of the purest 
azure ice. 

Xo aspect of Switzerland is so strikingly, and at the same time so 
strangely beautiful, as when in some fertile and wooded valley we have 
the glittering pinnacles of a glacier suddenly presented to our astonished gaze 
in the immediate proximity of corn-fields, fruit-trees, smiling meadows, and 
human habitations. Such a combination forms one of the most wonderful 
of "Nature's paradoxes. 

The more extensive or Primary glaciers are long arms of solid ice, 
resembling frozen cataracts, which occupy entire valleys, frequently with 
a very slight fall, and are estimated to attain a thickness of 1500'. The 
smaller or Secondary glaciers are of more limited extent, occupying the 
mountain -slopes with a considerable fall, and of a less massive con- 

At'an altitude exceeding 10,000' above the sea-level, the influence of 
the sun is too inconsiderable to melt the surface of the snow sufficiently 
for its conversion into ice. This snowy, unconsolidated upper portion 
of the glacier is termed Firn fFr. AVrV), which at a lower elevation, 
where the sun's rays become more powerful, gradually blends with the 
ice of the glacier, formed as already described. The glacier is therefore, 
as it were, the offshoot of the Firn. but is easily distinguishable fiom it, 
the surface of the ice being rounded towards the margins, and that of the 
Firn towards the centre. 

Whilst the fall of snow and the formation of glacier-ice suffer no inter- 
mission, the extent of the glaciers does not increase. The compensation 


in the more elevated regions is effected by the evaporation and absorption 
of the ice by the influence of the sun and air, in the lower regions by 
the conversion of the ice into water, which descends through the fissures 
and forms a brook, the invariable outlet of every glacier. I 

It is a well-established fact that glaciers are in a perpetual state a 
motion, and descend with more or less rapidity. Professor Forbes fount, 
that the ice of 'the Mer de Glace advanced 209' per annum at the source 
of the Arveiron, whilst at the base of the Montanvert the annual pro- 
gression amounted to 822'. The motion in winter is less rapid than in 
spring and summer. It has been calculated that 200 years would elapse 
before a mass of rock, lying on the surface of the glacier at its upper ex- 
tremity, would reach the valley of Chamouny. 

Saussure (pp. 218, 232) attributes the advance of glaciers entirely to 
the mechanical pressure exercised by the masses of snow on the upper 
portions, whilst the lower extremities gradually melt away. Agassiz (p. 135) 
and his disciples maintain that the increase of glaciers is owing to the rain 
and snow which penetrate into the fissures, and, being converted into ice, 
tend to force the glacier downwards. Forbet is of opinion that the glacier 
is a sluggish stream which, notwithstanding the apparently brittle nature 
of the ice, possesses sufficient plasticity to accommodate itself to the irre- 
gularities of its bed. 

The masses of rock and detritus which become detached from the 
mountain-sides descend either to the glacier itself or to its margins, and, 
as the glacier continually, but imperceptibly advances, form long walls or 
barriers on either side. These are termed Lateral Moraines (Germ. 
Oandecken). When two glaciers meet, their lateral moraines extend over 
the surface of the ice, and form long walls of rubbish, termed Medial 
Moraines (Germ. Gufferlinieri), which, conveyed by the glacier to its 
lower extremity, and there deposited, constitute the Terminal Moraine 
(Germ. Stirmoall). The stones of the latter thus generally afford a clue tu 
the nature of the inaccessible rocks of the higher Alps. 

The formation of ice on the upper portion of the glacier is usually 
exactly compensated by the. absorption and dissolution of the ice effected 
by the agency of the sun and air, and the glacier seldom advances beyond its 
accustomed bed. This, however, is by no means invariably the case ; in 
1818, the terminal moraine of the Rhone Glacier (p. 137) for example, ad- 
vanced 150'. The lower extremity of the glacier, or tongue, as it may be 
called, then forces everything before it — soil, turf, stones, trees, and the 
ruins of human habitations — forming a huge wall with the rubbish of 
its lateral and medial moraines. If, on the other hand, the formation of 
ice is exceeded by the consumption, the glacier decreases, draws in its 
feelers, so to speak, and retires into the narrow mountain-gullies. The 
former extent of the glacier can in this case be traced by the position of 
the terminal moraine (p. 132). Warm seasons (1811, 1822, 1827, 1834) 
occasioned retrogression, whilst an advance of the glaciers, sometimes 
amounting to 2' daily, was observed in the years 1815-17, 1828-80, 1838, 
1837, 1857-59, and finally in 1861. 

Large slabs of rock are occasionally seen on the glaciers, supported 
by pillars of ice. These so-called Glacier Tables protect the ice on 
which they rest from the influence of the sun's rays, while the ice in their 
vicinity dissolves, thus insulating the ' table '. Smaller objects, such as 
stones, leaves, or even a dead insect, produce an opposite effect on the 
surface of the ice. They become heated by the sun, and melting the ice 
under them, form Holloas. 

When the glacier stream overflows the verge of a precipice, the solid 
icy mass is rent by innumerable fractures, which by exposure to the sun 
and air give rise to the lee- Needles and Ice- Pyramids. 

The streams formed by the melting of the ice on the surface of the 
glacier descend into the crevices and Assures, and, occasionally penetrating 
the entire mass, unite with the brook beneath the glacier. In the former 
case they are termed Br*nnen , or wells, Fr. Baignoirs; in the latter 


Trichter, or funnels, Fr. Moulins. These openings and clefts are closed 
in winter, and the mass of ice becomes more consolidated. In spring and 
summer, however, new rents are continually formed, usually accompanied 
by a loud cracking noise. 

The Crevasses (Ger. Schriinde) are a constant source of vexation to 
the glacier-wanderer. When he has succeeded in surmounting the lofty 
and precipitous moraines, and lias threaded his way through a chaos of 
rocks on the surface of the ice, his progress is too often obstructed by 
some yawning gulf which compels him to retrace his steps, or hare re- 
course to a long circuitous route. When these abysses are concealed by 
newly-fallen snow, a single incautious step may be attended with the most 
disastrous consequences. 

The beds of ancient glaciers may frequently be traced by the singular 
manner in which they have polished and furrowed the surface of the 
rocks over which they have passed. This phenomenon (Germ. Qletscher- 
schliff) is occasioned by the friction of pebbles and fragments of quartz, 
interposed between the glacier and the rock, and is observed only on 
granite and gneiss. An instance of this kind may be inspected by travellers 
at the Handeck (p. 133), from which, in conjunction with numerous other 
indications of a similar nature, it is inferred that the extent occupied 
by glaciers at a very remote period was far greater than at the present 
day. This supposition is corroborated by the frequent occurrence of 
Erratic Blocks of granite in districts whither they can have been 
conveyed by some external force alone, having been in all probability 
deposited by ancient glaciers. It is a remarkable fact that boulders of 
this description are found on the E. slopes of the Jura, near Bienne and 
Soleure, where the rock-formation consists entirely of limestone. 

The glacier-domain of Switzerland extends from Mont Blanc to the 
Ortler ; the entire area thus occupied is computed at 900 sq. M. The 
cantons of the Grisons (225), Bern (155), and the Valais (130) comprise 
»|ioths of the Swiss glaciers (540). Of these, 2 |3rds send their waters to 
the Rhine. The mightiest glacier mass is the Bernina ( p. 331 ) ; the most 
extensive glacier, 15 M. in length, is the Aletsch Glacier (p. 141). 

XV. Wrestling Matches. 

( Schwingfeste.) 

On stated occasions the youth of a valley, or of several neighbouring 
valleys, congregate for the purpose of wrestling. The elders and children 
of the community take part in the scene as spectators. For a victory to 
be decisive, the Vanquished wrestler must be thrown upon his back by 
his antagonist, and so obstinately are these contests prolonged that injuries 
of a serious nature not unfrequently result. 

These are very curious and characteristic spectacles if witnessed where 
they are not got up for purposes of gain and the diversion of strangers. 
This is often the case in localities much frequented by travellers, as 
Interlaken ; but these exhibitions, being mere speculations, are of course 
devoid of all the originality of the genuine matches, which are extremely 
interesting and exciting. 

The following are the fixed dates of some of the most important 

The 29th June at Schupfheim, in the Entlebuch (p. 91). 

The Sunday after the 5th July on the Seealp, in the canton of 

The Sundav after the! 25th July (St. James) on the Batersalp, 3 M. 
from Weissbad'(p. 279). 

The 22nd July on the Eigi (p. 58). 

The 26th July at Sachseln (p. 90). 

The 26th July on the Engstlenalp, near Meiringen (p. 129). 

The 1st Sundav in August on the Stadtalp, near Meiringen (p. 124). 


The 1st Sunday in August on the Wengernalp (p. 114). 

The 10th August nn the Tannalp, near Meiringen fp. 134). 

The 2nd Sunday in August at Ennetegg in the Entlebuch (p. 91). 

The 15th August near the Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-la-Gorge on the 
Mont Joli (p. 230). 

The last Sunday in August at Ennetegg in the Entlebuch. 

In the month of August, on the patron Saint's day, near the Baths of 
Vrnasch in the Canton of Appenzell. 

The 1st Sunday in September at Ennetegg. 

The 29th September and 1st Sunday in October at St. Joseph near 
Schupfheim (p. 91). 

Abbreviations used in the Handbook. 

R. = Room. 

L. = Light. 

B. = Breakfast. 

D. = Dinner. 

S. = Supper. 

A. = Attendance. 

N. = North. 

M. = English mile. ft. (') = Engl. foot. 

N.B. Everything particularly worthy of note is indicated by an asterisk. 
Distances in the more mountainous districts are given according to the 
time in which a moderate walker would traverse them. 


= South. 


= East. 


= West. 


= right. 


= left. 


= Hour. 


= Minute. 

Or, Base 

1 I ',1. Mill' 

1 Ceixiralhahnhof \ 

'.'• Ilriihrtuil S*Jurub 

*i- !\,ttii7>.iii* tehetn. Barfii.v.ter A 

oStJBbart (efam*Xb>*tor) 

1 .*"' Lcnnhnjfi 

ll> JViWv JC . 


VtMiMsenm, (JttbhotheJc ) 


~l6Jost uJelezjrafih- 


18 Sammcr - Casino 

19 Spt/al 
20 Stra/anstaJt 



2H.S* Thvodvr 


-rit. ftr. Has** 

C , ffilderMaiw. EJ> if Sfitutan 
xo Kl. Basel 
1) 3{&.A>v»x 


Ma,assstat> 1. 11.500 

1. Bale. 

Hotels. Three Kings (Plan a) on the Rhine, R. 2 fr. and upwards, 
I- I'jz, B. 1"|-.., D. at 5 o'clock 4, A. 1 fr. ; -Sch weizerho f ; opposite to it 
"Hotel Euler, R. 2, B. li| 2 , A. 3j tj omnibus 1 fr., both at the. Central 
Station ; F a u c o n ; ! C i g o g n e (PI. b), R. 13( 4 , B. 1>, 4 , D. inc. \V. 3, A. s|, fr. ; 
Sauvage (PI. c), similar prices. — 'Couronne (PI. d), "Kopf (PI. e), 
both on the Rhine; Hotel de la Poste; Schiff, unpretending, well 
spoken of, R. and A. 2 fr. — In Klein-Basel, on the r. bank of the Rhine, 
•Bear (PI. g), R. li| 2 , B. 1, A. 1)2 fr. ; opposite to it the "Croix (PI. h); 
Hotel Schrieder, opposite the station of the Baden railway. The usual 
dinner-hour at all the hotels is 12. 30. 

Cafes etc. 'Cafe des Trois Rois, near the hotel of that name: 
■Cafe National, on the r. bank of the Rhine near the bridge; Gate 
de Bale near the theatre. Refreshment-rooms at the Central Station and 
the Baden Station. — K i b i g e r , Barfiisserplatz ; S c h u h m a c h e r , opp. 
to the Central Station; Summer- Casino (PI. 18), concert on Wed. 
6—9 p. m. — T noma's garden, near the Central Station. 

Conveyances. mnibus from the Station to the town (50 lbs. of luggage 
free) i| 2 fr., from the Baden to the Central Station 1 fr. Carriage" for 
>|i hr. 1—2 persons 80 c, 3—4 pers. 1 fr. 20 c, by the hour 2—3 fr., to or 
from the station 1—4 pers. l'j 2 fr., from one station to the other 1—2 pers. 
l'|-2, 3—4 pers. 2 fr., each box 30 c. extra. 

Railway-Stations. Baden S tat ion in Klein-Basel 3 | 4 31. (in a straight 
direction) from the Rhine Bridge; duty payable on carved woodwork 
brought from Switzerland 10 kreu/.er per lb. The Alsace and the Swiss 
lines both start from the Central Station in Bale, on the S. side of the 
town, about 1 31. from the Rhine bridge. The waiting-rooms of the former 
are on the r., those of the latter on the 1. side of the building. The exterior 
of the station is adorned with relief- portraits of Newton, Humboldt, 
Laplace, and Euler (p. 4). Above the doors in the portico are the arms of 
the 22 Cantons. 

Post and Telegraph Offices (PI. 16) in the Freien-Strasse; also at the 
Central Station. 

Baths in the Rhine near the Jliinster, entrance from the Pfalz (p. 3). 
Warm baths at 3Ieyer-Ri tier's in the Elisabethen- Strasse ; Sigmunri, 

Newspapers in the Reading Club (open 10 a. m. to 9'fj p. m.) by the 
Miinster. Strangers must be introduced by a member, perhaps the land- 
lord of their hotel. 

English Church Service in the Church of St. Martin (PI. 8). 

Bale, or Basel (871 'J, the principal town of the half-canton 
Bale-Ville (pop. 44,834, 12,019 Rom. Cath.J, is flvst mentioned 
in the year 374 under the name of Basilea, and appears to have 
been founded by the Roman army when it fell back on the 
Rhine near the old Colonia Augusta Bauracorum, founded B. C. 
27 by L. Munatius Plancus (now called Basel- Augst, 5 M. from 
Bale on the 1. bank of the Rhine). Bale is greatly indebted 
for its wealth , which has become proverbial , to its favourable 
position at the junction of the frontiers of Germany, Frame, and 

B."KOKKi.;k. Switzerland, oth Edition. 1 

2 Routt 1. BALE. Munster. 

The town lies on the 1. bank of the Rhine, and is connected 
with Klein-Basel on the r. bank by a wooden bridge, 280 yds. 
in length, in the middle of which is a triangular obelisk, furnished 
with a barometer, thermometer, etc. 

The *Manster (PI. 9), an imposing edifice, the two lofty 
towers of which are visible from a considerable distance, was 
formerly the Cathedral of the see of Bale (the bishop's residence 
is now at Soleure). It was built by the Emperor Henry II. in 
1010—1019, and was restored in 1185, after having been des- 
troyed by Are. In 1356 the "old building was all but levelled 
by an earthquake, but is now rebuilt in the Gothic style. Of 
the original structure the N. portal, or St. Gallus gate-way, still 
exists, and is adorned with statues of the Evangelists, John the 
Baptist, and other saints ; over the church-door is a relief repre- 
senting the wise and foolish virgins; at the sides in 6 niches 
are the works of charity, and at the top Christ on the Judgment- 
seat and the angels at the last day. The "W. Front under the 
towers, with the principal portal and two side-entrances, belongs 
to the 14th cent. ; on the front are represented the Virgin and 
Child, and under them the Emp. Henry, the founder and bene- 
factor of the church, with the Empress Helena; on the two side- 
entrances are two knights, on the 1. St. George and the Dragon, 
and on the r. St. Martin. The towers, which are 218' in height, 
were not completed till 1500. In the year 1431 the convocation 
of the great Council in the Munster first began ; it consisted of 
upwards of 500 clergymen . whose- ostensible task was a 'refor- 
mation of the Church in head and members'; but after having 
disputed for years without any result, and having been excom- 
municated by Pope Eugene IV. , the Convocation was at last 
dissolved in 1448. The Church is open to the public on Tues- 
days and Fridays, 2 — 4 p. m. The sacristan lives opposite to 
the principal entrance (fee l fa fr.); in summer he is generally 
to be found in the church at the above hours. 

The interior of the Munster was bereft of its most beautiful ornaments 
in the great iconoclasm of 1529, but was re-decorated in 1852 — 56 with 
great skill, and is now one of the finest Protestant churches in existence. 
The beautiful rood-loft of 1381 now serves to support the organ, a very 
line instrument, performances on which may be heard once or twice a week 
in summer, 6—7 p. m. (admission 1 fr.). The pulpit dates from 1424. The 
aisles and choir contain fine old monuments and tombstones built into 
the walls; in the N. aisle is the old episcopal chair; also reliefs of the 
11th cent, (scenes from the lives of the martyrs); the font fs of 1465; on 
the pillar opposite is the tombstone of the learned Erasmus of Rotter- 
dam (d. 1536), with a long Latin inscription. In the passage round the 
choir are the monuments of the Empress Anna (d. 1281), consort of Rudolph 
of Hapsburg and mother of Albert I., and of her youngest son Charles. 
The stained-glass windows, representing Moses and David, Peter and 
Paul, and th« four Evangelists, are by artists of Zurich and St. Gall, and 
the newest, representing Christ as Judge of the world, is from the 
stained-glass Institution of Munich. The crypt, which belongs to the 
original ediflce, is now occupied by the stoves employed in heating the 
church. A stair leads from the choir to the Council Hall, in which 

Museum. BALE. 1. Route. 3 

one of the five principal committees used to assemble. It is exactly in 
the state in which it was left 400 years ago. All that was considered 
worth preserving at the restoration of the church is kept here and in the 
chapel of St. Nicholas (see below), such as antiquities of the middle ages, 
and fragments of the nine frescoes of the celebrated Bale Death-dance, painted 
at the commencement of the 15th cent, in commemoration of the plague, 
and erroneously attributed to Holbein. In the Chapel of St. Nicholas, 
beneath the Council Hall, may be seen the Lallenkonig, a large head formerly 
placed on the clock-tower of the Rhine bridge (taken down in 1839), which 
rolled its eyes and protruded its long tongue ('Lalli') at each stroke of the 
pendulum, erected in derision of the inhabitants of Klein Basel in conse- 
quence of some dispute. 

On the S. side of the Choir are extensive ""Cloisters, con- 
structed in the years 1362, 1400, and 148 7, connecting the church 
with the Episcopal palace, and employed as family burial-places. 
These cloisters extend to the Ffalz, a terrace behind the Mini- 
ster, rising 78' immediately above the Rhine, and deriving it? 
name from an imperial Pfalz, or palace, to which it is said for- 
merly to have belonged. It is planted with chestnuts, and affords 
a pleasing prospect of the green river and the dark heights of 
the Black Forest. Below the Pfalz are the swimming and bathing 
establishments, and above the most western of the latter is the 
Reading Club (p. 1). Behind the Minister is the house of Eras- 
mus of Rotterdam; near it, a statue of Oeoolampadius. 

In the street leading from the Miinsterplatz in a N'.W. direc- 
tion to the bridge, is the *Museum (PI. 14), open to the public 
on Sundays from 10 to 1'2, and Wednesdays from 2 to 4 o'clock 
(collection of engravings open on Thursdays from 2 to 5); on other 
days admission 1 fr. It contains a picture-gallery and collections 
of natural and scientific curiosities. 

The Picture Gallery is principally remarkable for the paintings 
and drawings which it contains of the younger Holbein (b. at Augsburg 
1498, d. at London 1054). Ante-room. 1. Holbein; 2. — 11. Old copies 
from Holbein. — Collection of Drawings. 135, 136, 137. by Diirer. 
153. Drawings of the 'Last Judgment' in the Ludwigskirche at Munich, 
by Cornelius; under glass, 'The praise of Folly' of Erasmus with marginal 
drawings by Holbein. — "Picture Gallery. A. Holbein Saloon: 7, 
8. Schoolmaster's signboard of 1516; 14. The burgomaster Jacob Meyer 
and his wife; 16. Erasmus of Rotterdam; "20. Wife and children of the 
painter; 21. The Last Supper; 26. The Passion, in 8 sections, for which 
in 1641 the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria offered the sum of 30,000 fl. ; 
34. The printer Froben ; 36. A London merchant; "52, 53. H. Flies, St. John 
the Baptist. — B. Old German Saloon: 85. Cranach, St. Ursula. — 
C. Bale Saloon: 133. Battle of St. Jacob, by Hieron. Hess; 141. Entrance 
into Bale of the confederate ambassadors in 1501 to take the oaths of 
allegiance to the Confederation, Landerer; "148. Schreckhorn and Wetter- 
horn, C'alame; "139. Horse-piece, Roller . — D. Fourth Saloon: 173. 
Lute-player, "174. Interior of a Dutch cottage, both by Tenters; 199. Sleep 
the Type of Death, by Caracci; 209. Macbeth and the Witches, by Koch. 
— Room E. Birmann's Collection : -267. The Nativity, by An. Caracci; 
'270. Madonna and Child, ascribed to Oherardesca da Hicna; "281. Cardinal 
Fleury, by Phil, de Champaigne ; 292. The Adoration, by M abuse; 289. Por- 
trait, ascribed to Rembrandt; 291. TheSmoker by reniers; 260.— 273. Pictures 
by Peter Birmann ; 274—279. Pictures by .Sam. Birmann (d. 1847). — The 
Sixth Room, 1. of the Holbein Saloon, contains unnumbered pictures by 
Steinle, Schnori; Hess, Schraudolph, Overbed; etc. — The Cabinet of An- 
tiquities contains Roman and Greek relics, statuettes, ancient ecclesiasti 


4 Route I. BALK. Town Hall. 

cal vessels, idols, Swiss coins, Etruscan vases, Mosaics, *c. — The M ex 'can 
Cabinet contains a number of "Mexican curiosities and other objects of 
interest, among which are two mummies. 

The University Library in the same building (open from 
2 to 4) contains upwards of 85,000 volumes and 4000 MSS.; 
among the latter are the transactions of the church council, 
writings of Luther, Melanchthon, etc. The University (130 students), 
founded in 1459 by Pius II. , is celebrated as the school of the 
great mathematicians Bernouilli, Merian, and Euler. The hall 
contains upwards of 100 portraits of the learned men of Bale, 
of the cosmographer Sebastian Miinster (d. 1552), the reformers 
Oecolampadius and Grynneus, etc. 

The Town Hall (PI. 17) in the Market-place was erected in 
1508 in the so-called Burgundian style, and renewed in 1826. 
The facade is adorned with the town -arms (a black episcopal 
staff resting on a fisherman's grappling-iron). 

The Arsenal (PL 23), the receptacle of the arms for the Bale 
contingent of troops, contains little worthy of note except the 
shirt of mail worn by Charles the Bold. 

The handsome Spahlen-Thor (St. Paul), erected about the 
year 1400, deserves inspection ; the other gates, bastions, and 
ramparts have been converted into public walks. 

Among other Mediaeval Relics may be mentioned the Fish- 
market-Fountain, erected in the 14th cent.; the Spahlen- Fountain 
with a bagpiper from a design by Holbein ; the Roman archway 
in the old St. Albans Monastery (PL 5). — The Barfiisser-Church 
(PL 4), dating from the beginning of the 13th cent., with its 
very lofty choir, now serves as a store-house. — The Church of 
St. Martin (PI. 8) was restored in 1851 and converted into a 
Protestant place of worship. — The new Gothic Elisabethenkirche 
(PL 6) was erected at the expense of a wealthy citizen of Bale; 
it contains some line painted glass, executed at Munich. — The 
newly restored (Rom. Cath.) Church of St. Clara (PL 25) in 
Klein-Basel contains a line organ. 

The Mission - House (PI. 12} educates missionaries for the promul- 
gation of Christianity. An excellent Society for the Promotion of the 
Public Welfare, which has existed in Kale for nearly a century, has a very 
extensive sphere of operations. There are also similar institutions in 
the neighbourhood : Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Estab. for Prot. Sisters of 
Charity and Reformatory at Riehen. 

The Monument of St. Jacob (PI. 3), a Gothic obelisk about '|a M. to 
the S.E. of the Aeschen gate, on the high-road to the Munster-Thal , was 
erected in 1824 over the burial place of Swiss soldiers who fell in 1444 
lighting for the liberties of their country. Large bodies of irregular troops 
had assembled in France under the Count Armagnac, with 30,000 of which 
the Dauphin marched against the Confederates at Bale. The latter were 
stationed at the fortress ofFarnsburg, about 15 M. to the S.E. of the town, 
and , on the approach of the French , 1300 men immediately attempted to 
force their passage to Bale. After a desperate conflict they were all cut to 
pieces near the village of St. Jacob where the last and bloodiest struggle 
took place. The red wine (not of a very superior quality) yielded by file 
vineyards which now occupy the scene of the battle is known hv the name 
if 'Swiss Blood'. 

2. From Bale to Bienne (Bern and Ncuchdtel) through 
the Miinster-Thal. 

7G'|:> JI. to Bern. The road still possesses great interest for 
lovers of the picturesque. Diligence to Bienne once daily in 9-*^ hrs. ; 
fare 30 c. Bv Railway (direct) from Bienne to Bern in 1 — l'|i hr. ■, 
fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr'. G5, 1 fr. 90 c. ; to Neuchatcl in :*ji — 1"U hr. ; fares 3 fr. 
15, 2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 70 c. 

The Miinsterthal, French Val-Moutier, through which the Ilirs Hows, is 
the grandest and most remarkahle in the whole .lura range. It. is a suc- 
cession of deliles and narrow gorges, whose hanks are clothed with lirs, 
whilst the plain smiles with verdant meadows, picturesque villages, and 
mills. This valley, which belongs to the ancient bishopric of Bale, ser\ e<l 
the Romans as a line of communication between Ari'itticuni (Avenehes. 
see p. 1G5), the most important town of Helvetia, and Autjusta liaurfirornni 
(Augst, see p. IS), one of their advanced posts on the Rhine. 

About V-jM. from the Aeschenthor the road passes the Monu- 
ment of St. Jacob (p. 4). District flat. To the E. , on the 
opposite bank of the Birs, several ruined castles appear, amongst, 
others Schloss Birseck near Arlesheim (1066'). Farther on, Dor- 
nacli (1643') where, on July 22nd, 1499, 6000 Confederates 
defeated 15,000 Austrians, thus terminating the Swabian war. 
In the church of this village reposes Mauperluis (d. 1759), the 
celebrated mathematician. 

?'/h M. Aesch (Sonne). To the 1., on the opposite bank of 
the Birs. rises the ancient castle of Anyenstein, situated in the 
Canton of Bern. To the 1., before Orellingen is reached, 
is situated a silk-factory. The road now enters a more moun- 
tainous and picturesque district. Near Pfeffingen the narrow valley 
('Klus') is commanded by the ruins of a castle of that name, 
on the eminence to the r. The green dale of the Birs here 
forms a pleasing contrast to the wooded mountains, whose barren 
summits here and there show the bluish calcareous stone of 
which they are composed. The old Castle of Zwingen was the 
residence of the episcopal governors of the district, until the lirst 
French revolution. 

7 7 /jj M. Lauffen (1155') (Sonne), at the confluence of the 
Liisel and Birs. The valley here widens, but soon contracts again. 
At Saugern (Fr. Soyhiere) (Kreuz) a difference in the language 
is remarked, a portion of the village being German, the remainder 
French. Further on are seen the ruins of the castle of the same 
name. Bellerive, now a manufactory, is situated at the rocky 
egress of the valley , near the point where it expands into a 
broad plain. At a considerable height, immediately above the 
road, is perched the castle of Voburg. On emerging from the 
ravine, the road turns to the r. to 

10 7 /g M. Delemont (1430'j, Ger. DeUberg (*Ours; Faucon), 
with a country residence of the former Bishops of Bale. 

From Delemont to Porrentruy a diligence runs daily in 'l^i hrs., 
passing by the foot of Afont 7Ym7</.\ Porrentruy, tier. I'l-mitritt (Ours), 

6 Route 2. MUNSTERTHAL. 

was once a residence of the Bishops of Bale. Excursions S. to the wild 
and romantic valley of the Doubt (R. 44), N.E. to the castles of Mortmont 
(Ger. AfSrsperg) and Ferette (Ger. Pfirt), with a beautiful view over the 
plains of Alsace and the Vosges, thence by Burg and Landtkron to Bale. 

At Courrendlin (1447'), Ger. Rennendorf (Cert), a village 
with considerable iron-works, the so-called *Munsterthal is 
reached, a grand and romantic defile traversed by the Birs, The 
huge cleft through which the stream passes testifies to the mighty 
convulsion which has forced the horizontal strata to assume their 
present almost perpendicular position, resembling gigantic -walls 
on either side of the road. In the middle of this defile and at 
the most interesting spot on the whole route, are situated the 
glass-manufactories and forges of Roche. 

From Miinster to the Weissenstein. At the mouth of the gorge, 
near the "PJlug inn, a good road, bounded on the S. by the rugged de- 
clivities of Mt. Graitery, and on the N. by the wooded heights of Le Cornet, 
ascends to the 1. to (2'|4 M.) Oran/elden (Fr. Grandval) and (>!< M.) Cri- 
mine (Kreuz), passing the clock-manufactory of M. Ferret; following the 
course of the Rausse, which here forms some picturesque cascades, it next 
reaches (2>|4 M.) St. Joseph am Gansbrunnen (Post). This place is situated 
at the N. base of the Weissenstein, whose summit can easily be attained in 

2 hrs; the road is good, the latter part through a forest. Carriages may 
be had from Gansbrunnen (15 fr.) to the Weissenstein, fas well as to 
Monster; from Miinster to the Weissenstein 20 to 25 fr. Diligence between 
Miinster and Olten by Gansbrunnen daily in 6'|« hrs. 

7 7 /s M. Moutier, Ger. Miinster (1690') (Krone; Hirsch), an 
ancient and handsome village , situated in a fertile dale , which 
3 / 4 M. farther again contracts. The road now traverses a wild 
pine -clad gorge threaded by the Birs. It again emerges at the 
village of Court (2172') (Ours), and l«/ 2 M. farther reaches 

Before reaching Bivilard , the next village , a rugged path leads (in 

3 hrs.) to Reuchenette (see above) over the Montoz (4371'). The intricacy 
of the route renders a guide desirable. The view is similar to that from 
the Weissenstein. 

The road next traverses pasture-land and reaches 

7V 8 M. Malleray (*Lion d'Or, R. and L. 2i/ 2 fr., B. l'/j ft.). 

Near Tavannes, Ger. Dachsfelden (2546') (*Krone), the road 
again ascends; in 10 minutes it leads to Pierre Pertuis (petra 
pertusa) (2582'), a natural opening in the rock, 40 feet high, 
and more than once fortified in time of war. It bears a restored 
Roman inscription on the N. side, which cannot be earlier than 
161 A. D. This gate, the highest point between Tavannes and 
.Sonceboz. marked the limit of the Helvetian province, and, at a 
later date, of the bishoprics of Avenches, Lausanne, and Bale. 
The Birs has its source at the foot of this mountain. 

63/ 8 M. Sonceboz (2198') (*Krone), a village in the valley 
of Erguel or St. Jmier. Diligence (3 times daily in 4 hrs.) to 
La-Chaux-de-Fonds , through this charming valley enlivened by 
the signs of industry (watch-manufactoTies) and numerous flocks. 

The road to Bienne follows the course of the Scheuss (Suze), 
passing the villages La Hutte and Reuchenette (Forelle) (1942'). 

BIENiNF. :>. Route. I 

The old road passes the ruins of the L'lu'itaiu Rond-(.'hdtel. 
From the Bbzinger Hbhe, the last eminence of the Jura, a 
*magnifloent view is disclosed of the extensive district watered 
by the Aare, Emme , and the Zihl, forming an amphitheatre of 
upwards of 180 miles. Beyond Reuchenette the new road crosses 
to the r. bank of the ISuze, thus missing the above-mentioned 
prospect, but amply compensating the traveller by the view 
it aifords of the valley, as well as by its interesting construction 
(tunnels and rocky galleries). 

9 3 / 8 M. Bienne, German Biel (Hotel du Jun; Croix, 

H. 1% B. 1 , L. 1 1-,, A. 3| 4 , Omnibus <j 2 fr. ; Cnuronne; Brewery 
Zitm Secfels; baths in the Scheuss, l'|4 M. below the town), 
an ancient town, free and independent from 1250 to 1798, is 
situated near the lake of the same name and at the S. base of the 
Jura, the lower slopes of which are planted with the vine. Pop. 
HI 13 (891 Hum. Cath.J. Colonel Schwab willingly admits visitors 
to his interesting Collection of Antiquities (found in the ancient 
Swiss lake-villages). The new church is Rom. Catholic. 

From Bienne to Neuchatel see pp. 9, 10. 

From Bienne to Bern the direct railway crosses the 
Zihl (Thit-.le) near stat. Bri'tyy , and the Aare by an iron bridge 
near stat. Busswyl. 

On the Aare, above stat. Lysa , is situated Aarbery with an 
ancient castle. Stat. Luberg, Schiipfen, and Zollikufen, the latter 
a station on the .Swiss Central (BAle-Herzoyenbuchsee-Bern) line. 
Hence to Bern see p. 13. 

3. From Bale to Geneva by Neuchatel. 

162 M. Swiss Central and Western Railway. To Geneva by 
express in 9, by ordinary trains in 11 hrs. Fares: 27 fr. 60 c, 19 fr. 65 c, 
14 fr. 30 c The equally short route by Bern and Lausanne. (R. 41) is far 
preferable. At Olten (p. 8) passengers generally change carriages and are 
detained '^ hr. (Steamboats on the lakes of Neuchatel and Geneva see RR. 
46, 50.) 

On leaving the station, a view is obtained to the 1. of the 
vine-clad hills of Grenzach beyond the Rhine. The line crosses 
the Birs (view of the valley) and skirts the picturesque and 
wooded slopes of the Jura. Stat. Muttenz; beyond stat. Pratteln, 
the ruins of the castle of Schauenburg are seen on a rocky eminence 
to the r. On the Rhine, at some distance 1. of the line, lies Basel- 
Augst ( p. 18 ); beyond it rise the lofty mountains of the Black Forest. 

Here the line leaves the valley of the Rhine, and enters that 
of the Ergolz in the Jura. Beautiful points of view as far as 
Olten. Nieder-Schonthal is the stat. for Frenkendorf, a charming 
village on a hill to the r., much frequented on account of its 
salubrious air. As Liesthal is approached, the large Cantonal 
Hospital is seen to the 1. 

Liesthal (1024') (*Falke, Mdiissfl) on the Ergolz, with 387:) 

8 Route 3. OLTEN. From BAle 

inhab. (495 Rom. Cath.), »•■* the seat of the government of the 
half-canton Kale-Campagne. In the coniicil-hall is exhibited the 
cup of Charles the Bold, found in his tent after the battle of 
Nancy. Before reaching Sissach (1233') (Lowe), a small town of 
some importance, the train passes (r.) the small castle of Eben- 
rain and its park. Fine view from the Sissacher Fluh (2303'), 
3 M. to the K. of the town. (From Sissach to Aarau by the 
Schafmatt see p. 15.) 

After passing stat. Sommerau and Laufelfingen (1263'), the 
train enters the great tunnel of Hauenstein, 8885' long, where 
on May 28th, 1857, fifty-two workmen were buried by a fall of 
earth, and eleven more perished in their efforts to rescue them. 
As the train emerges from the tunnel, the ruins of the castle 
of Neu- Wartburg are perceived. Farther on, to the r. of the latter, a 
beautiful glimpse of the Bernese Alps is obtained, gradually be- 
coming visible from the Wetterhom to the Doldenhorn. The 
line now descends by a long curve to the Aare, which it crosses 
at a considerable distance below Olten, and then ascends to the 
station on the r. bank. 

At the summit of the Hauenstein, ascended in li| 4 hr. from stat. Olten 
and Laufelfingen, is situated the Frohburg (2772'), a good inn, command- 
ing a beautiful panorama of the Alps, from the Sentis to Mont Blanc; 
in the foreground is the Wartburg, and the valley which extends to Lu- 
cerne, traversed by the railroad; to the r. is Pilatus, to the 1. the Rigi. 
•|a M. distant are the ruins of a castle destroyed by an earthquake. | — 
The traveller coming from the N., and visiting Switzerland for the first 
time, would do well to leave the train at Laufelfingen, and proceed on 
foot to Olten over the Frohburg; in fine weather the view of the Alpine 
chain, which suddenly becomes visible from the summit of the mountain, 
is strikingly beautiful. — About 2 hrs. farther W., on the summit of the 
pass of the Obere Hauenstein, is situated the favourite Alpine sanitary 
establishment Langenbrvck (good road thence to Lies thai). 

Olten (1325') (Hotel de la Garc, at the station, R. 2fr.; "Halb- 
mond; 'Railway-restaurant. At Olten passengers to or from Lu- 
cerne and Herzogenbuchsee-Bern change carriages; those from Bale to 
Zurich keep their seats. Detention of >|4 — >|jt hr. On leaving the waiting- 
rooms the trains for Bale and Zurich are to the left, those to Lucerne 
and Bern to the right), second town of the canton of Soleure 
(2998 inhab., 733 Prot.), prettily situated on the Aare. The 
Parish Church possesses an 'Ascension' by Disteli, and the 
Capuchin Church a Madonna by Deschwanden. Extensive rail- 
way work-shops and considerable shoe-manufactories are situated 
here. Railway by Aarau to Zurich see R. 7. 

To the S. of Olten, visible to the 1. of the line, rises the Wartburg 
(* Restaurant), a small chateau recently restored, situated on an isolated 
peak several hundred feet above the Aare. 'View similar to that from the 
Frohburg, and the ascent likewise recommended. From stat. Olten to the 
top 3 |< hr. ; same distance from Aarburg. 

On the height to the 1. is the castle of Neu- Wartburg, a fine 
point of view. The train next passes through a short tunnel under 
the rock of the castle of Anrbitrg, and emerges at the station of 

to Genera. HEKZOCiENBl'CIISKK II. Route. 9 

Aarburg (1316') (liar; Krone), a small but wealthy town, 
almost entirely rebuilt since the tire of 1S40. The picturesque 
old castle, formerly a fortress, built in 1660, and provided with 
bomb-proof casemates hewn in the rock, was the residence of 
the governors and a state-prison till 1798; it is now a house of 
correction and arsenal. 

To the S-.E. the Lucerne line diverges. Stations Mederwyt, 
Muryenthal, Hoyyu-yl, Lanyenthat (*Lowe), a thriving village with 
extensive traffic in wood, and llidzbery. At Herzogenbuchsee 
(Hotel du Soleil; restaurant at the back of the station), where 
the line diverges to Hern (p. 13), a change of carriages generally 
takes place. Beyond Subiyen the line crosses the Grouse Emine 
not far from its continence with the Aare. Above Soleure , to 
tin' r. , rises the inn on the Weissenslein (p. If); to the I., a 
panorama of the Bernese Alps. Before entering the station the 
Aare is crossed. 

Soleure, see p. 10. 

The train next passes stat. Selzach, Grenrhen ( Lowe; Traube ). 
a village where watches are manufactured, and Piiterlen. 

Bienne see p. 7. 

Near the handsome avenues to the S.K. of this town, the 
train reaches the Lake of Bienne (U'24'), 10'/-> M - l n »g, '&U M 
wide, greatest depth 200', ';>' lower than the lake of Neuchatel, 
with which it is connected by the Zihl. This river again emerges 
from the lake of Bienne at Nidau, a village situated on the E. 
bank. The train skirts the N.W. bank of the lake; the delight- 
ful view thus afforded the traveller is enhanced in clear weather 
by the snowy summits of the Alps, which, as the train proceeds 
towards Neuchatel, become visible from the mountains of Unter- 
walden to Mont Blanc. 

Beyond stat. Twitnn, Fr. Douanne (Bar), is a picturesque 
waterfall; this is the best point for visiting the Isle of St. Peter 
(IfiUK'J, situated a little more to the S. , opposite Liyerz and 
ClMvanne (Kreuz), two villages, at which boats may be pro- 
cured for the purpose. The island, which is 3 / 4 M. from the 
N.W. and l 1 ^ M. from the S.W. bank, rises perpendicularly 
from the lake on the N. and W. sides. These sides are shaded by 
handsome and venerable oaks , and present a most picturesque 
aspect. The S. side, which is a gradual slope, is covered with 
vineyards and orchards. On the E. side, near the bank, is seen 
the small house (inn) which was occupied by Rousseau for two 
months in 1765, after his compulsory departure from Motiers- 
Travers(p. 171). He was prohibited by the government of Bern 
from longer enjoying his new retreat. The room of the great 
philosopher is preserved in the same state as at the time of his 
stay on the island, and the walls are as usual inscribed with the 
names of thousands of visitors. It is to the somewhat exaggerated 

10 Route 4. SOLEURE. 

description of Rousseau that the Isle of St. Peter and the Lake 
of Bienue owe their reputation. 

Neuveville (1784'). the next station (Faucon, or Poste; *Cou- 
ronne at the S. end, with a fine view of the lake and Alps), is 
a smiling little town , the first place where French is spoken. 
To the S. of the town, on a height, are seen the ruins of Sehlois- 
berg, in the neighbourhood of which is a picturesque cascade of 
the Beonbach. Diligence to Freiburg by Ins, see p. 163. 

To the r. of Neuveville rises the Chasseral (5282') in three terraces, 
and is studded on the S. side by numerous villages and verdant meadows. 
The view from the summit (ascent 3'|2 hrs.), like that from the Weissen- 
stein (p. 11), embraces a large part of Eastern Switzerland, the Black 
Forest, the Vosges, and the Alps. About '/a hr. from the summit are seve- 
ral chalets, where accommodation may be had for the night if necessary. 
The return may be made by Bienne, tn which"there is a road (13 l |2 M.J. 
The view is seen to the best advantage when the ascent is made on the 
N. side from Courlelary (2382'), or from St. Imier in the valley of that 
name (p. 6). — Cerlier, or Erlach (Ours), is situated opposite Neuveville at 
the foot of one of the sandstone spurs of the Jolimont, a ridge of which 
beneath the lake connects the mainland with the island of St. Peter. 

Near stat. Landeron the railway quits the Lake of Bienne ; 
the little town lies to the 1. Stat. Cressier, with its church on 
the summit of a rock; then Cornaux. 

On emerging from a tunnel, St. Blaine is reached, where the 
train skirts the base of the mountain, and affords a view of the 
entire Lake of Neuchatel, the N. extremity of which is here 
reached, exactly opposite to the distant Mont Blanc. The train 
runs at a great height above the lake (to the 1. below is the road), 
and reaches the station of NeuchAtel, on the N.E. side of the 
town, see p. 166. Hence to 

Geneva, see R. 46. 

4. Solenre and the Weissenstein. 

Hotels. 'Couronne, R. 2, B. 1, D. 3, A. i|» f r. ; Cerf; Tour; 
"Bargezi, near the station, also a restaurant. 

Telegraph OfBce at the post-office. 

Carriages to the Weissenstein. see p. 12. 

Soleure or Solothum (1444'), a dull town with 7054 inhab. 
(1291 Prot.), situated on the Aare, is the capital of the canton 
of Soleure and the residence of the Bishop of Bale. It was in- 
corporated in the Confederation in 1481 ; with Treves it claims 
to be the most ancient town on this side of the Alps ('in Celtis 
nihil est Solodoro antiquius, unis exceptis Trevirix, quorum ego dicta 
soror', see p. 11). It is at least certain that the Salodurum of 
the Romans was a most flourishing settlement. The ramparts, 
planted with trees, afford an agreeable promenade. The Church 
of St. Ours (St. VrsusmiinHer), cathedral of the Bishopric of Bale, 
was built in 1762 — 73 by the architect Pisconi of Ascona, 
replacing an older edifice of 1050. A flight of 33 steps leads 
to the facade between two fountains, one of which is adorned 
with a statue of Moses striking the rock, the other with a figure 

SOLEURE. 4. Route. II 

of Gideon wringing tlie dew from the sheepskin. Of the ten 
large altar-pieces, executed by painters of the second half of the 
last century, none merit inspection. 

The ^Arsenal, in the neighbourhood of the cathedral, con- 
tains ancient armour, halberds, pikes, and standards, taken in the 
battles of the Confederates with Austria, Burgundy, &c. On the 
second story, when the door is opened, an automaton placed as 
a sentinel presents arms and turns his head. In the upper story, 
a very curious group represents the reconciliation of the Con- 
federates effected at the Diet of Stans (p. 90) by Nicholas von 
der Flue, after a design of Disteli (d. 1844). 

The most ancient building in Soleure is the Clock Tower, 
although little reliance. can be placed on the inscription (p. 10) 
which carries it back to the 4th cent. B. C. The figures and 
mechanism of the clock are similar to those at Bern (p. 94). 

Under the portico of the Hotel de Ville, as well as in the. 
Public Library are some Roman antiquities. The Museum of 
Natural History, in the orphan-house near the bridge, is rich 
in minerals and fossils. 

In the Bieler >Strasse, Nr. 5, near the post-office, the 
illustrious Polish exile Koscziusko (d. 1811) passed the last years 
of his life. His heart was interred at Zuchwyl, 3/ 4 M. 8.E. of 
Soleure, on the r. bank of the Aare. A simple monument, 
shaded by weeping willows, bears this inscription: 'Viscera 
Thaddaei Koscziusko'. His remains rest near those of Sobieski 
and Poniatowski in the Cathedral of Cracow. 

At Soleure the 'Postheiri', or .Swiss Charivari, is published. 

The *Weissenstein (4209'), 3 hrs. to the N. of Soleure, 
is one of the most frequented mountains in Switzerland, and 
well merits its repute. On the summit an *Hotel with 'De- 
pendance' (R. l'/ 2 , B. 1, S. 2, pension 4 fr.) is much frequen- 
ted, and also employed as a whey-cure establishment. On Sa- 
turdays, in fine weather, the hotel is generally crowded. 

The prospect is less picturesque than that from the Rigi, though the 
horizon is more extended; but from no spot can a better view be ob- 
tained of the long chain of the higher Alps from the Tyrol to Jlont Blanc. 
To the N E. are distinguished the Scntis, the Glarniscli , with the Rigi in 
the foreground, the Todi between the Rigi and Pilatus, the lofty summit 
of Titlis, and the Sustenhorn \ then, beyond Soleure, the eye reaches to 
the AVetterhorn and Schrcckhom, the Finsleraarhorn, the Eiger, the Monch, 
the Jungfrau, the Bliinilisalp, the Doldenhorn, the Altels, Jlonte Rosa, and 
still farther S. W. Jlont Blanc. To the \V. glitter the lakes of Bienne, 
3Iorat, and ^Neuchatel; the Aare winds to the S. through the fertile plains 
like a silver thread, and the Grosse Enime (lows into it at the foot of 
the mountain. 

The *R6the (4587'), 1 / 2 nr - to thc E. of the hotel, com- 
mands a still more extensive view towards the N. and E., which, 
are hidden from the "Weissenstein, and affords a good survey of 
the picturesque mountains and valleys of the Jura. A stone hut 
and a trigonometrical signal occupy the summit. 

12 Route 4. WEISSENSTEIN. 

To the W. the view is concealed by the "Hasenmatt (47543. 
This last point, V* hr. from the hotel, presents an uninter- 
rupted panorama. It is unnecessary to return by the Weissen- 
stein; leaving the summit on the N. side, the pedestrian may 
descend its \V. and S. slopes, pass by Lommiswyl, and regain 
Soleure, or the less distant station of Selzach (p. 9). Minister 
or Court in the Miinsterthal (p. 6) may be reached in 2 hrs. 
from the Hasenmatt. 

Path from the Weisscnstein to the Munetorthal, see p. 6. 

Routes from Soleure to the Weissenstein. — 1st. Carriage- 
road, passing by Langendorf and Oberdorf (two-horse carriage for 3 pers. 
20 fr., for 4 pers. 25 fr., driver's fee not included; if the carriage remains 
during the night on the top, 5 fr. more; an omnibus generally runs daily 
between Soleure and the Weissenstein, leaving the Couronne at 5 p. m.). 
2nd. Foot-path (guide or porter for luggage 5 fr., 3 fr. more if required 
to pass the night on the summit, which is however unnecessary, as por- 
ters may always be procured there), passing near the Einsiedelei (hermitage), 
by the Stiegenlos and Resi. By both these ways the Weissenstein may 
easily be reached in 3 hrs. The foot-path is, however, much to be pre- 
ferred: it passes by the cathedral of St. Ours, through the imposing Bale 
gate, inclines to the 1. in the direction of the Villa of M. Curlier, where 
it turns to the r., then to the 1." through the avenue, at the extremity 
of which the r. must be again taken towards the church of St. Nicholas, 
before reaching which, near ' BargezVs Brewery, the "St. Verenathal is en- 
tered to the 1. (1 M. from Soleure), a narrow, cool and shady ravine, 
'la M. in length. The path to the 1., at the commencement of the gorge, 
leads to the Wcngistein (see below). In the quarries of Portland limestone, 
at the entrance of the valley, valuable fossils are frequently found. The 
blocks of granite which are seen in the vicinity on the slopes of the moun- 
tain, have been, according to geologists, brought here by the agency of 
ancient Alpine glaciers which extended as far as the Jura. This gorge is 
now converted into a promenade. 

At the N. extremity of the ravine is the 'Hermitage of St. Verena, 
to the r. the dwelling of the hermit ; to the 1. the chapel, which is reached 
by a broad staircase ; it is hewn in the rock, and contains a representation 
of the holy sepulchre with life-size figures. The traveller may now return 
by the chapel of Ste. Croix, passing near some extensive marble quarries; 
after traversing the forest, the Wengistein is reached, the view from which 
is similar to that from the Weissenstein, though on a smaller scale. A 
huge granite boulder bears a Latin inscription recording two memorable 
events in the history of Soleure. 

From the hermitage to the base of the Jura, the footpath is uninter- 
esting. For the remainder of the way the following directions will suffice. 

Leaving the hermitage, the pedestrian crosses a meadow in the direc- 
tion of the, inn on the Weissenstein which lies before him; near some 
cottages the high road is crossed, and the path ascends the hill, crossing 
a brook and leading to another group of cottages. Passing between the 
latter, the traveller leaves the stone cross to the r., and proceeds towards 
the nearest pine-wood, on the borders of which he crosses a brook, and 
(not to the r.) reaches a sign-post. A little higher in the wood a second 
post is passed, and soon after, the base of a rugged precipice is gained 
(1 hr. from the hermitage). The path is precipitous, but well-shaded. 
An ascent of 3 \ t hr. brings the traveller to a sharp projection of the rock, 
after which he descends to the 1., reaching the Nes&elboden-Alp in 10 min., 
where the footpath rejoins the road. After an easy ascent of i| 2 hr. more, 
•the summit of the Weissenstein is attained. 

5. From Bale to Bern by Herzogenbuchsee. 

67 M. Central Railway. In 3>| 2 — 5 hrs. Fares 11 fr. 10, 7 fr. 80, 
5 fr. 60 c. Comp. Introd. X. 

From Bale to Herzogenbuchsee see pp. 7 to 9. Near stat. 
Riedwyl the railway enters grassy valleys, enclosed by wooded 
slopes. Then stat. Wynigen. On issuing from a long tunnel 
(transit 1 min.) the line crosses the Orosse Emme and reaches 
the busy town of Burgdorf (1916'), French Berthoud (*Hotel 
Gugyisberg, near the station; Stadthaus; Bar), picturesquely 
situated on an eminence. The houses are for the most part 
substantially built, and have arcades as at Bern; the public 
edifices, the hospital, the schools, the Orphan Asylum, and the 
public walks testify to the opulence and good taste of the inha- 
bitants. In the castle of Burgdorf, Pestalozzi established his 
celebrated educational institution in 1798, which in 1804 was 
transferred to Miinchen-Buchsee near Hofwyl (see below), and 
afterwards in the same year to Yverdon (p. 173). Beautiful 
views from the church and castle ( Jungfrau , Monch , Eiger), 
and still more beautiful from the Lueg , 4'/j M. to the N. E., 
which commands the entire chain of the Alps. 

Stations Lyssach, Hindelbank. Near stat. Schiinbuhl, to the r., 
stand the buildings of Hofwyl with their numerous windows, in 
which Hcrr v. Fellenberg founded his agricultural and educa- 
tional establishments, which formerly enjoyed a considerable 

Beyond stat. Zollikofen, on the r., lies Rilete, formerly con- 
nected with the above establishments, now an Agricultural In- 
stitution. Farther on, a glimpse is obtained of the castle of 
Reichenbach to the r., opposite to the N. extremity of the narrow 
peninsula of Enge (p. 97), and of the bridge of Tiefenau over 
the Aare, constructed in 1851. The line then ascends for a few 
minutes until it reaches the Wylerfeld (drilling ground), whence, 
to the 1., a magnificent *view of the entire chain of the Bernese 
Alps is enjoyed; farther on, to the r., is a new suburb inhabited 
by workmen , after passing which the Aare is crossed and the 
station of Bern reached. The *Bridge is of a remarkable and 
ingenious construction, and furnished with two roads, the upper 
for railway, the lower for ordinary traffic. Bern see p. 92. 

6. From Bale to Lucerne, 

59M a M. Central Railway. In 3>|»— 4'|2 hrs. Fares 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 
95 c., fr. The trains correspond with steamboats from Lucerne to Wag- 
gis, Fliielen, etc. (see pp. 54 and 66). 

From Bale to Aarburg see pp. 7, 8. Then stat. Zofingen 
(*Rdssli; Ochs), a busy little town. Besides a collection of coins, 
the library contains autograph letters of Swiss reformers, and 
drawings by members of the Swiss society of artists, founded 

14 Route 7. SEMPACH. 

in the year 1806, which formerly met annually at this town, 
and on these occasions contributed to embellish the album of 
the library. The Zofinyen Union of Swiss students celebrates 
the anniversary of its foundation here, to which the members 
resort in great numbers from the Swiss universities. On the 
branches of the fine old lime-trees near the Schutzenhaus two 
ball-rooms have been constructed. Beyond the town (}/ t M.) is 
an ancient Roman Bath with a few Roman relics. The line 
next passes through the broad Wiggernthal, with its rich 
meadows. On an eminence near stat. Reiden stands an ancient 
lodge of the knights of Malta, now a parsonage-house. 

Between the stations of Nebikon and Wauwyl a view is ob- 
tained to the r. of the Bernese snow-mountains; in the centre 
the Jungfrau , to the 1. the Monch and Eiger, to the r. the 
Altels. Beyond stat. Wauwyl, to the r., lies the little Matiensee 
with its island and small castle. 

Snrsee (Sonne ; Hirsch) , an old town , over the gates of 
which the double eagle of the house of Hapsburg is still en- 
throned. The Town Hall reminds one of the Burgundian style of 
architecture. Near stat. Nottwyl the line approaches the Lake 
of Sempach (1663 ft.), 6 M. long, and 2'/j M. broad, and abound- 
ing in fish; it is, however, more remarkable for its historical 
associations than the beauty of its scenery. At the S. extremity 
of the lake, on an eminence to the r., stands the castle of 
Wartensee, with its angular gables and red tower. 

At the S.E. extremity of the lake, lies the small town of 
Sempach (Kreuz; Adler), near which Duke Leopold of Austria 
was signally defeated, July 8th, 1386, by the Swiss Confederates, 
owing to the noble self- sacrifice of Arnold von Winkelried. 
Thousands of his knights and adherents were slain. 

A Chapel (2064 r ), li| a M. from Sempach, stands upon the spot where 
Leopold, nephew of the Duke Leopold who had been conquered by the 
Swiss 71 years before at Morgarten (p. 301), perished. 

The line intersects plantations of firs. A view is obtained 
of the precipitous cliffs and peaks of Pilatus; to the 1. the long 
ridge of the Rigi. Then stat. Rothenburg. After passing stat. 
Emmenbruclce the line skirts the bank of the Reuss, whose eme- 
rald waters emerge from the lake of Lucerne, passes through a 
tunnel under the rock of Gibraltar (p. 50), and reaches by a 
long curve the Lucerne station , on the 1. bank of the lake. 
Lucerne see p. 49. Steamboats to Waggis and Fliielen see p. 66. 

7. From Bale to Zurich by Olten. 

W SI. Central and North Eastern Railways. In 3iJ» — i»|» hrs. 
Fares 10 fr. 75, 7 fr. 55, 5 fr. 40 i\ Railway from Bale to Ziiritjh by 
Waldsliut and Turgi, see p. 17. 

From Bale to Olten see pp. 7, 8. On leaving Olten the line 
runs by the side of the Aare as far as its confluence with the 

AARAU. 7. tioute. 15 

Limmat near Brugg, and commands many pleasing prospects. To 
the 1. the wooded chain of the Jura remains in view. 

Stat. Dlinikon. Opposite stat. Schonenwerth stands the castle 
of Gosgen with its mined tower, which until 1801 was the seat 
of the authorities of Soleure. The line passes under the town 
of Aarau by a tunnel. 

Aarau (1200' ) (*Ochs, R. li/ 2 , B. 1, D. 2i/ 2 fr. ; *Storch), a 
manufacturing town, capital of the Canton of Aargau, with 5449 
inhab. (904 Rom. t'ath.J, is situated on the Aare (which is crossed 
by a suspension bridge, constructed in 18f)0), at the foot of the 
Jura mountains, here partially covered with vines. New Town 
Hall and Barracks. The historian Heinrich Zschokke (b. at Mag- 
deburg 1771, d. 1848) formerly resided here. The cutlery 
manufactured at Aarau is highly esteemed. 

From Sissach to Aarau by the Schafmatt, 10 M. By diligence 
to Oltingen in i 3 |< hi-., by (i'| 2 M.j Qelterkinden (1371') ("Eosslij, a manu- 
facturing village ; thence through a picturesque valley to the Ilanggiense/t 
waterfall; (l«|.j M.) Tecknau (1440'); to (li|„ M.) Wensliiigea (i860') a steep 
ascent; (l'|-.> 31.) Oltingen (Ochs). The path which ascends the (l'k il.) 
'Schafmatt (2516') diverges close to the 'Ochs', and cannot be mistaken, 
being provided with numerous direction-posts. The summit commands 
an extensive panorama of the Jura mountains and the Alps, as far as the 
deep valley of Rohr. Here turning to the 1. the tipper part of a meadow 
is reached, at the font of which (li| 2 J[. from the summit) lies a chalet and 
whey-cure establishment. The spectator here has a prospect of the lake 
of Xjiicerne with its environs, the Riiii, 1'ilatus, etc. before him, bounded 
on either side by the mountains between which he stands. From the 
chalet to Aarau in 1 hr. by Ober- and Sifder-Ei-linsbach. 

To the N. of Aarau rises the Wasserfiuh (2851'), and to the 
N.E. the Gislifluh ('2039'), over which a footpath leads from 
Aarau to the Baths of Schinznach, commanding a pleasing view 
of the lakes of llalhvyl and Baldeck. 

On the 1. as the train proceeds, beyond the Aare, at the 
foot of the Gislifluh , lies Biberstein, with an old castle , formerly 
a lodge of the knights of (St. John. Next stat. Rupperschwyl, 
where the line again approaches the Aare. To the r. is Schloss 
Lenzburg. Stat. Wildeyg, with a castle of the same name pictu- 
resquely situated on the slope of the Wiilpelsberg, possesses a 
mineral spring, the water of which is used for exportation only. 
This is the station nearest to the hydropathic estab. of Bresten- 
berg, situated 7'^ M- to the S. on the lake of Hallwyl (proprie- 
tor Dr. Erismann , pension 5 fr. ). On an eminence on the 
opposite bank of the Aare stands the castle of Wildenstein. Stat. 
Schinznach lies halfway between the village of Schinznach (124(j'j, 
on the 1. bank of the Aare, and the Baths of Schinznach, close 
to which the line passes (*Hotel with 4f>0 beds and 200 baths; 
table d'hote at 1; omnibus to and from the station, l l /-j M 
distant; physicians Dr. Hemmann and Dr. Amsler). These baths, 
also called the Baths of Hapsburg , are highly impregnated with 
sulphur, and are much resorted to by the French. 

16 Route 7, BADEN. From Bale 

The baths lie at the foot of the Wiilpelsberg (1830 1 ), on the summit of 
which (30 min. walk) stand the ruins of the castle of "Habsburg, the cradle 
of the imperial family of Austria, erected by Count Radbod von Alten- 
burg about the year 1020. Only the lofty walls of the tower, 8' in thick- 
ness, now remain. The adjoining house is occupied by the custodian. The 
view embraces the entire domain of the ancient counts of Hapsburg, and 
the valleys of the Aare, the Reuss, and the Limmat, bounded on the S. by 
the snow-clad Alps. 

Bragg (1128'), or Bruck (*Rossli; *Rothes Haus), a small 
town, formerly the seat of Rudolph of Hapsburg. A pleasing 
view of the antiquated town may be obtained from the bridge 
which spans the Aare, here only 70' wide. The 'Black Tower' 
(Schwarze Thurm) dates from the later Roman Empire, and was 
restored in the early part of the 15th cent. At a short distance 
N.E. of the town, three of the chief rivers of Switzerland, the 
Aare, the Reuss, and the Limmat, unite their streams, and fall 
into the Rhine at Koblenz (p. 19), 9 M. to the N. 

The ancient Abbey of Konigsfelden ( 3 / 4 M. to the S.E. of 
Brugg), formerly a convent of Minorites, was founded in 1310 
by the Empress Elizabeth and her daughter, Queen Agnes of 
Hungary , on the spot where Albert of Austria , husband of the 
former, had been murdered two years before (1308) by John of 
Swabia and his accomplices. 

The abbey was secularised in 1528; the building was con- 
verted into a hospital, and afterwards a lunatic asylum. A por- 
tion of the church now serves as a magazine, but divine service 
is still celebrated in the choir'. The *stained-glass windows, 
opposite the door, dating from the 14th cent., represent the 
nuptials of Agnes, the foundress of the abbey, with the king of 
Hungary, and the ceremony of her taking the veil. The numerous 
portraits of knights who fell at Sempach (p. 14), are of the last 
century. Duke Leopold himself with 60 of these warriors is here 
interred. The doorkeeper, who shows the church (fee y% fr.), 
offers Roman coins and Anticaglias for sale. 

On the tongue of land formed by the Reuss and the Aare stood in 
ancient times the considerable Helvetian town of Vindonissa, where 
during the early centuries of the Christian era a Roman legion and the 
Rhsetian cohorts were posted, as is proved by inscriptions still extant. 
-The position of the amphitheatre is easily recognisable; the well of the 
convent of Konigsfelden is fed to this day by a subterranean Roman con- 
duit. The town was destroyed in the 5th cent., and no trace now remains 
of its extensive edifices. The name still survives in that of the village 
of Windisch, >|a M. to the E. of Brugg. Vindonissa was afterwards the 
seat of a bishop, which was however transferred to Constance in 1639. 

The line crosses the Reuss at its confluence with the Aare, 
and reaches stat. Turgi, the junction where the Baden line to 
Waldshut diverges (see p. 19). The Zurich line approaches the 
Limmat and remains on its 1. bank. The precipitous banks of 
the river are clad with vines. 

Baden (1253') (Balance; Lion; Ours, R. l'/ 2 , B. 1, D. 2'/ 2 , 
A. V'2 f r - i UdUl Bahnhof) was much resorted to by the Romans 

to Zurich. DIETIKON. 8. Route. 17 

in early times for the sake of its mineral springs. Its ancient 
name was Aquae. In the time of Nero, according to Tacitus 
(Hist. I. 67), it had all the appearance of a town (Hn modum 
munieipii exstructus locus, amoeno salubrium aquarum usu fre- 
quent). In the middle ages Baden was a fortress, and frequently 
the residence of the princes of Hapsburg, Albert having resided 
here (1308) before his assassination. The extensive ruins of the 
fortress Stein zu Baden (1506'), destroyed in 1712, rise above 
the town ; the grounds command a fine view. 

The hot springs (98* — 126» Fahr.) (1151'), are situated in a valley near 
the railway station, 3 \* II. to the N. of the town. The ' Small Baths'' 
(Ennetbader), on the r. bank of the Limmat are chiefly frequented by the 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood; the 'Great Baths^ (Hotels: Stadthof, of 
the first class ; Sc/iiff, Limmathof, Scliweizer I/of, Verenahof, "Freihof, etc.), 
on the r. bank, are patronised by the more fashionable world. The Verena 
Bath is the principal public establishment. The bridge affords the best 
view of the banks of the river. Baden is annually visited by 15,000 patients 
and travellers. 

The line now passes through a short tunnel under the Stein 
zu Baden (see above). On the ]., surrounded by the Limmat, 
stand the extensive buildings and gardens of the former Cister- 
cian Abbey of Wettingen (1200'), now a seminary. The church 
contains the sarcophagus of the Emperor Albert (p. 16), whose 
body reposed in it for 15 months, after which it was conveyed 
to Speyer. The stained-glass windows are of the 16th and 17th 
centuries, the carved stalls of the 17th. The handsome building 
to the 1., on the slope of the Lagerngebirg (2828'), a hill with 
a long and sharp ridge , formerly contained the wine-press of 
the Abbey. 

The line now passes stat. KUlwanyen, and enters the canton 
of Zurich near Sietikon (1286') (Lowe). At this town Massena 
made his celebrated passage of the Limmat, Sept. 24th, 1799, 
after which he repulsed the Russians and took Zurich. Next 
stations Schlieren and Altstetten. Near Zurich the long ridge of 
the Uetli with its inn (p. 31) becomes visible; on the E. side 
it is very precipitous. The large building on the slope to the 
1. is the Weid (p. 27). The whole line from Brugg to Zurich 
(l'/i nr -) presents a series of interesting landscapes, especially 
in the neighbourhood of Zurich, where the distant Alps on the 
r., and the Albisriicken, terminating towards the N. in the Uetli, 
come into view. The heights in the environs of Zurich are 
sprinkled with country-houses. Before entering the railway sta- 
tion the line crosses the Sihl. Zurich, see p. 26. 

8. From Bale to Zurich by Waldshut and Turgi. 

ffiiis 31. Baden Railway (to Waldshut) and Swiss North 
Eastern, in 3 — 4 hrs. ; fares 5 fl., 3 fl. 21, 2 fl. 26 kr. — The seats on 
the right as far as Turgi are to be preferred. 

Baden station, see p. 16. The line traverses the narrow, fruit- 
BiEDEKER, Switzerland. 5th Edition. 2 

IB Route 8. YVALDSHl'T. 

ful plain between the S. spurs of the Black Forest and the valley 
of the Khine, which is here of considerable depth. The first 
station is Orenzach, where an excellent wine, hardly inferior to 
•Markgrafler' is produced ; next stat. Wyhlen. At stat. Bheinfelden 
the line approaches the Rhine, which here rushes impetuously 
over its rocky bed; the 1. bank is precipitous and well wooded. 

Bheinfelden (866') (*Zum Schi'Uzen; * Krone), a Swiss town 
on the 1. bank, is built on the ruins of the ancient Roman 
station Auyustn Ilauracorum, destroyed by barbarian invaders. It 
was founded by Munatius Plancus (see p. 1 ) during the reign 
of the Emperor Augustus, and originally stood on the site of the 
village of Basel- Augst, 3 M. distant. Rheinfelden was in an- 
cient times strongly fortified , and was one of the frontier-forts 
of the Holy Roman Empire. It was repeatedly besieged, and 
was at last taken and razed to the ground by the French in 
1744. Since 1801 it has belonged to Switzerland. The cele- 
brated generals of the Thirty Years' War, Bernhard von Weimar 
and Johann von Werth, fought many battles under its walls du- 
ring the spring of 1638, with varying fortunes. The foaming 
stream here dashes over the rocks , and forms the so-called 
Hbllenhaken rapids. Near the town are extensive salt-works and 
salt-baths, which attract numerous visitors (*Strure's bath-estab., 
pension 4 — 6 fr.J. 

The line intersects the vineyards and gardens of Beugyen 
(909'), formerly a lodge of the Teutonic order, a handsome build- 
ing with numerous windows. Since 1817 it has been employed 
as a Seminary and Reformatory for children. Brennet, which is 
next reached, is the station for the * Wehrastrasse (see ]><ideker'.i 
Khine and N. Germany), a gorge which bears some resemblance 
to the Via Mala. 

Stat. Sackingen (958') (Bad or Lowe), a considerable town, 
possessing an old abbey-church with two towers. The abbey, 
subsequently a nunnery, was secularised in the early part of 
the present century. 

Next stat. Mury (1027'j at the mouth of the Murg , and 
Klein-Lau/fenburg, opposite to which, picturesquely placed on the 
1. bank, stands the Swiss town of Lauffenburg (Post), with its 
ancient castle , where the Rhine dashes impetuously over its 
narrow and rocky bed. Below the cataract (the l Laufferi), of 
which a glimpse is obtained from the train, salmon are caught 
in large numbers. 

The line penetrates the mountain by a tunnel, and reaches 
stat. Lultinyen (1031)') and Hauenstein, crossing some lofty via- 
ducts. It occasionally approaches the river. Then stat. Albbruck 
(1017'J and Doyern (1040'). 

Waldshut (llebstock), the most important of these small towns 
on the Rhine, is situated at a considerable height above the river. 

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SCHAFFHAUSEN. ». Route: 19 

About 10 31. to the N. of Waldshut, on the high road to St. Blasien 
(pist-ommbus daily), is situated Hochenschwand (Or/is) (3314'), the highest 
village in the Black Forest, whence a magnificent prospect of the Alps is 
obtained. (Jump. Baedeker's Rhine and iV. Germany. 

The Swiss Junction Railway crosses the Rhine below stat. 
Koblenz (1033'j, near the influx of the Aare, passes in a long 
curve through a tunnel, and approaches the Aare near Klinynau. 
The river remains visible only as far as stat. Dbttinyen. After 
Skjyenthal is passed, the Habsburg , which stands on a wooded 
hill to the r. (see p. 16}, becomes visible. The line crosses 
the Limmat near its confluence with the Aare. At Turyi (p. 10) 
carriages are changed for those of the North Eastern Railway. 

From Turgi to Zurich, see R. 7. 

9. From Bale to Schaffhausen and Constance. 

91?|s 31. Baden Railway in 5 hrs. ; fares to Schaffhausen 3 II. 54 
2 tl. 39, 1 fl. 42 kr. ; to Constance 5 II. 57, 4 tl. 3, 2 11. 3G kr. Neuhausen is 
the station for the Falls of the Rhine (comp. R. 11 J. Seats on the right 
to be preferred. — Steamboat from Sehatl'hauscu to Constance in 4—5 
hours, returning in 3 hrs. ; scenery picturesque, hut the usmit bv steam 
boat is tedious. 

From Bale to Waldshut see pp. 17, 18. Beyond Waldshut 
the train passes through a tunnel, beyond which occasional 
glimpses of the Alps are obtained. To the r. diverges the Swiss 
line to Turgi (see above). Beyond stat. Thiengen (Krone) the 
ancient Klettgau is traversed. Near stat. Oberlauchringen the 
Wutach is crossed. To the r., on a wooded eminence, the castle 
of Kiissenbery. Next stat. Oriessen, Erzinyen, Wilchinyen, the 
first village in the canton of Schaffhausen, Neunkirch, Berinyen, 
and Neuhausen (Hotel Rheinfali), station for the Falls of the Rhine 
(comp. however p. 23). Hotels see p. 23. 

Schaffhausen (1296') (* Krone, R. l'/ 2 , B. li/ 4 fr. ; Post; 
Schiff; Lowe; Riese, small;, capital of the canton of that name 
(pop. 10,303, 1666 Rom. Cath.), still retains the picturesque me- 
diaeval aspect of the Swabian cities of the Germanic Empire. The 
best view of the town is obtained from the village of Feuerthalen, 
on the opp. bank of the Rhine, which is crossed by two bridges. 

The Cathedral, a basilica in the early Romanesque style, 
founded in 1104, completed in 1453, formerly an abbey-church, 
is remarkable for the massiveness of its construction. Portions 
of the cloisters are in a good state of preservation , and the in- 
terior of the church has lately been restored in harmony with the 
original style. The great bell, cast in 1486, bears the inscrip- 
tion : Vivos voco, mortuos plango, fulyura franyo, which suggested 
to Schiller the idea of his beautiful l Lied von der Olocke'. The 
Church of St. John dates from 1120. 

The castle of Munoth (Munitio?), erected during the great 
famine of 1564, in order to afford support to the indigent, com- 
mands the town. It consists of a round tower of several stories, 

20 Route 9. RADOLPHSZELL. 

which with the adjoining building is believed to date from the 
15th cent., although frequently added to in more modern times. 

The Library (Biirger-Bibliothek) contains nothing worthy of 
mention, except a collection of books and MSS. of the eminent 
Swiss historian Johann v. Muller (b. at Schaffhausen in 1752, 
d. at Cassel in 1809), to whose memory his fellow-citizens have 
erected a monument on the Vesenstaub promenade ; the terrace 
towards the Rhine affords a beautiful view of the rapids and the 
Alps. — The Imthurneum, erected and presented to the town 
by M. Imthurn, a citizen of Schaffhausen, contains a handsome 
theatre, concert-rooms, etc. 

Beyond Schaffhausen the line turns towards the N.E. Stat. 
Herblingen, Thayingen, Gottmadingen, and Singen (*Krone). 

Branch-Railway hence (in "It hr., fares 31, 24, 15 kr.), skirting 
the E. slopes of the Hohgau, by stat. Miihlhausen and Welschingen, to Engen 
(comp. Baedeker's Southern Qermany). 

About 2 M. to the N. W. (1.) of Singen, on an isolated basaltie rock, 
rises the fortress of "Hohentwiel (2244'), the property of the Wiirtemberg 
government, although in the Bavarian dominions. It was bravely and 
successfully defended by the Wiirtemberg commandant in the Thirty Years'' 
War. The grand ruins command a fine prospect of the Tyrolese and Swiss 
Alps as far as Mont Blanc. At the farm (refreshments), half-way up, a 
ticket of admission (12 kr.) to the tower must be procured. 

The line then passes stat. Rickelshausen and reaches Radolphs- 
zell (Post), an ancient town, whose walls, gates, and handsome 
Gothic church date from 1436, situated on the Untersee. 

In the middle of the lake lies the island of Reichenau, in the dominions 
of Baden, 33| 4 M. long, life M. wide, connected with the E. bank by an 
embankment, 3|« M. in length. The Benedictine Abbey erected on the island 
was secularised in 1799. The church, consecrated as early as 806, contains 
the remains of Charles the Fat, the great-grandson of Charlemagne, who was 
dethroned in 887. The building now serves as parish church for the neigh- 
bouring village of Mittelzell or Milnster (Krone). The tower and nave belong 
to the original structure. The church was once richly endowed, but fell 
to decay in the 14th cent. With the exception of a few relics in the 
sacristy, it now exhibits few traces of its great antiquity. 

The line now skirts the lake , and passes stat. Markelfingen, 
Allensbach, and Reichenau; r. the island of Reichenau (see above"). 
The train then crosses the Rhine, and stops at Constance (p. 21). 

10. From Friedrichshafen (Rorschach) to Constance. 
Lake of Constance. 

■Steamboat to Constance 3 times daily in summer (direct, or by 
Romanshorn or Meersburg) in life to 2 hrs. Between the chief places on 
the lake, Friedrichshafen, Lindan, Breyeiu, Rorschach, Romanshorn, Con- 
stance (Schaffhausen), Meersburg, Ueberlingen, Ludaigshafen, the steam- 
boats (about 24 in number) jily at least once daily, and on the chief routes 
(Friedriclishafen-Constance in l'fe hr., Friedrichshafen-Bomanshorn in 1 hr., 
Friedrichshafen -Rorschach in 1'J* lir. , Constance - Romanshorn - Rorschach 
in 2 hrs., Constance -Lindau in -1>J« hr.), three or four times daily. The 
second cabin fare is 'ferd less than the first. The hours of starting are fre- 
quently altered. On Sundays return - tickets are issued at reduced fares. 
Comp. In trod. X. with regard to excursion-tickets. The lake of Constance 
being neutral territory, the traveller is subjected to custom-house formal- 


ities even on quilting one German town for another, for instance from 
Friedrichshafen or Lindau to Constance. 

The Lake of Constance (1306') (Ger. Bodensee, Lat. Lacus Brigantinus), 
an immense reservoir of the Rhine, 90 M. in circumference, is, from Bre- 
genz to the influx of the Stoekach, 42 31. long, about 8 M. wide, and between 
Friedrichshafen and Arbon 912' deep. The water is of a light green colour. 
The lake forms the boundary of live different states: Baden, Wiirtemberg, 
Bavaria, Austria (Vorarlberg), and Switzerland (St. Gall and Tlnngau). — 
Aleerslmrger is the best wine grown on its banks, and Felchen and trout 
the best tish it produces. 

The N.E. banks are in general flat, but are bounded on the S. \V. In 
beautiful wooded hills, which gradually decrease in height towards Con- 
stance. In the beauty of its scenery the lake of Constance cannot vie with 
its other Swiss rivals; but its broad expanse of water, its picturesque banks, 
and green hills, the chain of the Appenzcll Alps in the distance, the snow 
clad Sentis in particular, and other snow-peaks of the Vorarlberg Alps, visible 
in clear weather, combine to impress the traveller who visits Switzerland 
for the first time with the most pleasurable sensations. 

Friedrichshafen (131 9') (Deutsches Hans, near the station. 
R. 48, B. 30, A. lf> kr. ; Hotel Bellevue, formerly .Vestle, with gardtn 
on the lake, halfway between the station and the quay; Kdnig von 
W u rtemberg, i| 4 31. to the X. of the station; Sonne; Krone, with 
a small garden by the lake, of the second class; Beer-garden ' Ziir Krotu ' 
by the lake, with a beautiful view), the >S. terminus of the Wfirtem- 
berg line, is a busy town during the summer. Its lake-baths attract 
many visitors, especially from Swabia. The royal Schloss contains a 
few pictures by modern Wiirtemberg artists, Gegenbauer, Pflug, 
&c; from a pavilion in the garden of the Schloss, which is 
open to the public (closed for a few hours daily (luring the resi- 
dence of the royal family) a very beautiful view of the lake and 
the Alps is obtained. The harbour, about 1 M. distant from the 
railway station, presents an animated scene. 

Travellers about to proceed by steamboat without stoppage are con- 
veyed from the railway station to the quay by a branch line; those also 
who arrive by steamer may take their tickets immediately on landing, and 
enter the railway-carriages at once. 

During the passage of the steamer, if the weather is stormy, 
the horrors of sea-sickness are not unfrequently encountered. To 
the N., on an arm of the lake called the Veberlinger See, stands 
the little town of Meersburg , in the dominions of Baden, with 
an ancient and modern castle and seminary , picturesquely situ- 
ated at a considerable height above the lake. Farther on, the 
little island of Mainau (p. 23). Farther towards the N. lies 
Ueberlingen, with lake and mineral-water-baths. The boat next 
passes the promontory which separates the Ueberlinger See from 
the bay of Constance, and reaches Constance, after a passage of 
I'/a hr. (By Romanshorn see p. 23.) 

Constance. ' Hecht, R. 1 fl., D. 1 fl. 45, B. 3G, A. 24 kr.; Adler, 
similar charges; *Badischer Hof. — Krone and Schiff, second cl. 
— The extensive fiwimming-Establishmeiit in the lake is well fitted up. — 
Swiss telegr. Stat, at Kreuzlingen (p. 23), 3 | 4 31. from the S. gate, where the 
Pension Helvetia is also situated (4 — 5 fr. per day). 

Constance (1335'), a free town till the year 1548, and after 
the Reformation subject to Austria, has now a population of 
10,052 (1200 Prot.j, though it once numbered as many as 40.000. 

22 Route 10. CONSTANCE. 

It is situated at the N.W. extremity of the lake, at the point 
where the Rhine emerges. The episcopal see, over which 87 
bishops in succession held jurisdiction, was secularised in 1802. 
Three years later, at the treaty of Pressburg, Constance was 
adjudged to Baden. 

The *Cathedral, founded in 1048, was rebuilt in its present 
form at the beginning of the 16th cent. The Gothic tower was 
erected in 1850—1857; the spire, perforated like that of Frei- 
burg cathedral, is of light grey sandstone, and has a platform 
on either side. A short stay in Constance will be best employed 
in visiting the cathedral and ascending the tower (*view). 

On the doors of the principal portal are * Bas-Reliefs in 20 sections, 
representing scenes from the life of Christ, carved in oak by Sim. Baider 
in 1470. The * Choir Stalls with grotesque sculptures , are of the same 
date. The organ-loft, richly ornamented in the Renaissance style, dates 
from 1680. In the nave, the arches of which are supported by 16 mono- 
lithic pillars (48' high, 3' thick), sixteen paces from the principal entrance, 
is a large stone slab, a white spot on which always remains dry when 
the remaining portion is damp. Huss is said to have stood on this spot 
when the Council of July 6th, 1415, sentenced him to be burnt at the 
stake. In the S. chapel near the choir an Interment of Christ in high 
relief; in the N. chapel a Death of the Virgin, coloured stone figures 
life-size, date 1460. — The Treasury contains missals embellished with 
miniatures, date 1426. On the E. side of the church is a crypt, containing 
the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, with a representation of the 
sepulchre in stone, 2CC high. On the exterior of the N. side are still to 
be seen two aisles of the cloister, from which a good idea of the richness 
of the architecture may he formed. The sacristan shows the whole of 
the cathedral (fee 24 kr.), but the door on the S. side is usually open. 

The Church of St. Stephen, a pure Gothic building near the 
cathedral, of the 14th cent., contains some interesting wood-carving. 
Farther S. in the street, in a small square, stands an ancient 
building with arcades , styled by the inscription Curia Pacts, in 
which the Emperor Frederick I. concluded peace with the Lom- 
bard towns in 1183. 

The ancient Dominican Convent, in which Huss was confined, 
is situated on an island in the lake close to the town. It is now 
employed as a manufactory. The railway from Constance to Schaff- 
hausen and "Waldshut intersects the N. extremity of this island. 
The ' Wessenberg-Haus' contains a collection of books, pictures, 
and engravings, bequeathed to the town by the proprietor. — 
The Town-Hall ('Stadt-Kanzlei'), erected in 1503 in the Re- 
naissance style and recently decorated on the exterior with fres- 
coes illustrative of the history of Constance, contains in the lower 
rooms the Archives, with numerous documents especially from the 
Reformation down to 1524. 

The Merchants' Hall on the lake, erected in 1388 contains 
the 'Conciliums-Saal', a large room said to have been occupied 
by the Great Council (1414—1418) and decorated with modern 
frescoes illustrative of the history of the town (fee 6 kr ) UDstairs 
a small collection of objects from India and China thp r> r iv*ti> 
property of "•- —*-"-- ^ Vr 1 ' ine P nva ?'; 

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FALLS OF THE RHINE. 11. Route. 23 

The house in which Huss was arrested, the second to the r. 
of the Schnetzthor, bears his effigy sculptured in stone, dating 
from the 16th cent. Immediately after his arrival he was placed 
in confinement in a Franciscan cloister. In a field to the W. of 
the suburb of Bruhl is the spot where the illustrious reformer 
and Jerome of Prague suffered martyrdom, indicated by a huge 
mass of rock with inscriptions. 

The abbey of Kreuzlingen (Hotel Helvetia, see above), 3 /^ M. 
beyond the S. gate, is now employed as a school; curious carved 
wood-work: the Passion, with about 1000 small figures executed 
by Tyrolese masters in the last cent. ; a mitre , adorned with 
pearls, presented by Pope John XXII. on the evening before his 
entry into Constance, is also shown. 

In the N. W. arm of the Lake of Constance (Ueberlinger See, p. 21), 
3'|2 M. from Constance, is situated the beautiful island of Mainau, for- 
merly the seat of a lodge of the Teutonic order, as is indicated by a cross 
on the S. side of the castle. The island, l 1 /^ M. in circumference, is con- 
nected with the mainland by a bridge 650 paces in length. Since 1853 it 
has been the property of the Grand-Duke of Baden. Beautiful grounds rise 
above the lake. Comfortable Inn. * 

From Rorschach (p. 37) to Constance (2 hrs. ). The 
steamboat skirts the bank, passing Horn (p. 38) and Arbon (En- 
gel ; Kreuz), a small town on the site of the Roman Arbor Felix, 
and enters the harbour of Romanshorn (p. 34). The conspicuous 
building rising above the woods of the N. bank is Heiligenberg 
(1170' above the lake), the beautiful chateau of the Prince of 
Fiirstenberg. On the 1. bank Schloss Giittingen is next passed ; 
then the former monastery of Miinsterlingen, now a hospital and 
lunatic asylum. Constance with its numerous towers is a con- 
spicuous object in the distance. Near the town is perceived the 
former abbey of Kreuzlingen (see above). 

The Kail way from Rorschach to Constance (in l'| 2 hr. ; 4 fr. 25, 
3 fr., 2 fr. 15 c.) skirts the bank of the lake, affording pleasant glimpses of 
its glittering surface. Stat. Horn (p. 38), Arbon (see above), Egnach, 
Romanshorn (p. 34 ; the rail. stat. is close to the pier) ; farther on, Utlwyl, 
Kesswyl, Giittingen, Altnau, Miinsterlingen, Kreuzlingen (to the 1. the abbey, 
see above), Constance (p. 21). 

11. The Falls of the Rhine. 

Hotels. On the hill (1410') on the r. bank : S ch weiz e rhof ; "Belle 
vue; in both R. from 2'|», D. 3 — 4, A. 1 fr. ; omnibuses from both are in 
waiting at the steamboat-pier at Schaffhausen, fare l'/a fr. Hotel Rhein- 
fal 1 at Neuhausen (p. 25), R. 1—2, B. 1, D. 2 fr. — On the left bank above 
the Falls: ^ Hotel Schloss La u fen; omnibus to the Dachsen station and 
steamboat-pier at Schafthausen. "'Hotel Witzig, unpretending, R. l'l?, 
B. 1, D. 2'| 2 , L. and A. sj 4 fr., at stat. Dachsen, »| 4 M. from the Falls. 

English Church Service in the Schweizerhof. 

Travellers from Bale to Schaffhausen may alight at stat. Neuhausen, 
whence the Falls may be reached in a few minutes. In order, however, 
to preclude the possibility of disappointment, they should invariably be 
approached on the ""left bank. The traveller is therefore strongly recom- 
mended to continue his journey to Schaffhausen, and proceed thence by 
t)ie North Eastern line to stat, Dachsen (in 10 min, , fares 50, 35, 25 c), 


3 |< M. to the S. of the Falls (omnibus to the Falls and back 1 fr.). Or he 
may prefer to walk direct from Schafl'hausen to Laufen, a distance of 2 M. 

The following walk will occupy about 2 hrs. : from Dachsen to Schloss 
Laufen, the Fischetz, over the bridge to X.uhausen and the Schlosschen 
Worth (to slat. Xeuhausen 3 ,'< il.)i whence the traveller may avail himself 
of tin- ferry (IMc.) to Schloss Laufen. It is, however, preferable to proceed 
hv a level and shady footpath (on emerging from the wood, a fine view 
is obtained of the Falls to the 1.) to the village of Nohl l'| a M.), there cross 
1 10 c.) to the opp. bank, and ascend (>\ t JI.) to the village of Dachsen. 

*Schloss Laufen (1361 'J, picturesquely situated on a wooded 
rook on the 1. bank, immediately above the Falls, is the point from 
which tins celebrated cataract is viewed to the best advantage. The 
owner, bv virtue of a contract with the government of Zurich 
(to which canton Schloss Laufen belongs), is authorised to de- 
mand an entrance-fee of 1 fr. from every foreigner, and BO cent, 
from every Swiss who visits the castle (no additional gratuities). 

In order fully to appreciate the grandeur of the spectacle, 
the visitor should descend from the castle to the *Fisrhetz, a 
wooden gallery which projects over the foaming abyss. The view 
from this point is impressive in the extreme: the huge falling 
volume of water can even be reached by the hand , whilst the 
spectator, removed from all danger, is bedewed by the spray. 

From the Fischetz the visitor ascends through the grounds, 
pausing at the different points of view (e. g. the *Kdnzeli), until 
he reaches the summer-house with stained -glass windows, and 
finally the handsome , new apartments on the first floor of the 
chateau, the balcony of which affords a last survey of the Falls, 
the bridge , and the environs. F'or an additional fee of */2 ' r - 
the tourist may once more view the whole scene in the Camera 

In .lune and July the volume of water is greatly increased 
by the melting of the snow. During sunshine innumerable 
rainbows tinge the clouds of silvery spray which rise from the 
gulf. The view by moonlight is also strikingly impressive, and 
the traveller is therefore recommended to spend a night at the 
Falls, or at Dachsen, in preference to Schafl'hausen. (The Falls 
are frequently illuminated during the summer.) 

The breadth of the Rhine above the Falls is 380'; their 
height is about 50' on the r. bank, and 64' on the 1., the differ- 
ence being occasioned by the unequal height of the ridge over 
which the river precipitates itself; if the rapids, the whirlpools, 
and the falls a few hundred paces higher up be taken into account, 
the total height of the cataract may be estimated at nearly 100' 
(level id' the Rhine above the falls' 1260', below 1181'). 

Of the four limestone -rocks which rise from the cataract, one third 
of that nearest to the 1. bank has been worn away by the action of the 
water; the centre rock is surmounted by a miniature tent. AVhen viewed 
from below, the rocks seem to tremble and waver. From the Schlosschen 
nf Worth (see below), when the water is at its average height, the visitor 
may be conveyed in a boat to the central rock, and, by ascending it, ob- 
tain a view of the Kails from tin- must favourable point. This c\cuision, 

FALLS OF THK RHINE. 11. Route. 25 

which only occupies a few minutes, is entirely unattended with danger, 
though the agitated waters cause considerable motion to the boat. Fare 
for 1 to 3 pers. 3 fr. and boatman's fee ; for each additional person 1 fr. 
These rocks have undergone no change within the memory of man, but a 
decrease in the volume of the Rhine has been observed at Schaffhausen of 
late years. It is remarkable that no mention of this cataract is made by 
ancient writers, from which it is inferred by some that the Rhine may 
have changed its course, and that the present fall dates from the middle 
ages only (.V). 

After having surveyed the falls from the different points of 
view at the castle of Laufen, the visitor on leaving should de- 
scend to the 1., at the sign-post indicating the way to Schloss 
Laufen, to the *Bridge across the falls (Rheinfallbriicke), over 
which the railway from Schaffhausen to Zurich (see below) passes. 
The arches vary in width of span , in consequence of the diffi- 
culty of obtaining a foundation for the piers. The upper side 
of the bridge is provided with a foot-way, which affords a re- 
markable view of the rocky bed of the river, the rapids, and the 
falls below. 

On the r. bank a good footpath, leading to the 1. from the 
bridge, ascends at a considerable elevation above the Rhine (fine 
view of the falls), to the extensive railway-carriage manufactory 
near Neuhausen (Hotel Rheinfall). Here the visitor may descend 
the stair on the 1. to the parapet near the sluices, whence another 
good view of the falls is obtained. Then descending to the r. by 
the road past the ironworks, and following the path by the Rhine 
(a bench by the path is another picturesque *point of view, 
by some preferred to Schloss Laufen), he will Teach the Schloss- 
chen Worth (Inn; camera obscura 75 cent.), a square tower on 
an island opposite the falls, connected with the r. bank by a 
bridge. If the traveller now ascend the terrace of the Schweizer- 
hof (at stat. Neuhausen), 230' above the water on the r. bank of 
the Rhine, he will enjoy a prospect of the entire chain of the Alps, 
together with the Falls and their environs ; the Bernese Alps to the 
r. (Omnibus to the railway stat. at Schaffhausen, fare l 1 /* fr. ) 

12. From Schaffhausen to Zurich. 

Comp. Maps pp. 20, 38. 

By the Swiss North Eastern Railway in 2 hrs. (to Winlerthur 
1 hr., to Zurich 1 hr.). Fares G fr., 4 fr. 20 c, 3 fr. View of the Falls on 
the right. „ 

The line skirts the lower end of the \ esenstaub (p. 2U) pro- 
menade, and passes under the castle of Charlottenfels , built by 
a wealthy clockmaker of Schaffhausen. On the r. , considerably 
higher than the Zurich line, is the railway to Waldshut (It. H), 
which passes through a tunnel, 564' long, under Charlottenfels. 
The train to Zurich, immediately after passing through the long 
cutting, crosses the Bridge over the Falls (see above), 630' long, and 
supported by nine arches of from 42' to 55' span. A glimpse 
is obtained of the falls to the r. , and the tunnel, 213' long, 

26 Route IS. ZlItlCH. 

under ScUoxa Laufen lj>. '21) is then entered. <>n emerging, 
the train commands another beautiful, but momentary retrospect 
of (lie falls. 

The train stops at stat. Dachsen (1'290'J (see p. 23), 3 U M. 
from Scliloss Laul'oii. Farther on, pleasing views present them- 
selves at intervals of the bluish-green Ilhine, as it flows far below 
in its narrow bed, enclosed by lofty wooded banks. 

The following stat. is Marthulen. The valley of Andelflngen 
soon begins to open; and the handsome village is visible in the 
distance to the r. , on the precipitous banks of the Thur. The 
train approaches it by a wide curve, and crosses the Thur above 
the village, by a suspension bridge, 115' long. It then skirts 
the river for a short distance and arrives at Andelflngen on the 
fs. side. 

The remainder of the route to Winterthur is less interesting, 
although the scenery is still picturesque. The next stations are 
Hemjgurt and Hettlingen. The vine-clad slopes of Neftenbach, to 
the r., produce the best wines of N. Switzerland; among others 
<i(itlen*iiilz is particularly esteemed. On approaching Winterthur 
the broad valley of the Toss is entered. 

Winterthur, and thence to Zurich, see p. 34. Change, of 

13. Zurich and the Uetliherg. 

Hotels. Hotel et. Pension Baur au Lac (PI. a], charmingly 
situated on the banks of the lake, well conducted, with garden, baths, and 
reading-room adjoining, R. 3 — -6 fr., B. 1>| 2 IV., D. exc. W. at 1 o'cl. 4'| 2 fr., 
at 4 o'cl. 5 fr., A. 1 fr. ; Pension 8 fr. and upwards. "Bellcvuc (PI. d) 
on the lake, opposite the Bauschanze, similar charges, also commanding a 
fine view. 'Hotel Ziesing-Baur (PI. b), in the town, more moderate; 
'Sfhivfrt (PI. c), hv the lower bridge, view of the Alps, R.2— 3, B. 1— 1'|4, 
A. 3J 4 , I,. )|, f r . ; Ziiricher Hof (PI. e), opposite the Bellevne, B. 2 fr. ; 
S torch (PI. f), newlv fitted up, R. t'| 2 , B. 1 fr. ; Falke (PI. g), between 
the lake and the post-office, R. 2, B. li| 4 , A. ')« fr. ; - Schw e iz erho f 
(PI. i), on the r. bank of the Liinmat below the second bridge, R. 2, D.3fr. ; 
Schcller and Rossi i near the Ziiricher Hof; S ch warz er Adler, of 
humlde pretension. Visitors are received at all these establishments in 
spring and autumn <•» pension. — Then "Pension Septun at Secfeld, 
near Zurich, new, 5'|2— 6 fr. per day ; Hotel et Pension Cygne(Pl. hj 
on the Miihlcnbach, well situated, pleasant garden, 5' [a fr- a day ; Weisses 
Kreuz, 4— "> fr. n day. — Biirgli Terrace andWeid see below. Rin- 
derknecht, at Fluntern, l»/ 2 M. E. of Zurich ; K ar o 1 in enbur g, 3/ 4 M. 
higher, l'alinliof, at, Oberstrass, a short distance X. of the Polytechnic, 
view of the valley of the Linnnat. Dinner-hour usually 12. 30. 

The inn on the : Vetlibcrg, a charming point of view, also affords 
tolerable accommodation. 

Restaurants etc. At the hotels Baur, Rellcvue, and Ziiricherhof. 
Saf ran, opposite the Rathhaus; Kronenhalle, above the Ziiricherhof; 
Cafe I.ittcraire, adjoining the Storch. table d'hote at 12. 30- Bau- 
garlcn, see below; Rail. Restaurant; Cafe du Xord and' Altes 
S e h u t z en h a u s . near the station. — lees at Spriingli's near the Baur 
Hotel and pout - office. — Beer: Brunner, in the Frau - Miinsterplatz ; 
(tambrinus, Scbofelgasse ; at the Bollerei, on the quay ; Strohhof' 
at the back of St. Peters; Tonhalle, on the lake, etc. — ' Valttllina Wine 
,it the V eltlinerhallc. 

X.Jiank . D.5 

11 . Bauaartc/i D , if 
3. JKbUothek ndt Alterthnmssamnibrng . D.ft 
4 1 . Bbndpn u. Teaioetummen -Anstalt &,fi 

I ^.Boitaiischcr &arten. f Kats I 
I 6. Cantons rpital Tint der^natamie 
7. Cantonssrhvle 
5 [ 8 ■ Casino . 

Denkuial er : 
9 . fressner's 
10- T£ye& 

1 2. J?ir m7>frrar.7u? 

13. ffohr Tramenade 
14-. Kaitfkauji 


IS. St^Amui EapeUe 
16.JuffurtinerE. (Euth.Kh E.4- 
17. /"Wat Xiinster 
18. (fross JRuister 
IS./Vft-rj ^ . . 

* JS ...-,> \,J9iJ> ir^^ w /jm£? K.i> .yV I ff, < 


n—iininiiiTnTrii^iii i 

ZURICH. 13. Route. 27 

Points of View. In the town, the Baugarten , belonging to a private 
society, strangers readily admitted. Garden (restaurant) at Oberstrass, 
line view, open-air theatre. The "Biirgli Terrace (with Pension) i| 2 M 
on the road to the Uetliberg; the <Weid on the Kaferberg, 3 11. to the 
N.W. of the town (pension 3— 7fr.); the Uetliberg (p. 31), 2 hrs. walk 
to the S.W. of the town. 

Newspapers at the Museum (PI. 20), in a detached house on the right 
bank of the Limmat-, strangers provided with an introduction are admitted 
gratis tor 1 month from 9 a. m. to 10 p. m. 

Baths in the lake ( for ladies also ) near the Bauschanze, admirably 
fitted up ; bath 15 c, towel etc. 20 c, private room 40 c. Another estab. 
at the S. end of the town, on the E. bank of the lake. Warm Baths 
(Russian etc.) at 'Stocker's in the Miihlgarten. 

Rowing-boats 30 c. per hour; large boat with awning 1 fr. ; each rower 
60c. per hour; ferry to steamer 10c, luggage 10c. 

Menns Zooplastic Museum, Stadelhofsplatz (1 fr.), fine groups of stuffed 
animals. Summer Theatre at Oberstrass, see above. — Panorama of the 
Rigi in the suburb Enge, see p. 32. 

Steamboats (see p. 38) start from the Bauschanze (p. 31), the screw- 
steamers from the Bellevue Hotel. These smaller vessels plv at lower fares 
along the S. bank only, and do not proceed bevond Richter'swvl. 

Railway Station at the lower (N.) end of" the town, 3| 4 jr. from the 
steamboat wharf. Omnibus 50 c, each box 20 c. ; other omnibuses every 
■|2 hr. to the Seefeld and Tiefenbrunnen, on the S. side of the town. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 23) opposite the Hotel Baur; branch- 
office by the new museum. 

Carriages to or from the station 1—2 pers. P0c, 3—4 pers. 1 fr. 20 c, 
each box 20 c, in the evening 20 c. extra for the lamps; from 9 p. m. to 
6 a. m. the fares are doubled. Carriages with fixed charges stand bv the 
Hotel Baur, the Bellevue, &c. ; to Weid 1—2 pers. 3 fr., 3—4 pers. 4 fr. 50c; 
Albisgiitli (at the foot of the Uetliberg) 3 — 4 fr. ; Hcickler, whence the 
Uetliberg mav conveniently be ascended, 2 fr. 40 c or 3 fr. 60 c; Nidelbad 
(p. 39) 3 fr. or 1 IV. 50 c ; Thalwvl 3 fr. or 4 fr. 50 c ; Ilorgen 5 fr. or 7 fr. ; 
Unteralbis 5 fr. or 7 fr. ; Obernfbis 6 fr. 50 c or 9 fr. For a two -horse 
carriage the fare is the same as for 3 — 4 persons with one horse. 
English Church Service in the Chapel of St. Anna (p. 30). 
Principal Attractions. Those whose time is limited should 
proceed from the Miinster bridge (p. 28) to the Gross - Munslir (p. 29), 
through the adjacent Cloisters to the '■ Hohe Promenade (p. 29), then descend 
to the lake, lake the ferry at the Bellevue Hotel to the "ISausckanzt (p. 31), 
and thence, passing the Hotel Baur nu Lac, proceed to the Botaniral Gar- 
dens and the ' Katz (p. 30). The ascent of the "Uetliberg (p. 31) should then 
be made, and the night passed on the summit. 

Zurich (1351'), the Roman Turicum, is the chief town of 
the Canton, with 21,l!;il inhabitants (3377 Rom. Cath.), or, in- 
cluding the suburbs, 45,000. It is situated at the N. extremity 
of the lake , on the banks of the green and rapid Limmat 
which divides it into two distinct parts, the 'Larye' town on 
the r. and the 'Small' on the 1. — On the W. side flows the 
Sihl which unites with the Limmat immediately below the town. 
Zurich is the most flourishing manufacturing Swiss town (silk 
and cotton manufactories; there are 10,000 silk-looms in this 
canton), and at the same tinje the centre of German Switzer- 
land in a literary point of view. Its schools enjoy a high reputation, 
and have for many centuries sent forth men of distinction : 
Bodmer, Sulzer. Hottinger, Orelli, Gessner, Lavater, Hess, Pesta- 
lozzi, Hegner, Horner, Henry Hirzel . Henry Meyer the friend of 
Goethe, and many others. In 1832 a College was founded (200 

28 Route lit. ZL'KR'H. Town Hall. 

students, half of whom are medical), and in 1 ■S: - >r» a Polytechnic 
School, both under the direction of an excellent staff of professors. 

The Situation of Zurich is unrivalled. Both sides of the lake 
are enlivened with villages, orchards, and vineyards, scattered over a highly 
cultivated country ; in the background rise the snow-capped Alps ; to the 1. 
is the ridge of the (Hiirnisch, then the perpendicular sides of the Reiselt- 
slock (H'2()a'). near it on the. r. the I'funnstock, farther on, the JJrusberg 
(like a winding; staircase); next the snow-clad Bifertenstock and Tbdi; in 
front the Clariden, the most \V. point of which is the Kammlistock (10,(11)7'); 
hetween this and the double-peaked Scheerhorn is imbedded a vast glacier ; 
then on the N. side of the Srfuichenthal the /1' Stock-chain with grotesquely- 
formed horns; the broad Windgelle ; betw ecu this and the Scheerhorn ap- 
pears the dark summit of the Mtithen near Schwyz; above the valley. 1m- 
tween the KaiM rstocl: and Romberg, towers the pointed pyramid of the 
Hristenstock near Amstiig on the St. ( lotlhard-route ; then, if the spectator 
occupies a commanding position, the Blackenstock and t'ri-Iiothstock, and a 
portion of the snow-mountains of the Engelberger Thai . appear above the 
All, is. To the right of the Albis is the I'ellibenj . the most X. point of 
(his range, with the hotel on its summit. 

As the beauty of its situation is the great attraction of Zurich, a plan 
is here proposed, which will enable the traveller to visit the finest points 
and chief objects of interest in the shortest possible time, leaving the 
selection to his discretion. The Gross- Minister (or Cathedral) with its 
cloisters (see below), the Town Library (see below), and the Armoury 
in the old arsenal (p. 31) are near the hotels, and the only objects of par- 
ticular interest in the town. Xo one should omit to visit the Terrace in 
front of the Polytechnic, the J/ohe Promenade, the Kat:, the Bauschanze, 
and the grounds near the bathing houses on the promenade by the lake, 
as the views from these several points are charming. 

From the station the new Ilahnliofs-Slrasse, a broad street 
planted with trees, leads directly to the lake, intersecting the 
entire quarter of the town between the Limmat and the Sihl. 

As a starting point may be taken the handsome four -arched 
Miinster-Bridye (the highest), which commands a beautiful view 
of the lake and Alps. Close to the bridge on the right bank 
of the Limmat, is an open vestibule leading to the Town li- 
brary (PI. 3). Admission obtained on application at the shop 
on tlie r. This building was formerly used as a church (147(1), 
and known by the name of the Was.ierkire.he, from its having once 
stood in the water; in the year ISIiOit was considerably enlarged, 
and now contains many valuable MSS 

A letter of Zicingli to his wife; Zwingli's Greek Bible with Hebrew 
annotations in his own handwriting; an autograph letter of Henry IV. of 
K ranee ; three autograph Latin letters of the unfortunate Lady Jane (ireii 
to Antistes Biillingei", a letter of Frederick the Ureal, dated 17S4. to 
1'i-ofi ssor Jliiller; Portrait of the. worthies of Zurich, amongst others of 
Zwingli; a marble bust of I.avater by Dannecker; a marble bust of 
Pestalo/.zi by Imhof; eight panes of stained glass of the vear ifjOG. Large 
Itelie/inajif of a portion of Switzerland, and of the Kngclberger Thai on 
a much larger scale, both executed with great care and aceuracv. are worthy 
of note. (Kec I fr., for a party 2 fr.) 

The same building contains the Antiquities belonging to the 
Antiquarian Society. The principal object of interest is a col- 
lection of relics of the ancient Swiss lake-villages. 

The Town Hall (PI. .ill) near the bridge, on tin- r. bank 

Hohe Promenade. ZURICH. 13. Route. 29 

opposite to the Schwert hotel, constructed in 1689, according to 
the architecture of that period, presents nothing worthy of note. 
— Below the bridge is the new Museum, opposite the flesh-market. 

The steps opposite to the vestibule in front of the Library, 
lead to the Gross- Miinster (PI. 18), erected in the unadorned 
Romanesque style of the 11th to the 13th cent. In the year 
1779 the towers were crowned with helmet-shaped ornaments 
surmounted by gilded flowers. On the AV. tower Charlemagne is 
seated with gilded crown and sword, in recognition of donations 
made by him to the church. The choir contains three large 
stained-glass windows representing Christ, St. Peter, and St. Paul. 

On the site of the ancient residence of the canons now stands 
a school (Tbchterschule) , the *Cloisters within the precincts of 
which date from the commencement of the 13th cent. They 
have been restored, and the fountain adorned with a statue of 

The traveller now descends the street by the Tikhterschule 
to the point where the Limmat emerges from the lake, passes 
the Bellevue Hotel, and again mounts a steep ascent to the 1. 
leading to the * Hohe Promenade (PI. 13), an avenue of lime- 
trees. Magnificent view (morning -light most favourable) from 
the plateau in which the Monument of Huns Geory Ncigeli (d. 
1836) (PI. 10) is erected, with a bust of this celebrated vocal 
composer: 'ran den schweizerischen Sdngervereinen ihrem Vater 
Nag eli '. 

From the N. extremity of the Promenade a path, skirting the 
N. side of the cemetery, leads to the high road to AVinterthur, 
ascending which for a short distance, the traveller reaches the 
Cantonal Schools (PI. 7) on the 1., a handsome edifice, com- 
prising a grammar and a commercial school. Farther on in 
the same direction, the Cantonal Hospital (PI. 6) on the r., 
and the adjoining School of Anatomy are attained; to the 1. on 
the slope of the hill is an Asylum for the blind and dumb 
(PI. 4); lower down to the 1. the Hall of Art (PI. 21), con- 
taining some good modern pictures by Ludwig Hess. Diday and 
Roller, and the handsome *Polytechnic (PI. 28), erected 1861 — 64, 
the terrace in front of which commands one of the finest views of 
the town and lake. Descending to the 1. beyond the Polytechnic, 
the traveller next reaches the garden of the Deunery of St. Leonard 
(Pfrundhaus, PI. 22), a large building on the slope of the hill, 
now an asylum for aged and destitute persons. The garden- 
terrace, to which the public are admitted, affords a survey of the 
valley of the Limmat and the railway to Baden. Returning to 
the road and passing the Pfrundhaus, the traveller takes the first 
street to the 1. and then descends by a flight of steps. The 
smoking chimneys and confused din intimate that the manufac- 
turing quarter of Zurich is now entered. Among the most 

'M) Itnute 1.1 Zl'iKH'li. I.inctenhof. 

remarkable factories may lie mentioned that of the engineers 
Escher, Wyss, and Co., who have constructed most of the steam- 
boats which navigate the Swiss anil Italian lakes, as well as 
many of those on the Danube anil Mark Sea. The traveller 
now reaches the railway station by a substantial new bridge, 

completed in 1804. 

Tin- long avenue of liamlsomc trees, to the N. of the railway station, 
skirting Hie lianks of the l.iininat, affords a cool and pleasant walk. It 
terminates in a point of land called the 'Platzspitz ' (so named from the 
I'nrnier Sihutzenplalz), which is formed hy the junction of the river Sihl 
(generally very shallow in summer) with the Liminat. A living liridge 
(a cent, (crosses (o the heer- garden Drahtsrlimieilli on the r. hank of the 
l.iininal, the plcasantcst route to the Weid ( p. 'Si). Half-way between the 
gas manufactory and the Platzspitz stands the simple monument and bust 
of Hie poet Nutvwii dewier ( d. 1 7 S8 ) , whose favourite resort was the 
' Platzprnmenade \ 

Near the centre, of the town rises the Lindenhof (PI. 23), 
situated 11:")' abo\e the Limmat, in ancient times a Celtic settle- 
ment, then a Roman station, later an imperial palace, where in 
the 9th and 10th cent, a public court of judicature was held. 
The Gothic Free-Masons' Lodge was erected on the S.K. side 
in 1851. 

Descending on the S. side by the street to the r. , the tra- 
veller arrives at the Augustine Church (PI. 10), used for three 
hundred years as a magazine, but in 1848 restored to its origi- 
nal use as a Koiu. Cath. place of a worship, and now a model 
of simplicity and good taste. The two Pictures over the side 
altars, Christ on the mount of Olives', and 'the liisen Saviour' 
by Desrluninden. are able works; the high altar, pulpit, and organ 
are also worthy of mention. Adjoining the S. side of the church 
is the former Augustine monastery. A little farther to the S.K. 
is St. Peter's Church (PI. 19), of which the excellent La-niter 
(d. 1801) was pastor for '2'.) years. 

N.W. of the Roman Cath. church, on the opposite side of the Bahnhofs- 
strasse, is the old Cemetery, adjoining the t'ltapel of >S7. Anna, in which 
English Church Service is performed during the season. Here rests 
l.aralrr; an upright stone by the E. wall marks his grave. The remains 
of Ebel , the author of an admirable work on Switzerland ( b. ITG4 at 
/.ullirhaii. d. ISW), and Escher ron iter Liulli, the constructor of the Escher 
canal (p. i'J), are also interred here. 

From the Bahnhols-Strasse the traveller, following the Pelican- 
Strasse, arrives at the Botanical Garden (PI. f>), containing 
800 Alpine plants, and busts of De Candolle (i\. 1841) and 
Conrad (iessner (d. 1 ;">(>">), executed in bronze. Here rises a 
bastion of the old fortress known as the *Katz, forming an ele- 
vated platform planted with lime-trees, and commanding a splen- 
did view of the town, lake, Alps, and valley of the Limmat. 

flu leaving the botanical gardens, the traveller should cross 
the canal bridge ( Schanzengraben' , formerly a moat) to the r., 
follow the bank till he reaches the next bridge, then passing the 
'I'alke' hotel descend by the street to the r. to the Hotel Haur 

Uetliberg. ZURICH. 13. Route. 3t 

au Lac. Passing the bath-houses (between which a pleasing 
glimpse of the lake) he will arrive at the *Bauschanze, a small 
pentagonal island , surrounded by walls (formerly a bastion), 
shaded by thick foliage, and connected with the land by a bridge, 
similar to the Rousseau-Island at Geneva , and commanding a 
beautiful view of the lake and Alps. The steamboats stop here. 

Adjacent to the Miinster-bridge , on the 1. bank, rises the 
Frau-Miinster church (PI. 17), erected in the 13th cent, and 
distinguished by its lofty red spire. The Post-office (PI. '211 ) is 
immediately beyond it. 

A Collection of Ancient Armour is exhibited in the gloomy, 
insignificant Arsenal (PI. 30), on the S. side of St. Peter's 
church; it contains battle-axes, armour, flags, and cross-bows, 
among which is one of the many which claim the distinction of 
having belonged to Tell. Zwingli's Battle-axe, which was taken 
by the inhabitants of Lucerne in the battle of Kappel (p. 33) 
was first placed in the arsenal of that city, but at the con- 
clusion of the war in 1847 was transferred hither, together with 
his sword, coat of mail, and helmet. A supply of new weapons 
for the militia is also kept here. 

At the close of the last century, Zurich was witness of two sanguin- 
ary contests in its neighbourhood; the actions on the 2nd and 3rd of June, 
1799, at Wytikon and Zollikon (p. 39) between the Austrian.? under the 
command of the Archduke Charles, and the French under Massena; and those 
on the 26th and 27th of Sept., 1799, between the Russians commanded In 
Korsakof, and the French under Masse'na. The latter army, after having 
effected the passage of the river hy Dietikon (p. 17), surrounded the heights 
to the N. of Zurich, especially the Kii.ferherg and the Ziirir/ibety , which 
the high road to Schaffhausen now traverses, and entirely cut off the right 
wing of the Russian troops, thus disabling the greater portion of the army, 
and compelling them to retreat to Eglisau and Wintertime. 

The *Uetliberg. 

The Uetliberg (2864' above the level of the sea, and 1 :">'.>("> ' 
above the Lake of Zurich) (*Hotel see p. 20; carriage to Albis- 
giitli, at the foot of the Uetliberg, 3—4 fr. ), the most N. point 
of the Albis range, 4 1 /.. M. from Zurich, will of all the neighbouring 
mountains best repay the fatigue of the ascent. The view may 
be surpassed in grandeur, but not in loveliness, by those from 
heights nearer the Alps. It embraces the lake of Ziirich, the 
valley of the Limmat, the Alpine range from the Sentis to the 
Jungfrau, the Stockhorn on the lake of Thun, in the foreground 
the Rigi and Pilatus, and W. the Jura chain from the Chasseral 
on the Lake of Bienne, to its termination near Aarau, over which 
appear the summits of some of the Vosges mountains, among 
others the Ballon ; the Feldberg and Belchen in the Black Forest 
are also visible, and the volcanic cones of the Hohgau, Hohen- 
twiel, Hohenhowen, and llohenstoffeln. On the opposite bank of 
the Reuss stands the Benedictine Abbey of Muri, the front of 
which is 750' in length; it was secularised by the government of 

32 Route /.; L'ETLIBKKH. 

Aarg.m in i;Ul. and is now used as a school ; by morning light 
it is most distinctly \isible. Baden with its old castle (p. 16) 
is an equally conspicuous object. 

The Route to the Uetliberg (2 hvs.) leads W. through the suburb 
Enye (a good Panorama of the Rig i is exhibited here; admission 
on Sund.. Wed., and Frid. 1 fr.. on other days V/ 2 fr-); wnere the 
telegraph wires di\erge to the 1., it pursues a straight direction ; 
alter 1 M. (from the Hotel Baur) it crosses the Sihl by a new 
bridge, and then turns to the 1., straight in the direction of the 
mountain (on the summit of which the inn is visible); 3 / 4 M. 
Albisgutli (inn), where horses (4 I'r. to the Uetliberg, 6 fr. there 
and back) may he procured. At the termination of the high 
road, the most frequented path winding upwards through the 
valley must be followed. As the summit is approached, a view 
of the Kigi. Pilatus, and the Bernese Alps is obtained; 20 min. 
before the inn is reached, is an inscription in memory of 
Frederick von Diirler of Zurich, the ascender of the Todi, who 
perished here in the winter of 1840. Beautiful Alpine plants 
are found on the Uetli. 

From the Vetliberg to the Albi s-H och w a c h t (p. 33), is a 
delightful walk of 3 hrs., ascending and descending on the Albis-range. The 
broad path (not easily mistaken) passes the above-mentioned Diirler in- 
scription, and affords occasional glimpses of the lake of Zurich. To the 1. 
is the Sihl, beyond it the blue lake with its thousand glittering dwellings, 
to the r. the pretty Tiirler lake, fertile hill-pastures, and the Alps towering 
in the distance. — From the Albis Hochwacht to Zug, see p. 33. 

From Zurich to Regensberg. A branch line diverges from the 
X.E. Swiss railway at Oerlikon (p. 34), and passing stat. Iliilach and Dielx- 
dort\ conveys the traveller in 1 hr. to the picturesquely situated old town 
of Regensberg ( Loice ; Krone), on the S.E. spur of the Lagevngebirg (p. I7j. 
Fine view from the tower of the ancient castle; still more extensive from 
the Hochwadit , 3 31. farther. 

14. From Zurich to Lucerne by Zug. 

Comp. Maps pp. 38, 6'6\ 

Kv the Swiss North Eastern line in li| a — 2'|a hrs. ; fares to Zug 
1 fr. 25, 3 fr., 2 fr. 15 c. : to Lucerne 6 fr. 50, 4 fr. 55. 3 fr. 25 c. ; return- 
tickets at reduced rates. 

Immediately on leaving the station the train crosses the Sihl, 
and at station AlUtetten diverges from the Ziirich-Olten line. 
To the 1. rises the long ridge of the Uetliberg, which the line 
skirts in a wide curve. Beyond stat. Birmensdorf the Ettenberg 
is penetrated by a tunnel l / 3 M. in length. To the 1. of stat. 
A/fottern is the Aeuyster Berg, at the base of which are situated 
the small Tiirler See, the village of Aeuyxt, and the Baths of 
Wenye. As Zug is approached the I.orze is crossed and the 
fertile Baarer Boden (p. 47) traversed. 

Zug, see p. 47. The station is on the N. side of the town. 
From Zug to the Kigi, see R. 19. 

On leaving Zug the train skirts the flat N. bank of the lake 
(to the S. rises the Kigi ), again crosses the I.orze which de- 

ALBIS. 15. Route. 33 

srends from the Lake of Eyeri to the Lake of Zug, and recrosses 
the same river as it emerges from the lake near station Cham 
(Rabe). To the 1. a fine view of Zug. At stat. Sothkreuz 
the train enters the valley of the Reuss, following the r. bank 
of the river. The bridge of Oislikon was the scene of several 
sharp skirmishes during the war of the Separate League in 1847. 
Beyond stat. Ebikon the small Rothsee is passed , and the Keuss 
crossed by a long iron bridge. The line now unites with the 
Swiss Central (p. 14), passes under the Gibraltar (p. 50), and 
stops at the station of Lucerne on the 1. bank of the lake, oppo- 
site the hotels. 

lucerne, see p. 49. 

From Zurich to Zug over the Alhis 18 M. ; since the completion 
of the above railway the diligence has ceased to run. Carriage from 
Zurich to the Alhis Inn in 2 1 /* hrs. . fare 10 — 12 fr. (As to pedestrians, 
see below.) 

The Albis road quits the W. bank of the lake at WoUisltofen (p. 39), 
ascends towards the 8., and traverses a monotonous plain. Near Adlischipyl 
(1460') it crosses the Sihl by a covered wooden bridge, and then winds 
upwards from Unter-Albis to 

&\» 31. Ober-Albis (2602'), a solitary inn at the highest point of the 
road. The " Hoclncatftt (2887') (poor inn), l'| 2 31. from the road and the 
Albis Inn, affords a beautiful and extensive prospect, embracing the entire 
Lake of Ziirich, the volcanic heights of Swabia to the X., the Lake of Zug, 
Rigi, Pilatus, part of the Lake of Lucerne, and the Alps from the Sentis 
to the Jungfrau to the W. and S. The Sihl winds alongs the entire E. 
base of the Albis. Here in 1799 the French and Russians faced each 
other during three months: the former were posted on the Albis, their 
adversaries on the r. bank of the Sihl, until at length Massena effected 
his famous passage of the Liminat (p. 17), and compelled the Russians 
to retreat. 

The road descends gradually in long curves : it passes near the little 
Tttrler See (on the r.) (2129') and reaches Hauaen (2034') (Lowe), a thriving 
village in a beautiful district. In the neighbourhood, on a wooded height 
to the 1. of the road, is Albisbrunn, a hydropathic estab., much frequented 
by French patients (pension 6'|4 fr.). The next village is Kappel (1879'), 
with the Gothic church of an ancient Cistercian convent, containing some 
old stained glass. A battle took place here on Oct. 11th, 1531, between 
the Rom. Cath. cantons united with Lucerne, and the reformers of Ziirich, 
amongst whom was Zwingli. A metal plate, inserted in the rock , and 
bearing a German and Latin inscription, is to be seen on the road near 
Kappel i it indicates the spot where a soldier of Unterwalden found Zwingli 
wounded, and, without knowing him, pierced him with his sword for 
refusing to invoke the Virgin and Saints. Near Baar (p. 47) the roads 
from the Albis and Horgen unite. 

9 SI. Zug, see p. 47. — Pedestrians may, as far as Baar, 2iJ 4 31. from 
Zug, always avoid the high road and follow pleasant footpaths, which are 
easily found. The walk from Zurich by the Uetli, Albis llochwacht, Hau- 
sen, and Kappel, to Zug will then occupy about 8 hrs. (comp. p. 32). 

15. From Zurich to Bern by Olten, Aarburg, and 

Swiss North Kastern and Central Railways. In 4— 5>|2 hrs. ; 
fare 13 fr. 75, 9 fr. 65, 6 fr. 90 c. 

From Zurich to Olten, see K. 7; from Olten to Herzogenbuchsee, 
see p. 8; from Herzogenbuchsee to Bern, see p. 13. 

Bj.dekki!. Switzerland. 5th Edition. 3 


16. From Zurich to Friedrichshafen and Lindau by 

Comp. Maps pp. 38, 18, 20. 

Swiss North Eastern Railway. To Romanshorn in 2 hrs.; fare 
8 fr. 75, li fr. 1(1, 4 fr. 30 c. Steamboat to Friedrichshafen in 1 hr. ; 
fare 30 or 24 kr. ; to Lindau in fife hr. ; fare 1 fl. 6 kr. or 42 kr., see p. 211. 

The line crosses the Sihl, ascends in a wide curve, crosses 
the Limmat by an iron bridge, and passes between the Kafer- 
berg on the 1. and the Ziirichberg on the r. through the tunnel 
of Oerlikon (3060' in length). Between the stations of Oerlikon 
and WaUisellen it crosses the Glatt. To the S. the line to Rap- 
perschwyl diverges, see p. 41. The next stations are Effretikon 
and Kempthal. Near Winterthur the line crosses the Toss: On 
an eminence to the 1. the ruins of Hoch- Wulflingen. 

Winterthur (1473') ("Gold. Lowe; "Krone; "Ad ler, nearest the 
station, H. l'|i, B. 1 fr. ; Refreshm. at the Cafi Ritter, the Casino, and the 
Hail. Station), situated on the Eulach, is an industrial and wealthy 
town with 9404 inhab. (974 Rom. Cath.). The town displayed a de-" 
voted attachment to Austria in ancient times. Independence was ac- 
corded to it in 1417, but this distinction it voluntarily resigned in 
1442, and became once more subject to Austria. Since 1467 it 
has belonged to Zurich. The new Town Hall was designed by Prof. 
Semper. The large School (adorned with statues of Zwingli', 
Gessner, Pestalozzi, and Sulzer) (1840), on the Promenade, con- 
tains a few small Roman antiquities found near Ober-Winterthur 
( Vilodurum). Excellent wine is grown in the neighbourhood, 
the best at Neftenbach (p. 26). — The ancient castle of Kybury, 
4'/ 2 M. S. of Winterthur, commands a fine view, and contains a 
collection of ancient pictures. 

The Schaffhausen-St. Gall and Zurich-Romanshom lines inter- 
sect at Winterthur. The latter traverses the green and fertile 
canton of Thurgau. Next stat. Wiesendangen and Jslikon. 

Frauenfeld (1374 ') (*Falke), capital of the Canton of Thur- 
gau, with 5138 inhab. <1079 Rom. Cath.), on the Murg, possesses 
numerous cotton-mills. Iiarracks opposite the station. The hand- 
some old castle on its ivy-clad crag is said to have been built by 
a Count von Kyburg in the 11th cent. 

Next stat. Felwen. Near stat. Mulheim the line crosses the 
Thur by a covered wooden bridge. 

From 31 iil he im to Constance diligence once daily in 2 hrs. Near 
Waldi, at a little distance 1. of the road, is a belvedere on the Hohen- 
rain, commanding a magnificent view. 

Then stat. Mdrstetten and Weinfelden (1404') (diligence 
daily to Constance in 2 hrs.). Schloss Weinfelden (1850') rises 
on a vine-clad hill to the 1. Next stat. BiirgUn, Sulgen, Am- 
riswyl, and then Romanshorn (1322') (Hotel Bodan; Riimerhom), 
situated on a peninsula on the Lake of Constance, with a good 

ST. ({ALL. /". Route. 35 

harbour. The railway runs close to the harbour, and the trains 
correspond with the steamboats. Lake of Constance and Fried- 
richshafen, see p. 21. 

17. From Zurich to Lindau by St. Gall and Rorschach. 

Comp. Maps pp. iS, 20. 

United Swiss Railways ( Veretnigie tic/Hoeizei-bahnen) from Winter- 
ihur to .Rorschach. To Rorschach in 4 1 J2 hrs. ; fare JO fr. 65, 7 fr. oO, j fr. 
56 c. — Steamboat from Rorschach to Lindau in l 1 ^ hr. ; fare 4S or 
32 kr. , see p. 2(1. This route is about 2i|2 hrs. longer than the preced- 
ing (R. 16). 

From Zurich to Winterthur (in 1 hr.) see p. 34. The St. Gall 
railway traverses a district not remarkable for beauty, consisting 
chiefly of meadow-land, with wooded hills on either side. The 
(.'hurtirsten mountains gradually become visible to the S. , anil 
the mountains of Appenzell to the S.E. Numerous stations, the 
first of which is Rater schen , and the next Elgg , beyond which 
rises Schloss Elgg. Next stations Aadorf, Esrhlikon, and Sirnach; 
then Wyl (1936') (Schonthal, or Post), a town with several 
monasteries. The station commands a pleasing view of the Sentis 
and the neighbouring mountains. 

The line crosses the Thur , by an open-work bridge, 476' 
long, near the station and old castle of Schwarzenbach. Stat. 
Ober-L'zvyl is I1/2 M. from the hydropathic estab. of Buchenthal. 
Flawyl (2015'j (*Ri>s$li) is a large manufacturing village. The 
Watt is crossed. Stat, t.fossau, Winkeln. 

From Winkeln diligence daily by Herisau (Lowe), a small town with 
extensive muslin-manufactories and ancient clock-tower (7th cent.), to 
Wattwjl (p. 2:Jl) in the T'nggenburg, and Teuton (p. 281) in the Canton 
of Appenzell. 

The iron *Bridge (10 min. by rail, from St. Gall), which 
spans the deep valley of the Sitter near Bruggen , is 620' long, 
230' above the level of the river, and rests on 3 cast-iron piers, 
176' high (stone foundations 37' high), composed of perforated 
iron plates. Somewhat lower down the stream is the Krdzern- 
briicke, a bridge constructed in 1810, once regarded as a triumph 
of engineering skill. 

St. Gall. "Hecht, good cuisine; "Lii we, R. lMs, B. 1, I). 3, A.'| 2 fr.; 
'Hirsch; Linde; Schiff, Ochs, Bar, more moderate; refreshments 
at the Cafe" National and the Distelsang. — Tivoli, an inn and 
pension tview of the town and part of the Lake of Constance) on the road 
10 Trogen, 1 M. from St. Gall. Telegr. Slat, at the post-office. 

St. Gait (2201', one of the most elevated towns in Europe), 
capital of the canton , and (since 1846) an episcopal residence, 
with 16,676 inliab. (5957 Kom. Oath.), has sometimes been termed 
the Manchester of Switzerland, from the importance of its linen 
and cotton manufactories. The embroidery of cotton goods is 
one of its specialties. 

The Benedictine Abbey, once so celebrated, was founded in 
the 7th cent, by St. Gallus , a Scotch monk, and from the 8th 


36 Route 17. ST. (iAI.I.. From Zurich 

to the 10th cent. wa> one of tin- most important scientific semi- 
naries in Europe. It was suppressed in 1805. The Library con- 
tains many remarkable and valuable MSS. (e. g. several copies 
of the Nibelungenlied, dating from the 13th cent.")- "!' much 
interest to the literary antiquarian. There is also a catalogue 
dating from S'23 . 400 of the manuscripts mentioned in which 
are still extant. 

The Cathedral (Rom. Cath.J, rebuilt in 1755 in the Italian 
,-t\le, of which it is a fine example, has some beautiful frescoes 
on its vaulted roof. The Trot. Church of St. Lawrence, to the N. 
of the cathedral, has been restored, and partly rebuilt ( 1850 — 1854) 
in the Gothic style. 

The Town Hall bears the inscription : '/n diesem Huuse soil 
finden Schutz die Ehre Gottes und yemeiner Nutz' (The glory of 
God and the public weal shall find protection in this house). 
The Literary Museum near the Rathhaus is well supplied with 
newspapers. Schull's Cabinet of Reliefs is worthy of a visit; 
among them is a relief-map of the Sentis. 9G sq. ft. 

The most imposing building in the town is the largo Public 
Seminary (completed in 1855). at the K. extremity, on the road 
to Rorschach. One wing contains the Museum of Natural History, 
and above this the Town Library, rich in MSS of the time of 
the Reformation. The Art Union (Kunstcerein) also holds its 
sittings here. 

The Arsemd, the Deaf and Dumb and Orphan Asylums, the 
Penitentiary, Hospital, and Reformatory may also be visited by 
those whom leisure and inclination lead to <ueh institutions. 

Excursions. Trogen, Gais, Appen2ell, Weistbrul, see pp. 27S. 279. 
One-horse carr. to these places and back from St. (Sail 12 t'r., an agreeable 
day's excursion. Diligence and omnibus to Appenzell see p. 276. — 'Freuden- 
berg, Vbqlisegg, t'rulirlutegg, see p.2Sl. — The Rosenberg with the Kurzen- 
burg, a Deaf and Dumb Institution (view towards the S. \V.) and ascent 
of the ridge to the inn of 'St. Peter and <S7. 1'aul 12580'). fine view. 
Across the pastures to the Bernegg (inn); view of the Sentis. — Kurrer't 
rock-cellars at the Freudenberg. — Tirol i ; Kurzeek on the road to Vdglis- 
egg, near the convent of Xotkerseek. — Jlniggen and the handsome 'bridge 
over the Sitter I p. Hfi), by railway in 10 inin. 

Between St. Gall and Rorschach the line descends 900' in a 
distance of it M. In effecting this, great difficulties were en- 
countered. On leaving St. Gall, the train passes through a long 
rutting (on the r. the Cantonal School, on the 1. the Cantonal 
Prison, with its four wings), and enters the wild valley of the 
Steinach, the banks of which are composed of the deposit brought 
down by the river. As the line intersects this deposit, dams 
and cuttings succeed one another without intermission. The 
Lake of Constance is frequently visible almost in its entire length; 
Friedrii hshafen is a conspicuous object on its N. bank. Stat. 
St. Fiden. 

Near stat. Miirschwyl the line enters the valley of the (ioldach, 

to Linaau. RORSCHACH. 17. Route. 37 

and crosses this stream by a rive-arched stone bridge, 85' high. 
The district between this and Rorschach is very fertile. The 
station is on the >S. side of the town, 10 min. from the quay, 
with which, however, it is connected by a branch line. Those 
who arrive by the branch line are generally required to change 
carriages at the principal station (p. 282}. 

Rorschach. *Seehof, on the lake, R. 2— 3fr., B. 1, D. 3 fr. ; Hirsch, 
also a pension; Schiff; - Krone or Pos t; 'UriinerBium, R. 2, 
B. 1 fr. ; "Koch's Hotel an d Pension , on the lake; pension in all 
about 24 fr. weekly, excl. of supper. The wines of Rheinthal, SchaJ)'- 
hauseii , and Winterthur arc the best in X. Switzerland. — Telegr. Stat, at 
the harbour. — *Lake Baths on the W. side of the town, 30c. 

Rorschach, an important-looking town, with .'!492 inhab. (1017 
Prot.j, carries on a considerable commerce in grain with Swabia 
and Bavaria. On Thursdays a well-attended corn-market. The 
Bathing Estab., '/4 M. to the \V. of the town, is well fitted up; 
it consists of two houses with 40 compartments and a swimming- 
basin for men (y/ho may also swim out into the lake), and 
another house with 12 compartments for women. Bath 30 c. 
incl. towel. Railway to Coire, p. 282. 

E-x curs ions. Above Rorschach rises the ancient abbey of Marien- 
berg, with beautiful cloisters, now used as a school. The view from the 
Rorsrliarhe)' Berg, the green and fruitful hill which rises behind the town, 
embraces the entire Lake of Constance, with the Vorarlberg mountains 
and the Alps of the Orisons; its summit, the "Rossbuhel, may be reached 
in l'|4 hr. from Rorschach. The whole hill -country is intersected by 
roads, which afford a great variety of pleasant walks. The Castle of St. 
Anna, or Rorschach, after the noble family of that name became extinct 
(.1449), came into the possession of the Abbots of St. Gall. The view from 
the rooms (now tenanted by peasants) is very line. The path to it. turns 
to the r. below the JIarienberg, and, beyond the bridge, to the 1. ; then 
by the next turning to the 1., where the path divides among the 
trees, the hill is ascended. — The Jlartinstobel and Mottelischloss, with 
the help of the railway, form an agreeable excursion of 3 hrs. ; by the St. 
(jail railway to Stat. St. Fiden (see above). Below the station the tra- 
veller takes the carriage - road to Xeudorf (brewery on the 1.), and de- 
scends by the high-road to (he point where the road to Heiden diverges to 
the r. The latter descends to the Martinstobel, the gorge of the Ooldacli, 
which is spanned by a wooden bridge, llfj' long, 1U2' high, constructed in 
1408, the oldest bridge of the kind in E. Switzerland. Here at the com- 
mencement of the lUth cent, the monk Xotker composed his '■Media vita 
in morte svmus', upon seeing a man accidentally killed. Beyond tho bridge 
the road which ascends to the 1., across the debris of a landslip which 
took place in 1845, should be taken to Untereggen (Schafle),and thence the 
Golilach road descended as far as the Mdttelischloss, the chateau on a green 
eminence to the r. This was formerly the seat of the Karons of Sulzberg, 
of whom it was purchased by the opulent Mbtteli of St. (jail, and after 
passing through various vicissitudes, it has now fallen almost into a 
ruined condition. A foot-path leads direct to the castle. The view from 
the new platform on the top (gratuity) is one of the finest on the lake. 
Agreeable walk back to Rorschach through the Witholz, 1 hr. — To Tii- 
bach surrounded by fruit-trees, and the Castle of Steinach about 1 hr. — 
"Wituaehter Eck , Heiden, see p. 277, Rheineck, Thai, Weinburg (castle of 
the Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), the 'Steinerne Tilth (stone table), 
see p. 283. — To the Meldegg, a rocky prominence at the angle of the 
Rhine valley, commanding a charming view of the valley and the lake. 
The route is by a good road via Rheinerk and Walrfiihoiisrn to (9 31.) the 

38 Route 18. LINDATJ. 

mrmastery of Qrimininstein , whence the Meldegg is reached by a footpath 
to the 1. in >U hr. "Inn on the top open in summer only. This point 
may also be. reached from St. JIargarethen (p. 283) in 1 hr. 

' At Horn (l'la M. N. W., on the road by the lake), there is an extensive 
Pension and Bath-estab. , on the bank of the lake, R. 1 to 6 fr., B. 85 c, 
D. inc. W. 2'|2 fr., A. 40, whey 70, cold bath 45 c. including towels, warm 
or shower bath 70 c, Pension 25 fr. per week. Visitors are also received 
at the chateau, to the 1. on the road, a few paces from the Baths. The 
Mlb-physician is Dr. Toblcr, a well known Oriental traveller. There are 
unfortunately no shady walks in the vicinity. 

To Lindau by water (IV4 hr., fare 48 or 42 kr.), comp p. 20. 
To the 8.E. Bregenz (p. 351) is visible, situated at the foot of 
picturesque mountains. On entering the harbour of Lindau, the 
steamboat passes a lighthouse on the N. , and a stone lion on 
the 8. jetty. Monument of King Max, see below. 

Lindau (*Bayrischer Hof, near the station and the steamboat 
pier, R. 48, B. 28 kr., D. 1 fl. 12, A. 24 kr. ; *Krone; Deut- 
sches Haus, at the harbour; Sonne; Railway Restaurant; lake- 
baths , 8 kr. ), terminus of the Bavarian South-Western Railway 
(express to Augsburg 5'/ 2 > to Munich 7 hrs.), formerly an im- 
perial town and fortress, and during the middle ages remarkable for 
its trade, is situated on an island in the Lake of Constance, and 
connected with the mainland by the new railway-embankment, 
and a wooden bridge, 1066' long. Lindau is said to have been 
the site of an ancient Roman fort, of which the venerable tower 
near the bridge probably formed a part. Monument to King 
Max II. fd. 1864) at the harbour. Those interested in horti- 
culture should visit the Lindenhof; admittance gratis on Tuesdays 
and Fridays , on other days by cards (30 kr.) procured at the hotels. 
If the visitor's stay is short, he should walk to the mainland over 
the railway embankment, turn to the r. along the bank, and return 
to Lindau by the wooden brTdge ; this may be done in r / 2 hr. From 
the Heuerberg (3/ 4 hr.) a beautiful view of the town , the lake, 
and the Alps is obtained (evening light most favourable). 

18. From Zurich to Coire. Lakes of Zurich and 

Comp. also Map p. 216. 

Rli|4 31. Kin i 1 w a y ( United Swiss) by Wallisellen, Rapperschwyl, Wesen, 
arid Sargans. 5»/ 4 , 6, or 7 hrs. ; fares 14 fr. 70, 8 fr. 80 c. 6 fr. Comp. Intro- 
duction X. The railway does not approach the lake of Zurich till Rapper- 
schwyl is reached. It is, therefore, far preferable to take the 

Steamboat to Rapperschwyl in 2>|2hrs., fare 1 fr. 90, or 1 fr. 20c; 
or to Schmeriketi, at the upper extremity of the lake, in 3'|< hrs., fare 
2 fr. 65 c. or 2 fr. Return-tickets, available for the day of issue, at one 
fare and a half; landing and embarking in small boats without addi- 
tional charge. — Railway-stations both at Rapperschwyl and Schmerikon. 

The Lake of Zurich (1341'), 25»/ 2 M. long, and 21/2 M. 
broad at its widest part (between StSfa and RichteTswyl), is fed 
by the Linth and drained by the Limmat. Its scenery , though 
with slight pretensions to grandeur, is scarcely equalled in beauty 

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HORGEN. Iti. Route. 39 

by any other lake. The banks rise in gentle slopes, at the base 
of which are meadows and arable land ; above these is, a holt 
of vineyards and orchards, and on the E. side forests crown the 
summits of the hills , here about 2700' high. The two banks 
ot the lake are sometimes not unaptly termed the suburbs of 
the town of Zurich, so thickly are they sprinkled for a long 
distance with houses, villages, and large manufactories. In the 
background the snow-clad Alps (see p. '28 ) bound the landscape, 
adding to its pastoral loveliness a little of their imposing majesty. 

The Steamboat, soon after starting, pusses (on the l.)\Ve«- 
miinrter (1453'), a suburb of Zurich, with its picturesque church 
on the hill. It now directs its course towards the W. hank, to 
Bandlikon (except for the two routes along the E. bank"), in the 
parish of Kilchbertj , which stands above it , on the hills which 
bound the bank. On the r. is WoUishofen, on the 1. Zollikon 
(p. 31), on the hill, with its pointed steeple. The boat now 
steams along the 8. bank; above Riischlikon the white buildings 
of Mdelbad (beautiful view); opposite, on the v. bank, Kilsnacht 
|*8onno), not to be confounded with the village of that name 
on the Lake of Lucerne (p. 4S). The next place on the N. 
bank is Erlenbaeh; on the 8., Thalwyl (Krone, on the lake; 
*Adler), charmingly situated. Beautiful *view of the lake from 
the neighbourhood of the church, or still better from the gallery 
of the tower; one of the most delightful of the short excursions 
from Zurich. Between Thalwyl and Hertiiberg, the next village 
on the N. bank, is the deepest part of the lake (476'). Ober- 
rieden is the next place on the S. bank; the boat then stops at 

Horgen (1394') (*Meierhof, on the lake, pleasant garden, 
\i. 1 '/._!, B. 1, L. and A. I fr. , Pension 5—6 fr. ; Srhu-an; 
JJiice; Pension Krtiuas), visible from Zurich, and presenting all 
the appearance of a town. Most of its handsome and substan- 
tially built houses belong to the proprietors of the silk manu- 
factories. Pop. 5199 (3'2l Rom. Cath.). The boats which ply on 
the N. and 8. banks of the lake meet at this place, which is 
convenient for those who wish to change the direction of their 
journey. Few travellers make any stay here, although the little 
town well deserves a visit, but almost all who proceed to the 
Rigi or to Lucerne by the lake-route (see R. 19) pass this way. 
Pleasant, walk to the Sanitary estab. of Bokken (pension 5 Jr.), 
commanding a fine view, and to the Zimmerberg (p. 46). 

The picturesque and wooded peninsula of Au projects into 
the lake on the 8. bank (*Leuthold's Hotel, 150 ft. above the 
lake, pleasant view of the lake and E. Alps, pension 5 fr.). 
Opposite, on the N. bank, is the considerable village of Meilen 
(Loire; Sonne); next Obermeilen; then Uetikon and Miinnedorf. 
Behind these rises the Pfunnenstiel ('2418'). Far to the E., in 
the background, rises the Speer (p. 43), to the r. the mountains 

40 Route 18. RAPPKIWmVTT From Z Uriel, 

of Glarus ; 1. of the Speer is the Sends (p. 28'2), and more to 
the N. the mountains of Toggonburg; to the r.. above the lake, 
the forest-clad Hohe Rhonen. The next places on the S. bank 
are the handsome villages of 

Wadenswyl (1(504') (*Enyet, opp. the steamboat pier; dili- 
gence to Zug daily), the largest on the lake (6049 inhab.J, and 
Bichterswyl (Drei Kijnige or Post; *Engel) (3557 inhab. ), where 
the pilgrims to Einsiedeln (9 M., see K. 74) disembark. 

'■'E x curs ion: to the sanitary estab. (l'J4 hr.) Hiitlen, commanding a 
line view to the X. as far as the Jura, Vosges, and Black Forest; thence 
to the summit of the (l 1 ]--' hr.) tlottschallenberff, The W. prolongation c.t' 
the Hohe Rhonen (see abovcj, which affords a line survej i>f the Alps ; at 
the S. base of the mountain lies the pretty Egcri-Sec tp. 3U2). It will 
repay the traveller to make this excursion even from Ziirich. In returning 
he should follow the ridge of the Gotlschallcnberg as far as ('; 2 hr.) 
Mangel), and proceed by the monastery of (lubel to ('lain 1 .) Menzingeu; then 
across the Hihl (p. 46) to (7>|-2 M.J Horgtn, and back to Zurich liy steamer. 

The boat now steers X. to Stafa on the opposite bank; this 
is the widest part of the lake; beautiful retrospect of Waden — 
wyl and liichterswyl. Stafa (Sonne; Loire) is the largest village 
on the r. bank (3830 inhab.), and is noted for the active part 
which it takes in all national movements. 

From Stafa the boat steers along the N. bank, passing 
Verikon and Schirmensee. Before reaching Rapperschwyl , the 
small flat islands of Liltzelau and L'fnau become visible to the r., 
in front of the wooded heights of the Etzel (p. '290). The 
latter island belongs to the convent of Kinsiedeln , and is the 
site of a farmhouse, and also of a church and chapel, consecrated 
in 1L41. JJlrich von Hutten, one of the most violent of all the 
early reformers, and one of the boldest and most free-spirited 
men of his time , sought refuge here when pursued by the In- 
quisition in 15'23, but died only 15 days after his arrival, at the 
age of 36. His remains rest in the little churchyard , but the 
exact spot is unknown. 

Rapperschwyl (*Schiran, on the lake; Poste, on the lake, 
with restaurant, R. 1— '2. D. '21/.,,, B. 1, A. i/ 2 fr. ; * Vreihof, in 
the town ; Hotel du Lac) is a town with '2574 inhab. (S4S Prot.J, 
in a picturesque situation, whose beauty is enhanced by the old 
castle and church (sacred vessels worthy of inspection), and the 
Capuchin convent, between which rises an eminence, shaded by 
lime-trees and commanding beautiful views. 

On a terrace near Rapperschwyl rises a Monument erected in 1858 by 
exiled Poles, to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the commence- 
ment of their struggle for independence. The monument, designed by 
Prof. Stadler of Zurich, consists of a black marble column resting on a granite 
pedestal, with an appropriate inscription. Picturesque view of th? lake. — 
The old castle (see above), restored by Count Plater in 1871 . contains the 
Polish National-Museum, an interesting collection of antiquities, mints, auto- 
graphs etc. relative to Poland-, adm. free. 

The Bridge, connecting the two banks of the lake, which has 
for some time been visible from the steamboat. \va« tir-t erected 

to Coke. LACHEN. IS. Route. 41 

in 1350, and rebuilt in 1819. It is 13' wide, 4790' long, and 
supported by 180 pillars of oak. It has no kind of parapet. 
One-third of the way across the bridge is a bath-house. (From 
Rapperschwyl to the summit of the Etzel 7 1 /., M.. thence to 
Einsiedeln 4y. 2 M., see R. 74.) 

The scenery of the upper part of the lake is less animated, 
but far more imposing than that of the lower. The mountains 
of St. Gall, Glarus, and Schwyz form the background. The boat 
passes through the bridge, and then steers in a S. direction to 
Altendorf, on the 1. bank, in the canton of Schwyz. It then 
follows the S. bank, stops at the handsome village of Lachen, 
{Bar; Ochse), then at the small Baths of Nuolen. The steamer 
then directs its course to Schmerikon (*Rossli; Seehof; Adler) 
on the N. bank , at the upper extremity of the lake , not far 
from the marshy influx of the Linth Canal (p. 43). Railway to 
Wesen (Glarus) and Coire see p. 43. 

F mm Lachen t o Urns by the picturesque Waggithal, a charming 
excursion (to Kichisau S^o hrs., thence to Glarus 4 hrs.). The high-road 
is followed to Galgenen and Siebnen (5 31.), at the entrance to the valley, 
in which a carriage-road ascends to Yordrr-Wtiggiihal (-i 1 ,^ 31.) at the base 
of the Grouse Auberg (5584'). and Hinter-Waggilhal (4 31.), beyond which 
( 3 f4 31.) is a new inn and bath-estab. Hence to the Kldnthal a guide 
should he taken. From the bridge the path ascends to the r. to (21/2 hrs.) 
the culminating point of the Karrenegg (5151'), the pass between the 
Waggithal and Klonthal. Several chalets are then passed, and the whey- 
cure establishment of Richisau becomes visible far below. The path 
now descends the mountain-slope to the r. From Hichisau to Glarus see 
pp. 304, 305. 

The Railway Route from Zurich to Rapperschwyl is less at- 
tractive than that by steamboat , but thence to Coire it passes 
through most beautiful scenery. From Zurich to Wallisellen 
see p. 34. Here the Coire railway diverges to the S.E. from 
the line to Winterthur &c. ; travellers from Ziirich, however, do 
not change carriages at Wallisellen. All the trains convey goods 
as well as passengers, and long delays often take place at Rap- 
perschwyl, Wesen, and Sargans, while the trucks are being loaded 
or unloaded. The refreshment-rooms at the stations are gener- 
ally indifferent. On leaving Wallisellen the line traverses a 
flat district, not far from the r. bank of the Glatt , which flows 
from the Oreifensee (3 3 /4 M. long, 1 M. wide, not visible from 
the line). Stat. Dubendorf, Schwerzenbach, and Ndnikon. Then 
stat. Utter; on the r. is the church with its pointed tower, and 
the ancient castle which serves as court of justice, jail, and inn; 
the tower affords a survey of the lake of Greifen, and a prospect 
of the Alps. In the vicinity of Uster are several large cotton- 
mills, driven by the Aa, a brook near the railway. Next stat. 
Aathal; the neighbouring Lake of Pfaffikon (1778') is not vis- 
ible from the railway; the Alps of Glarus and Schwyz remain 

42 Route 18. UZNACH. From Zurich 

almost constantly in sight in the background to the S. Between 
stat. Wetzikon (diligence to Hinwyl at the N.W. foot of the 
Bachtel, see below, twice daily in 1 / 2 hr. , fare 45 c.) and Bu- 
bikon the line attains its highest level, and then makes a rapid 
descent. To the 1. the Bachtel, with the inn upon its summit. 
Next stat. Rtiti. 

The Bachtel (3671') (Inn, tolerable), a hill to tin- N.E. of Riiti, commands 
a pleasing view to the N.W. over the district of Uster sprinkled with manu- 
factories, the Lakes of Oeifen and Pfaffikon, N.W. the Lake of Zurich 
from Wadenswyl to the Linth Canal, the valley of the Linth as far as the 
bridge of Mollis, and the Alps from the Sentis to the Bernese Oberland. 
Consult Keller's Panorama, to be seen at the inn. Diligence twice a day 
in 1 hr. from Riiti to Wald, at the S.E. foot of the Bachtel, whence the 
summit may be easily attained in l'|2 hr. 

As the picturesque village of Jonen (which adjoins Rapper- 
schwyl) is approached, an extensive view to the 1. of the Alps 
of Schwyz, with the Miirtschenstock, Schanisberg, Speer, and 
finally the Sentis, unfolds itself. 

Bapperschwyl , see p. 40. The stat. on the lake near the 
long bridge and steamboat-pier, is a terminus, from which the 
train backs out on its departure ; as far as Wesen a seat on the 
r. should be selected. The line crosses the Jonen-Fluss, passes 
the convent of Wurmspach on the r. , and approaches the bank 
of the Lake of Zurich before reaching stat. Bollingen. Extensive 
quarries of sandstone near the lake. Opposite, on the r. , are 
the mountains of Schwyz, on the lake the Baths of Nuolen and 
Lachen (see p. 41). The Miirtschenstock towers above the wooded 
heights near the lake (Untere Buchberg, see below), and on 
the r. are the Frohnalpstock and the Schild , near Glarus. As 
far as Schmerikon (p. 41, stat. near the lake) the line runs 
close by the lake , and on reaching its upper extremity enters 
the wide valley through which the Linth Canal flows. To the r., 
on a spur of the Vntere Buchberg (2001 '), round which the 
canal winds , stands the ancient castle of Orynau , a frowning 
square tower, situated in the canton of Schwyz. Next stat. 
Uznach (1378') (Falke) is a manufacturing village , situated to 
the 1. on an eminence, surmounted by the church. (Diligence 
to Brunnen, to Wattwyl, etc.) L. on the height the monastery 
of Sion. The two villages of Kultbrunn on the 1. and Benken on 
the r. have the next station in common. The range of wooded 
hills , skirted by the railroad and the Linth Canal , is the 
Obere Buchberg (20210. Near stat. Schanis (1450') (*Gmtir), a 
manufacturing village, the ancient frontier of RhaHia, some sharp 
skirmishes took place between the French and the Austrians in 
1799. The line now approaches the Linth Canal; the railway, 
the canal, and the high road run side by side at the foot of the 
Schaniser Berg; to the r. a beautiful view of the Valley of Gla- 
rus with its snow mountains. 

The Linth Canal. The Linth descends from I lie valley of Olarus, 

to Coire. WE SEN. 18. Route. 43 

often with such violence as to carry fragments of rock and deposit of all 
kinds along with it. In process of time this deposit so completely filled 
the bed of the river, that the entire plain between the lakes of Wallen- 
stadt and Zurich was inundated, and this district, formerly rich and pro- 
ductive, was converted into a dismal swamp, from which the inhabitants 
were at length driven by malaria to seek a more wholesome and congenial 
abode. In 1807, through the influence of Conrad Escher, an inhabitant of 
Zurich, a decree of the Diet enacted that the lower part of the Lintli 
should be converted into a canal , and its course directed into the Lake 
of Wallenstadt, and that a new canal (the Etcher Canal), should be con- 
structed to drain the latter lake into the Lake of Zurich ; or rather that 
the Maag, an outlet of the Lake of Wallenstadt, which formerly flowed into 
the Linth, should also be converted into a canal. Under Escher\s direction 
the works were commenced in the same vear, but not completed until 
1822. The total cost was 1,500,000 fi\, but the proposed object has be< n 
perfectly attained; the land is once more fruitful, and supports a con- 
siderable population. The Government conferred on Earner and his de- 
scendants the title of Esther von der Linth (p. 30). 

Opposite, on the 1. bank of the Linth Canal, is the Colony of 
the Linth, formerly a community of poor people from the canton 
of Giants, who, previously to the construction of the canal, were 
engaged in keeping the bed of the river clear. Reyond stat. 
Ziei/elbriicke the train passes through a short tunnel. On the 
rocks through which this tunnel is cut. an inscription ("not vis- 
ible from the train") in honour of Esrhei' has been engraved 
(see above"). A fine view of the "Wiggis and the (ilarnisch 
(p. 304) to the r. The railway, the Linth Canal, and the high 
road all wind round the Biberlikopf ( 18%') . the extreme spur 
of the Sehiini-er Berg, which commands a fine view of the whole 
Lake of Wallenstadt and the Linth Canal as far as Nettstall up- 
wards , and the lUiehberg downwards. The stat. (Refreshment- 
room) of Wesen (passengers for Mollis and Olarus change car- 
riages, R. 72) is at some distance from the village and the Lake 
of Wallenstadt. 

Wesen (*Zum Speer, commanding a fine view; *Sclnrert ; 
others of humbler pretension in the village, and near the banks 
of the lake), lies in a sheltered situation at the W. extremity of 
the Lake of Wallenstadt, and by the luxuriance of its vegetation 
recals the S. valleys of the Alps. 

The "Speer (6417') is usually ascended from Wesen la rough walk of 
4 hrs.). A chalet (refreshm.) is reached in 2 a U hrs., a second '| 2 lir. farther. 
The view is magnificent, especially towards the E. and KE. From the 
Speer in 2>| 2 hrs. to Xesslau (p. 291), and thence by Amman (see below) to 
fitein in the Toggenhurg (6 hrs.), with a succession of beautiful views. 

The Lake of Wallenstadt (or Wallensee) (1397'). 12 M. long, 
3 M. wide, and 400 — 500' deep, is scarcely inferior to the Lake 
of Lucerne in mountainous grandeur. The N. bank is composed 
of almost perpendicular barren crags and precipices from 2000 
to 3000' high; on the N.E. the bare peaks of the Sleben Chur- 
firsten (Leistkamm 6890', Selun 7241', Frumsel 7434', Brisi 7477', 
Zustoll 7336', Scheibenstoll 7588', Hinterruck 7523'), tower above 
the water. The Boyerbach, 1300', the Serenbarh, 1650' (1600' 

44 Route 18. \UT«<). From Zurich 

above which lies the village of Amman ami Amden), and other 
cataracts precipitate themselves over the cliffs. These, however, 
generally dry up towards the end of summer. One solitary village, 
Quinten, has found a nook for itself on the N. bank. 

On the S. bank (of which the line unfortunately affords no 
general view) the rocks are so precipitous, as to render nine 
tunnels necessary. A tolerable footpath runs along this bank of 
the lake, occasionally parallel with the railway, the first portion 
of which (to Miihlethal, before reaching stat. Miihlehorn, see be- 
low) is the worst. At the mouth of several of the little torrents 
which descend from the Miirtschenstoek (^Oi'2'), small hamlets 
have established themselves (see below"). On the Miirtschenstoek 
and on the borders of the lake of Murg the 'Alpine cedar' (pinu* 
rembrn, a rare description of fir) is sometimes met with. — ■ The 
names of the hamlets Prim.irh (prima), (runs (seeunda), Terzen 
('2172'), Quarten (1^1 7'), and the above-mentioned Quinten , as 
well as the designation of the whole district, Gaster (Cii.ilr<i 
llhiietirii), recal the ancient cantonments of the cohorts of a 
Koman legion. 

After leaving stat. Wesen the train crosses the Linth Canal 
by an iron bridge. The line to Glarus diverges to the r. , see 
R. 7'2. The Coire line traverses the broad plain, crosses the 
Escher Canal (p. 43) near its issue from the Lake of Wallen- 
stadt, and then enters a tunnel with apertures in the 1. side, 
towards the lake. As the train emerges from this tunnel, the 
Bayerbach waterfall is seen on the opposite bank of the lake, 
and the village of Ammon on the height above. Beyond it are 
the falls of the Serenbach, which after rain have a considerable 
volume. Four more tunnels now follow in rapid succession (the 
first of these is also pierced with apertures on the lake side); 
in the intervals, magnificent views of the lake, the waterfalls, 
and the mountains on the 1. 

Stat. Miihlehorn \Tellsplatte; Seegarten, pleasant excursion by 
boat ( 'i fr.) across the lake to the waterfalls (see above) und thence 
to Wesen]. To the r. above the valley, the Miirtschenstoek is visible. 

From Miihlehorn to Mollis, an interesting walk of 3 hrs. ; good 
road over the Keremer Berg, by (1 hr.) Obslaldeti (2234') ("Hirsch, Stern), 
nearly the highest point of the route. The view embraces the entire Lake 
of Wallenstadt , the mountains of the Seezthal, the valley of the Linth 
(Janal as far as the Lake of Zurich, bounded on the 1. by the Hirzli (5387'), 
and the valleys of Clarus. with the Wiggis and Glarnisch. From the height 
near Mollis a jrlimpse of the snowfields of the Todi. Mollis, see p. 292. 

After two more tunnels, stat. Murg (Riissli; Schiffli), on the 
lake, at the mouth of the valley of the Murg, is reached. The 
best view of the lake is obtained hence ; those who desire to 
spend some hours on its banks, are recommended to alight here. 

The Murgthal and the three Mtirgseen Ci'l? hrs. from Murg) are well 
worthy of a visit. The path up the valley alfnrds a succession of fine 
views. Picturesque waterfall where the brook issues from the second lake. 
Instead of returning to Ming, the pedestrian may prefer to cross the 

to Voire. WALLENSTADT. 18. Route. 45 

Muryalp and descend ti > Eiiai or Mall in the Scrnfthal (p. 305 1. 6—7 hrs. 
walk from Murg. 

Beyond Murg another tunnel. Opposite, to the 1., tower the 
highest peaks of the Churiirsten (p. 43). Station L'nterterzen ; 
the village to the r. among the meadows , with the red-rapped 
tower, is Quarten. Then another tunnel. The E. end of the lake 
is now reached, and the bottom of the level valley crossed by a 
bridge over the Seez. 

Wallenstadt (1394') C'Adler, on the lake, K. ]i |2 . B. 1, 
pension 5 fr. : II i r s c h , in the town ;Zum Cliurfirsten, at the station), 
a small town near the E. bank of the lake. Looking back on 
the ]. side, a view of the entire lake to its W. extremity near 
Wesen, as well as of the horns of the Murtschenstock above the 
mountains on its 8. bank, is obtained. 

-Excursion (with guide) from Wallenstadt in 2 hrs. by a rugged 
path through wood to the Alp LSses, thence nearly level to Alp Bills and 
( :i ji hr.) Tsc/iinr/elalji (milk); then past the slopes of the Churiirsten to 
(1 hr.) Alp Rcfirieiuii, and back in li| 2 hr. to Wallenstadt. 

From Wallenstadt to Wild ha us in the Toggenburg (6 hrs., 
p. 291) a footpath with beautiful views traverses the Iliiiternick (p. 43), 
suitable, however, only for persons with steady heads, attended by a guide. 

The line now intersects the beautiful valley of the Seez; on 
the r., on a projecting crag, stand the ruins of Oraplang (Grappa 
lonya), or Lan yen stein, hereditary castle of the Tschudi of Gla- 
rus; opposite, to the 1. above Barschis , on a height near stat. 
Flums, is the Church of St. Oeorgen (1778'), to which pilgrim- 
ages are made. Near stat. Mels (*Krone) the See/, flows out 
of the Weisstannen-7'hal, which here opens towards the S.W. 

From Mels through the W ei s s t an n e n - T hal and the Kal- 
t'euser-Thal to Vattis. In 3 hrs. to Wrisslaiinen (3271') (Gamsli). 
Hence through the valley which diverges towards the S., by the chalets of 
the Alp Unler Lavtina (4289') and the Alp Val Tilscli in 4 hrs. to the highest 
point of the pass, whence a fine view of the huge Sardona glacier, the 
Trinserhom, the Ringelkopf, etc. is obtained. From this to the Tamina 
bridge, near St. Martin (4433'), in 2 hrs., and thence to Vattis in 2 hrs. 
more. A guide is necessary for the passage from the Weisstannen to the 

At stat. Sargans (Hotel Thoma, R. 1 — 2, I.). '27.2 fr. ; Rbssli 
and Lowe in the town) the line reaches the valley of the Rhine, 
and the line from Rorschach to Coire. The station is at a con- 
siderable distance from the town; carriages sometimes changed 
here. This little town, rebuilt since 1811 when it was destroyed 
by fire, is picturesquely situated on an eminence (1591') at the 
mouth of the valley between the basins of the Rhine and the 
Lake of Wallenstadt, with a castle frowning above it. 

The Course of the Rhine may jtossibly one day change, and ilow 
towards the W through the Lakes of Wallenstadt and Zurich. An em- 
bankment 20' high and scarcely 200 paces wide, confines it to its present 
X. direction, but its bed is rising every year and the neighbouring district is 
being gradually converted into a vast swamp. Historians, on the authority 
of certain old documents, and geologists, arguing from the similarity of 
the deposits in the valleys of the Seez and the Ehine, are of opinion that 
the latter river, or at least an arm of it, formerly flowed into the Lake of 
Wallenstadt. It must, however, be added that even the disastrous inun- 

46 Route I!). SIHLBRUCKE. 

dation of 1868 appears to have caused no apprehensions of jllie possibility 
of the Rhine breaking through the embankment. 

Railway from Sar^ans to Coire by Ragatz see R. 68. 

19. From Zurich to the Rigi and Lucerne by Horgen, 
Zug, Immensee, and Kiisnacht. Lake of Zug. 

Comp. Maps pp. US, 66. 
From Zurich to Zug and Lucerne by Railway see R. It. 

Steamboat from Zurich to Horgen in l'|jhr.; Post-omnibus from 
Horgen to Zug in '2 l \\ hrs. ; Steamboat from Zug to Immensee in 40 m., 
to Arth in 1>(« hr.; Pos t-omnibus from Immensee to Kiisnacht in 20 min. ; 
Steamboat from Kiisnacht to Lucerne in 3 \t hr. — Fare 1st cl. from 
Zurich to Arth 5 fr. 20 c. , from Zurich to Lucerne G fr. 00 c. No 2nd cl. 
through-tickets issued. 

The boat arriving at Lucerne at 11. 35 corresponds with the depar- 
tures for Interlakcn by Alpnach-Gestad and Brienz (Interlaken, arr. 8. p. m.); 
and the traveller leaving Interlaken at 6 a. m. arrives in time for the boat 
which leaves Lucerne at 2 p. in. ; see K. 25. — This is the most interest- 
ing route between Zurich and Lucerne, although less expeditious than the 
railway (K. 14). ' 

The traveller bound for the Rigi should avail himself of the first 
steamboat from Zurich. The second is generally crowded, and moreover 
arrives so late that the ascent of the mountain is divested of much of its 
enjoyment. Breakfast may be taken on board, or at the Meyerhof at Hor- 
gen, where refreshments are provided. In the height of the season, it 
may be well to telegraph from Horgen (50 c.) for a room at the hotel on 
the Kulm. At Arth (10. 40 a. m.) a substantial meal can be leisurely enjoyed, 
and the journey continued (at a pace, if the traveller is prudent, of not 
more than 60 steps her minute), whilst halts may be made at discretion 
at the different inns on the route (Untcres Dachli, Oberes Dachli, Klosterli, 
Staffel). By these means the ascent of the Rigi is rendered a most de- 
lightful walk , and attended by no immoderate fatigue (railway see p. 56). 

Luggage forwarded poste-restante for the journey to the St. Gott- 
hard, should be addressed to the principal office at Altorf, and not to 

As far as Horgen (1394') (one-horse carriage to Zug 10, 
with 2 horses 16 , with 3 horses 21 fr.), see p. 39. The road 
ascends the mountain, and at the direction-post (3'/9 M.) joins 
the Toad from Wadenswyl. Several fine views are obtained of the 
lake, the (5611118, the Speer, the Churfirsten, and the S.E. chain 
of the Alps. At the summit (2 M.) near Hirzel, is the inn 
Zum Morgenthal (2244'). The road then gradually descends 
into the valley of the Sihl, which separates the Cantons of Zurich 
and Zug. The Sihlbrucke (1774') (2 M.), a handsome covered 
bridge , has replaced one destroyed in 1847 , during the war of 
the Separate League. On this side of the bridge (r. bank) is 
the *Krone Inn (Winterthur wine good). 

Pedestrians should choose the old road by the Horger Egg (2198') (the 
commencement of which is not easily found; enquiry should be made 
at Horgen) which shortens the way by 1>[2 M., and affords far more beau- 
tiful views. Near Wydenbach , a little way from the road , to the r. on 
the Zimmerberg (2536 ft.), a magnificent coup d'ceil is obtained of the lake 
of Zurich, the sombre valley of the Sihl, the Lake of Zug, and the Alps; 
the Jlythen, the Rigi, and Pilatus are especially conspicuous. Near the 
Sihlbrucke the old road rejoins the new. 

The road next traverses a fertile plain, and crosses (2'/.j M.) 

'/.I'M. 19. Route. 47 

the Lorze. On its banks (to the 1.) is an extensive cotton-manu- 
factory with its colony of workmen. The Rigi and Pilatus now 
show themselves in all their grandeur. At (1 M. | Baar (14f>o') 
(*Lindenhof; Hirseh), where there is an extensive spinning mill, 
a ghastly custom, not unknown in other parts of Switzerland, 
prevails. The skulls of the deceased are piled up symmetrically 
in the charnel-house, to which, on the occasional opening of a 
tomb, they are religiously conveyed by the surviving relatives. 
Zug is about 2 L /4 M. farther. 

1 "2 i/o - Vl - Zu g (1384') ("llirsch. 11. 2., \,. i| 2 , B. 0\„, A ^ fr. ; 
Bel lev ue; Ochs; Krone; ' Lo we on the lake, R. 2, K. i, L. and A. 1 fr. ; 
/ u in Bahnh o f , near the station). The traveller, as soon as he alights here, 
is generally assailed by a crowd of touters and guides, from whose impor- 
tunities it is hoped the Handbook will enable him speedily to extricate himself. 

Zug is the capital of the smallest Swiss Canton ; it contains 
("i churches, 6 chapels, and 42 < ~t inhab. ('250 Prot.J. The Churcli 
of the Capuchins possesses an Entombment by Fiamingo. The 
Arsenal contains ancient arms taken by the Swiss, and the stan- 
dard stained with the blood of its bearer Pierre Collin, who was 
killed iir 1422 at the battle of Arbedo (p. 83). At the S. ex- 
tremity of the town is the Hospital, erected in 1854. — ■ Dili- 
gence from Zug, by Eyeri, to Sattel on the Schwyz and Ein- 
siedeln road (p. 302), in 2 3 /4 hrs., fare '2 Jr. ; to Arth in 1 hr. 
'20 min., fare 1 fr. 80 c. 

On the W. slope of the Zuger Jlerg, 4 1 )-.. )[. from Zug are the sani- 
tary estab. of ' Felsenegg Ci'22'2') and :: HcliaufrH , recommended as resting- 
places (pension 4 — G fr.) , both of which may be reached by carriage, 
and afford a magnilicent view towards the \V. From the Hochwacht, 
2'Jo' higher, which forms| the summit of the Zuger Berg, a prospect 
towards the E. is also obtained, embracing the Lake of Egeri and Mor- 
garten (p. 301). 

The Lake of Zug (1368'), 9 M. long, 3 .M. wide, and 1300' 
deep, is very picturesque ; its banks, richly wooded, rise gently 
to a moderate height; to the S. alone is seen, rising precipitously 
above the azure waters of the lake, the Rigi, here visible from 
base to summit. The broader N. end of the lake is skirted by 
the railway from Zug to Lucerne (p. 32). 

Soon after the departure of the steamer from Zug, Pilatus 
appears on the S.W., and then to the S.E. the Ross-Stock and 
the Frohnalp. On the E. bank are the villages of Oberweil, 
Ottersweil , and Eietenegg; to the N.V. the steeple of Cham 
(p. 33) glitters across the plain. The boat sometimes halts at a 
saw-mill on the E. bank; it then directs its course to the other 
side, passing an elevated wooded peninsula which projects boldly 
into the lake on the western side , to Immensee ("Hotel Rigi, 
R. I '/•->, I'. 1, Pension 3'/-> to 5 fr. ), beautifully situated at the 
extreme N. base of the Rigi. Travellers to Lucerne disembark 
here, see below. Ascent of the Rigi, see p. 62. 

The steamer passes the distant villages of Walr.hwyl and 
St. Adrian on the E. bank, above which rises the Rossbery 

IS Haute I'.l. KlSNAtTIT 

(son p. 54 |, whose slopes are cm-ore. I on this side with forests 
and chalets. As Arth is approached, one of the summits of the 
Mythcn, near Schwv/. (p. 55). is visible behind the Rossberg. 

Arth ( 13(14') <*Adler; Hotel du lti</i; Schlussel) is situated 
at the S. extremity of the lake, between the Kigi and the Ross- 
berg, but not exposed to the land-slips of the latter, the strata 
of which cause them to take another direction. The Church, 
erected ill K>77, possesses a silver cup and goblet captured at 
the battle of Grandson in 147li (p. 174). The churchyard resem- 
bles that at Baar (p. 47). 

Pedestrians are recommended In ascend Hie Bigi from Arth (p. 59) ; 
those who prefer the route from ftoldau (p. 61). should proceed thither 
liv the omnibus which is in attendance at the steamboat pier (20 min., 
tare 30 c.l. These two paths unite near the -I'mcres Dacliir (p. 59). From 
Arth to Coldau. see p. 54. Diligence from Artli to Brunnen by ticlttciiz 
twice daily, on the arrival of the steamer, in 2 hrs. : fare 2 fr. 40 c, see 
p. 54. This conveyance corresponds with the boat for Fliielen, and at 
Fliielen with the diligence which crosses the St. Oottliard (K. 23). 

Travellers to Lucerne And at Immensee (see above) an 
omnibus ready to start for Kiisnacht ('20 min.) on the arrival of 
the steamboat. The road ascends gradually on leaving Immen- 
see ; on reaching the highest ground, near the Inn Zur Eiche, a 
road to the 1. diverges to Arth. In the descent, at the opening 
of the 'Hohle Gasse' or 'chemin creux' (see Schiller's Tell), 
1 M. from Immensee, and 1 1/ 2 M. from Kiisnacht, stands Tell's 
Chapel (1482'), ornamented with frescoes representing the death 
of Gessler, with a satirical inscription. (The broad path opposite 
leads to the Rigi. see p. 61.) 

The 'Hohle Gasse' (hollow lane) has been gradually tilled 
up by the construction of the new road , but in portions where 
the overhanging trees form a leafy roof, its appellation is not 
inappropriate. Uessler's Bury was destroyed in 1308; all that 
remains of it is a fragment of wall on a wooded hill in the 
neighbourhood, 3/ 4 M. from Kiisnacht. 

Kiisnacht ('1433') (*Seehaf, R. It/.,. I), n, b. lf r . ; *Schicarzer 
Adler), situated at the N. extremity of the great X.K. arm of 
the lake of Lucerne, is also at the foot of the Rigi (ascent hence 
in 3'/ 2 nrs ' P- 61). (iuides and horses, see p. 57. 

The Steamboat, on leaving Kiisnacht, skirts the beauti- 
ful, wooded of the Rigi, and passes Greppen (1450', whence 
a new path ascends the Rigi, see p. (12). It then turns to the 
r. to the village of 

Meggen (^Pension Gottlieben, beautifully situated I/., M. from 

the lake, suitable for a prolonged stay, pension 5 (i'fr carr. 

to Lucerne 3 fr.). Opposite the traveller rise the frowning peaks 
of Pilatus. To the I. the snowy I rner and Kngelberger Alps 
(comp. p. i)(l) soon appear. farther on. as the central point of 
the cross formed by the four arms of the lake is approached 

VAUee Rathhaus u BbrnhaSe D.3 

1 AmtettatthuUerei C 1 

3. Biiryvrwpita/ C . 4, 

i.Caeuw D.2. 

5. Ovmnajium C . 3. 

%.&mfon Strafanstult B.l. 

7 Eaeerne C . 2. 
Kirrhen uJfloster : 

8. Hoflarrhe H.3. 

9. Jpjtuitvn Sirehe D. 4. 

10 Protest Sirehe T.3. 

1 1 A TbtertcapeZZe E . 3. 

12. rrccnxiekaner Km- Blotter C . f. 

13. Irguh'ner fit/ Hotter E.2. 
1-LZoWv/i Mimumpnt G HI. 
Jj..Mt'nvw Ihorama G.2. 

l*i ..)ht.rfii m u Cantoiufbtbl. C. 4*. 

17. /W Bureau C. 4. 

18. Kcifieruiujs bvbaude C D. 4. 
®.JUit»chulen, B LB 2 

m.ReHef 'derSeh*vzz F. 3. 

llScTudhaus C*. 

*22.SeAutjenJuai* B.3. 

W.StadtBiMirtfak C.3. 

24\<$W#<nM E.2. 

1S.$tau/Tw** Jfajrvum G. I. 

2fi. Ihlearaphen Bureau C. t. 

27. Theater D *. 

2K.HJn«wA«tf* B.2. 

29. HaMerUumni E. T. 

'M) Ztut/hnut \ . 3. 

a Schweuterhof 
b. LuiernorBoF 
C BngtutherHof 

e Hotel i tii Bigi 

F J%p 

$ Ilfitvi ifu L«v 


i . RqmU 


1 . Jth'hren 

m . A'/iwi- 

n. JBfeaZ </«•* Mpes 

O. frft ill 

p. Wilder Mann 



& JfoW? 


tuicIi d. $ Linden 

LUCERNE. I'D. Route. 49 

the views in every direction become more imposing. To the r., 
on a gentle elevation, is seen the tower of Neu-Habsburg (the 
supposed scene of the event described in Schiller's ballad 'The 
Count of Hapsburg'), the ancient castle of the imperial family 
of that name, and frequently occupied by Rudolph, who was 
afterwards emperor. 

As soon as the steamboat has rounded the little (r.) Isle of 
Attrtad and the promontory oi Meggenhorn (p. 69), Lucerne, 
situated at the extremity of the N.W. bay of the lake, suddenly 

20. Lucerne and Pilatus. 

Comp. Map p. fib'. 

Hotels. ,Sch weizerhof (PI. a). Luzerner Hof (PI. h), Hotel 
National (opened in 1870), all three situated on the quay, R. 2 fr. and 
upwards. L. 1 fr., B. lij 2 fr., I), at 12i|j o'clock 3 fr., at. 4 o'clock 4'| 2 fr., 
A. I fr. ; "Engl ischer Hof (PI. cp, "Schwan (PI. d), R. 2, L. and A. 
I'l-jfr. ; :: ltotel (in Rigi (Pi. e). on the ground-door a Cafe; these hotels 
are all on the lake, near the quay. Wage (Pi. f) more moderate ; "Hotel 
(In Wac (PI. g), on the 1. hank of (lie lieuss. R. 2—3, K. 1>| 4 , D. 3, L. and 
A. i'l-ifr.; Hotel du St. Gotthard, with restaurant, R. li| a — 2'| 2 , B. 1, 
D. 3, A. l |-2 fr. ; the two last near the station: Hotel et Pension Beau- 
rivage (PI. d), recently enlarged, prettily situated on the lake. — The, 
daily influx of travellers is so great that the solitary tourist frequently re- 
ceives but little attention in the 1st , or even the 2nd class hotels. The 
Adler (PI. h), II. 1 fr. , B. 1 fr., A i| B fr., and the Ro^sli (PI. i), newly 
fitted up, are therefore mentioned as respectable, though unpretending. — 
Hotel de la Poste(Pl. k); Hot el des Alpes (Pl.n), M oehren , H irsch, 
'Krone, Kreuz, and Wilder Mann, all of humble pretensions. 

Pensions (see Plan; almost all comfortable and well conducted). 
Worley, in the town, by the Peterscapelle; Kaufmann; 31 or ell; 
Faller; Dommann; Suter; Tivoli (with restaurant and baths); 
Belvedere; farther on, Secburg. All these are on the road to Kiis- 
nacht, close to the lake. ThenWaldis, outside the Waggis gate ; Chalet 
du Lion, in a shady situation, above the Lion Monument; Fit/. ger, on 
the Felsberg ; Rauch, E. of the Hofkirche; adjoining it, Bell ev no 
and New S ch weizerha us. Pension Wall is on the Giltseh; A' ic to- 
ri a and Gibraltar on the hill of Gibraltar (p. 50). Still higher, 1 In - , 
from Lucerne (beginning of route see PI. a, 3). Pension Sonnenberg. 
on the hill of that name, with pleasant grounds and a tine view. — Pen- 
sion Blattler in the Ro/.loch (p. 88) on the W. arm of the lake (1 hr. by 
steamboat, three times daily). Charges at all these from 6 to 8 fr. a day. 

Cafes and Restaurants. Cafe du Lac. by the Protest, church, ices 
80 c. ; Hotel des Alpes, opp. steamboat -quay; "Freicnhof (beer) by 
the theatre, near the Capcllbrucke, on the 1. bank of the Keuss ; Loewen- 
garten, near the Lion Monument: St. Gotthard, near the station. 

Baths in the river, below the town, with swimming-basin, and in the 
lake, below the Stiftskirehe (bath 30 c). 

Diorama at the Waggis Gate (p. 51). 

Railway Station to the E. of the Capellbriicke on the 1. bank of the 
lake. The steamboats to Waggis, Bruanen, and Flilclcn generally stop at 
the railway-station after their departure fioni the quay near the hotels 
(see Plan), those coming from Fliielen and Waggis stop first at the stat., 
and then at the quay. 

Post and Telegraph Offices on the 1. bank oftheRcuss, by the Jesuiten- 
kirche. The Branch Office adjoining the Engl. Hof, opp. the steamboat- 
pier is also a goods-agency and exchange office. 

Steamboats see p. 66. 

Rowing-boats, according to tariff, 75 c. per hr.: for each boatman 

B/edekeb, Switzerland. 5th Edition. 4 

50 Route 20. LUCERNK. Capellbriicke. 

75 c. ; lo Wiiggis or Stansstad with two men 4' Ja fr., 3 men 6 fr., 
4 men 7'|s fr. ; Brunnen with 3 men 12 fr., with 4 men 15 fr., &c. 

Beyond the loveliness of its situation, Thorwaldsen's celebrated monu- 
ment (p. 01), and the Arsenal (p. 52), there is little in Lucerne to induce 
a prolonged stay. The following walks are recommended: W. to the 
-"■Giitsch (Pension Wallis), from the Bale Gate a steep ascent of '^ hr., 
or to Gib ral tar (with new Pension); S. by the avenue to Kriens ; 
N. to A 11 en win den, '|4 hr. from the quay; but above all to the "Drci 
Linden (with a mountain - indicator) , 3 \i SI. to the £. of the town , not 
far from the Capuchin Monastery on the We semi in (the library of which 
contains some old MSS. and early inpressions), commanding a fine view 
Of Lucerne, its environs, and the distant mountain chain, in the centre the 
snow-capped Titlis, and in the extreme distance to the r. the Finster-Aar- 
liorn and the Schreckhorner. 

English Church Service during the summer months. 

Lucerne (1437 r ), the capital of the canton, popul. 14,524 
(1291 Prot.), is situated on the Reuse where it emerges from 
the lake. The well-preserved walls and watch-towers, erected 
in 1385, which enclose the town, give it an imposing appearance. 
The amphitheatrical form of its situation on the lake , between 
the Rigi and Pilatus, facing the snow-clad Urner and Engel- 
berger Alps, invests it with a peculiar charm. 

The clear, emerald-green Reugs issues from the lake with the 
impetuosity of a mountain-torrent. Its banks are connected by 
four bridges , of which the highest , at the extremity of the 
lake , a broad new stone bridge , leads immediately from the 
railway-station to the N. bank. The second, the Capellbrucke, 
crosses the stream in an oblique direction. It is furnished with 
a roof, decorated with 154 paintings, representing scenes from 
the lives of St. Leodegar and St. Mauritius , the patron saints 
of Lucerne , and events from Swiss history. Adjoining the 
bridge in the river stands the picturesque old Wasserthurm, 
in which the admirably arranged Archives of the town are pre- 
served. According to a tradition, this building was formerly 
used as a lighthouse (lucerna), from which the name Lucerne is 
supposed to be derived. St. Peter's Chapel (PI. 11), at the N. 
end of the bridge, possesses four modern *Altar-pieces by Paul 

The third bridge, the Beussbrucke, is uncovered, and 
constructed in a more modern style. The fourth , the Miihlen- 
or Spreuerbracke, is, like the first, protected by a roof, adorned 
with representations of the 'Dance of Death'. 

The Schweizerhof-Quay, with its handsome hotels and avenue 
of chestnuts , now occupies what was once an arm of the lake 
(filled up in 1852); the stone indicator on the parapet cannot 
be implicitly relied upon. 

View. To the 1. the imposing Rigi Group; the highest point to the I. 
is the Kulm with its spacious hotel ; on the ridge between the Kulm and 
the Rothstock is the Staffel Inn ; farther to the r. the Schilt, the Dos ten, and 
the isolated Fitznauer Stock. To the 1. of the Rigi-group, above the hills 
by the lake, rises the peak of the Romberg; to the r. of the Fitznauer 
.Stock in the distance are seen the singularly indented peaks of the Rott-fllork 

Lion. UiCERNK. -JO. Route. ol 

chain; then the Xktler-Baueii or Seelisbenjcr Kulm, and the Ober-Baueii ; 
nearer is the dark Biirgenstock, and the Buortiser Horn; to the 1. and r. of 
the latter, tower the snowy Engelberg Alps, the last and highest to the r. 
being the Titlis ; farther to the r. the Stanserhorn, the mountains of Kerns 
and Sachsel/iy and to the extreme r. Pilatus. 

The Protestant Church (PI. 10), in the immediate vicinity 
of the Schweizerhof, is a Gothic edifice, completed in 1861. 

On a slight eminence at the K. extremity of the quay stands 
the *Hof- or Stifts-Kirche (PI. 8), with its two slender towers, 
erected in 1506. This church possesses a celebrated organ 
(performance daily, except Saturdays and the eves of festivals, 
from 6'/.> to T'/2 p. rn., 1 fi\), flue pulpit, carved stalls, some 
stained-glass windows, and two handsome side altars with reliefs 
in carved wood , one of which dates from the 15th cent. , and 
represents the death of the Virgin. The Churcliyard contains 
some fine monuments. Frescoes in the S.W. arcades by 

Not far from this church (street to the 1. in a N. direction), 
outside the (N.E.) Waggis Gate, 5 min. walk from the Schwei- 
zerhof, is the celebrated *Lion of Lucerne (PI. 14), erected in 
1821 to the memory of 26 officers and about 760 soldiers of the 
.Swiss guard, who were cruelly massacred in the defence of the 
Tuileries, Aug. 10th, 1792. The dying lion ('45' in lengthj 
reclines in a grotto, its body transfixed by a broken lance, its 
paw sheltering the Bourbon lily ; it is hewn out of the natural 
sandstone rock after a model (exhibited in the adjoining house ) 
by the celebrated Danish sculptor Thorwaldsen. The inscription 
runs thus: Heivetiorum fidei ac virtuti. Die 10 Aug., '2 et 3 Sept. 
1792. Haec sunt nomina eorum, qui ne sacramenti fidem fallerent, 
fortissime pugnantes ceciderunt. Duces XXVI. Solerti amicorum 
cura cludi superfuerunt Duces XVI. The rock which bears the 
inscription and names of the officers has unfortunately suffered 
from the influence of the weather; it is overhung with ivy and 
other creepers. A spring which flows from the summit of the 
rock forms a dark pool at the base, surrounded by maples and 
pines. This work is extremely impressive, and affords a proof 
that in true art the simplest idea carried out by a master-hand 
never fails in its effect. The neighbouring Chapel (inscription: 
Invictis Pax), contains the escutcheons of the deceased officers. 

Meyer's Diorama (PI. 15; adm. I 1 /* fr.) at the Waggis Gate, 
contains panoramas from the Rigikulm and Pilatus, exhibited in 
various lights. The foreground is in relief. 

Stauffer's Museum (PI. 25) near the Lion (adm. 1 ft. J con- 
tains about 600 specimens of stuffed Alpine animals in groups. 

The large Eelief (PI. 20; adm. 1 fr.), in a building adjoining 
the Cafe' du Lacj, by the Prot. Church, represents ancient 
Switzerland with Lucerne in the centre, on a scale of 5 inches 
to the mile. 

52 Ruute -Jn. LITKIiNK. 

The *Arsenal (PI. 30). near tlio Mtihlen-bridge, on the 1. bank 
of the Reuss, is one of the most important in Switzerland 
("fee 50 c. to 1 fr.). 

On the Ground Fluor arc cannons with their equipments ; from the 
ceiling is suspended a long Turkish banner, captured at Tunis in 1640 by 
a knight of the. Maltese order. The two small Turkish flags near it were 
taken by soldiers of Lucerne in the battle of Lepanto (1571J. The First 
Floor contains weapons for the cantonal militia. The stained-glass win- 
dows (16061 represent the armorial bearings of the 13 cantons. At the 
door of the Upper Stor.y stands an automaton, which bows its head as 
the visitor approaches. 

The Church of the Jesuits (PI. 9). near the Post-office, is 
a good specimen of the stylo peculiar to this order. In the 
second chapel to the r. is an altar-piece, representing St. Niko- 
laus von der Fli'ie (p. 103), behind which is preserved the robe 
of the saint. 

The Town Hall (PI. 1) possesses some beautiful carved 
work (executed in 1605 by a native of Breslau). and a series of 
portraits of the magistrates of the town. The tower is adorned 
with a fresco representing the death of the bailiff Gundol- 
fingen at the Battle of Srmpaoh. The Fountain in the AVein- 
markt (PI. 14) dates from 1481. 


Pilatus is ascended from Hergisieijl or from Alpnarh. Steamboat to 
Alpnach-Gestad in i'j-j hr.. fare 1 fr. (does not touch at Hergis« vl(. Blattlers 
small screw-steamers ply several times daily between Lucerne. Hergiswyl, 
and the Rozloch in 1 — li|< hr., fare 1 fr. Description of the trip. p. 8S. 

From Hergiswyl to the Hotel Klinisenhorn 3'|2 hrs.(down in 2'jj hrs.|. 
whence the Klinisenhorn may be ascended in 10 min.. the Tontlishorn in 
•'J 4 hr.. and the Esel also in 3 ji hr. 

From Alpnach (p. 89) the bridle-path ascending to the Rellevuc Hotel 
i\ hrs., down in 3 lirs.) cannot be mistaken. Direction-posts are placed 
at doubtful points. — Tin- path from Hergiswyl is shaded in the afternoon, 
that from Alpnarh in the forenoon. The former is recommended for the 
ascent; the latter for the descent, as it affords a succession of tine views. 

Porters from Hergiswyl 3 fr. •- Horse 10 fr. : Chaise -a-porteurs 20 fr. : 
from Alpnach same charges. Guides on both routes unnecessary. 

Hotels. "Klimsenhor n . at the foot of the peak of that name, I!. 
2, B. 1, D. 2, Pension 6 fr., good beer; "Hellevue on the ridge between 
(•hcrhaupt and Esel. with uninterrupted view towards the E.. K. 2. L. '!••. 
A. i| 2 , S. 3, B. I'|j fr. 

*Pilatus , the lofty mountain to the S.W. of Lucerne, rises 
in a rugged and imposing mass, almost isolated from the sur- 
rounding heights. The W. and N. portions belong to the Canton 
of Lucerne, the K. and S. to rnterwalden. The lower slopes 
are clothed with beautiful meadows and forests, whilst the upper 
portions consist of rugged cliffs and precipices, whence its ancient 
name Frartus Monn (broken mountain) is derived. The names 
'Fracniont'. 'Frakmund', have in later times been occasionally- 
applied to it, and the name Pilatus [mon/t pileatus. the capped 
mountain) did not become general till the close of the last century. 
The names of the separate peaks from W. to K. are the 
Mittuyyiipfi or (iniipp^ein (11299'), the Kothe-'l>,t;in |(iH93'), 

PILATUS. -JO. Route. ~>W 

the Widderfeld (6747', the most barren of the summits), the 
Tomltehorn (6997), the GemsmaUti (6435'), to the S. the Mall- 
horn (7146'), then the Slieyli-Eyy (6706'), to the N. the Klimsen- 
Itorn (6o55' an isolated peak) , the Oberhaupt (7290') and the 
Esel (15962', formerly probably Ezel, and sacred to the German 
god of thunder). Pilatus, formerly one of the best-known of the 
Swiss mountains, had for many years been superseded by the 
Uigi , but recently it has again become one of the most fre- 
quented of the Swiss heights. 

Ascent. From Heryiswyl (*Rossli), a village at the E. base 
of Pilatus, the bridle-path constructed by M. Bliittler of Rozloch, 
(p. 88) is extremely easy and cannot be mistaken. The path, 
the first part of which is the most fatiguing, ascending to the 1. 
by the church, first traverses orchards and meadows, then wood 
(after l l / t hr., a small inn), and finally ascends on the barren \. 
side of the mountain to the Jocli (6282', 377' higher than the 
liigikulm), which connects the Oberhaupt with the Klimsenhorn, 
where the *H6tel Klimsenhorn is situated. 

Hence to the Klimsenhorn a walk of 10 min. ; extensive view 
to the E., X., and W., from the mountains of Uri and the Lake 
of Lucerne to the vicinity of Freiburg, and the Lake of Neu- 
chatel. The prospect to the S. is hidden by the loftier peaks 
of Pilatus. — The *Tomlishorn, reached from the hotel in 
3 <4 hr., commands a more extensive and unobstructed panorama 
than the Esel ; the new path which has recently been con- 
structed, presents no difficulties even to ladies. 

The zigzag path from the Hotel Klimsenhorn to the Oberhaupt 
leads in '/.j hr. to the Krisiloch (thus far riding is practicable), 
an aperture in the rock, 20' in height, through which two ladders 
ascend to the ridge separating the Oberhaupt from the Esel, 
where a fine *view of the ISernese Alps is suddenly disclosed. 
Bellevue Hotel, see below. 

From Alpnach (p. 89) the bridle-path (not to be mistaken ; 
sign-posts at doubtful points), immediately beyond the village 
crosses the Kleine Schlierenbach to lm Orund, whence it gradually 
ascends in 4 hrs. to the Hotel Belleoue. Those who in descend- 
ing desire to proceed to Alpnach-Gestad without passing through 
Alpnach, take the path to the 1., l /. 2 hr. above the latter. 

The Bellevue Hotel, where the path unites with that from 
the Klimsenhorn, is situated at the base of the *Esel, which 
may be ascended in a few minutes. 

View. The foreground comprises the indented rocky peaks of Pilatus, 
skirted by green pastures. The view of the Bernese Alps is sinrilar lo 
that from the Kigi, but surpasses it in grandeur, especially as the Wetter- 
hiiiner and Walcher or Urindelwalder Viescherhiirner , the Eiger, Munch, 
Jungfrau, and also the Titlis are more conspicuous. Of the Lake of Lucerne 
a much larger portion (as far as Brunnen) is visible than from the Rigi- 
kulm, and its cruciform shape is distinctly observed. 

•A Route -J I. (iOI.DAl . 

Pilatus may be sn id to bear the same relation to tin- Rigi as 
the epic poem to the idyl: the former with its barren and rugged 
peaks inspires awe; whilst the latter with its rich and grassy 
slopes presents a smiling and attractive aspect. Pilatus is the 
great and generally trustworthy barometer of the district. The 
popular saying runs thus : 

If Pilatus wears his cap. serene will be the day. 

If his collar he puts on, then mount the rugged way. 

But if his sword he wields, then keep at home I say ' 
If the summit is free from clouds and fog in the morning, 
the weather cannot be depended on ; but if on the contrary the 
top is shrouded in fog till noon a fine day may be expected. 

Many legends are connected with the Pilatus, especially with its caverns 
( Mondloch below the Tomlisalp; Dominikhohle above the Briindlisalp) 
and its Lake (to the S. W. of the Klimsenhorn). One of the oldest, and 
at Hie same time most groundless, tells us that when Pontius Pilate was 
banished from Galilee, he fled hither, and, in the bitterness of his re- 
morse, precipitated himself into a lake on the summit of the mountain, 
which was thenceforth named after him. 

21. From Lucerne to Brunnen by Kiisnacht, 
Arth, and Schwyz. 

Comp. Map p. 66. 
By Steamboat from Lucerne to Kiisnacht in 50min; from Kiisnacht 
to Arth by Diligence in 1 hr., or by Omnibus in i|j hr. to Immensee, 
and thence by steamboat to Arth in 25 min. From Arth by Diligence 
to Schwyz in l'ls, to Brunnen in 2 hrs. 

On leaving Lucerne , the high-road first follows the >>'. hank of the 
lake, in view of the Bernese and Engelberg Alps; it then recedes a little, 
beyond the Pension Seeburg fp. 49), in order to cut off the angle formed by 
the bays of Lucerne and Kiisnacht. As the latter bay is approached, the 
ruins of Neu-Habsbnrg (p. 69) are seen on the r. The villages of Meggrn 
(1512) (see p. 48) and Morlischarhen (1457') are next passed. 

5 31. Kiisnacht, and thence bv the 'Hohlc Gasse' (hollow lane) and 
the Chapel of William Tell, as far as the inn 'Zur Eiche', see p. 48. The 
road here turns to the r., whilst that to Immensee proceeds to the 1. At 
the foot of the extreme X. slopes of the Rigi, the W. bank of the lake of 
Zug is skirted, in view of the rugged heights of the Rossberg (see below), 
which rise beyond the blue expanse of the lake. 

1OI/4 M. from Lucerne Arth (13640 (Rigi-path see p. 59"), 
is reached (see p. 48"). On approaching Goldau (IV2 M.") (Riissli, 
R. l'/ 2 , B. 1 . S. 2'/2 tr 0- traces of the disastrous landslip 
of the Rossberg. which completely buried this large and wealthy 
village, may be observed. Two tablets of black marble, on the 
exterior of the church (erected in 1K4!), almost on the same site 
as the old edillce"), record the names of some of the ill-fated vil- 
lagers, and a brief notice of the catastrophe. 

Goldau Landslip. The, or Ro.isbci-g (5141'). at whose base Goldau 
is situated, is, like the Rigi, composed of 'Nagelflue\ a conglomerate con- 
sisting chiellv of rounded limeslone and (lint pebbles imbedded in a cal- 
careous cement. This rock, in itself extremely hard, is frequently inter- 
stratifled with layers of sand, which are worn away by time, or by sub- 
(-■lranran waters, so that (lie solid superincumbent strata, wanting founda- 
tion, are from time (o time pn-eipitatcd into (he valley. The summer of 
IS06 had been very rainy. On 2nd. about 5 p. in., one of these slrala, 

SCHWYZ. :>l. Route. 55 

WOO' in length and 100' in thickness, was precipitated from a height of 
3000' into the valley below, swallowing up four villages with ahout 500 
of their inhabitants, and converting the smiling landscape into a scene of 
desolation. It filled up about one-fourth of the Lake of Lowerz, the sudden 
rise of which occasioned new disasters. The anniversary of this event is 
commemorated by a religious ceremony at Arth. 

The high road traverses a part of this scene of devastation, 
which extends from the Rossberg to the Rigi. Time has covered 
the fragments of rock with moss and other vegetation, and be- 
tween them in many places pools of stagnant water have been 
formed. The track of the landslip may be distinctly traced on 
the side of the Rossberg, which is still entirely barren. 

The village of Lowerz (1476') (Adler), on the lake of the 
same name, 4'/-> M. from Arth. lost its church and some of its 
houses in the same catastrophe. Driven violently from its bed. the 
water rose like a wall to the height of 70', inundating the islands 
of Lowerz 'and Schwanau, and sweeping away everything from the 
opposite bank of the lake. The ruins of a castle, destroyed in 
1308 by the burghers of Schwyz, rise from the island of Schwanau. 

The road skirts the rocks and precipices of the S. bank of 
the lake. Both at Lowerz and Seewen boatmen are to be found, 
who for a trifling fee convey pedestrians across the lake. The 
lake is 3 M. long and l'/ 2 M. wide, and does not exceed 56' 
in depth ; it is entirely frozen in winter. 

Path up the Rigi. see p. 61. As Schwyz is approached, the 
scenery becomes more attractive. 

Seewen (1512') (Kreuz; *Rbssli, baths), at the E. extremity 
of the lake, possesses a chalybeate spring which attracts a num- 
ber of visitors (Pension 4 l /o fr., including baths). 

The Footpath from Seewen to Brunnen (3 JI. ; l*ja M. less 
than by the Schwyz road, and much pleasanter), follows the brook, at 
first as a carriage-road on the r. bank, then on the 1. as a footpath, and 
at length crosses the Muoita on a long and narrow bridge of planks. At 
Ingenbohl (see below) it rejoins the high-road. 

Schwyz (1686') (*Rossli, R. 1 fr., B. 1 fr. ; *H6tel Hediger, 
similar charges; *Cerf, R. H/2, B. 1 fr. ; *Pension Piitz), a 
straggling town (6153 inhab., 34 Prot.), the capital of the canton, 
and justly called the cradle of Swiss liberty, is picturesquely situ- 
ated at the foot and on the slopes of the Mythen (the Little, with 
its two peaks, 5754', and the Great, 6243'). During the great 
drought of August, 1800, a Are broke out in the forests on the S. 
of the mountain, presenting a magnificent spectacle at night, and 
continued to rage for a fortnight, baffling all attempts so exting- 
uish it. Since this occurrence the red and stony sides of the 
mountains have remained bare. The Mythen are, strictly speaking, 
points of the Hacken; but generally the latter name is only applied 
to that part of the mountain which slopes towards Steinen, and 
which is crossed by a footpath (in 4 his.) to Einsiedeln. 

The ascent of the 'Great Mythen (6243') has been greatly facili- 
tated by the construction of a new path. The view vies with those from 

56 Route 21. R1GI. 

Hie Rigi and Hiatus. <>uide unnecessary, '['lie somewhat fatiguing ascent 
from Seliww. by »SV. Joseph, or liy linkntbaeli (I Intel Kellevue, also u 
pension), through the ravine, and by the pastures 'llasle^ and 'Holy,' (re 
freshinentsl to the Holzeyg (oOlo'. small inn. o beds), occupies 1 3 J4 hr. — 
Another path leads from Hrunnen to the Ilol/.egg by Jbaeh and Rickeiibach 

in 'J 3 |i hrs. I.Schwyz remains on the l.|. — <i I path from Kinsiedeln by 

Alptltal to the lloizegg in 'J-'m hrs. — Hy tlie new path from the Hol/.egg, tin- 
summit of the Mythen is attained in 1'J.i hr. At the top a small inn with 
a few beds. 

Apart from its picturesque situation , Sehwyz presents lew 
objects of interest. The Parish Church, completed in 1774, is 
considered one of the handsomest in Switzerland. The Town Hull 
contains the portraits of 43 landammanns (sheriffs) from lf>;>4 
downwards. The ceiling of the council-chamber is decorated with 
some fine old carving (fee , /.> fr.). A relief of the valley of 
Aluotta is exhibited by M. Schindler, a dyer (fee '/> fr.). 

The large building with the church on' the height, originally 
destined to be a Jesuits' Convent, is now a grammar-school. 

Near it is the ancient House of the liedinys , with two red 
towers, adorned with the family escutcheon. 

Hrunnen is o M. to the S.E. of Sehwyz. The road passes 
by Jbach, at the entrance of the valley of .Muotta ( It. 7t>); then 
Jngenbohl (Pension), whose church with three altar-pieces 
is worthy of a visit; next the nunnery of Muriuhitf. founded 
in lHof). 

U'-/ 8 M. Brunrten, see p. 71. 

22. The Rigi. 

See Map p. 66. 

Distance to the Kulm: from Arth, Ooldau, Tell's Chapel, Kusnacht. 
Wiiggis, Vitznau (railway see below), Immensee 3>|a hrs., from Lowerz 4 Ins.. 
from Gersau i 3 \t hrs. Pedestrians of ordinary powers will perform these in- 
stances in the time specified, walking slowly (60 steps per min.), but steadily, 
and without stopping. The descent occupies two-thirds of that time (see p. 46). 
The ascent on the E. by Arth or Goldau, or by Lower/., for those coming 
from the S., is to be preferred. The path is almost entirely in the shade 
in the afternoon, and as it commands no view, the elleel is the more im- 
pressive when the summit is gained, whilst the routes from Iinmensce, 
Kusnacht, and Wiiggis, which wind round the mountainsides, gradually 
prepare the traveller for the beauty of the scene. 

The ascent from Arth, Goldait, or Lower:, and the descent to 
Wiiygis (visit, in passing, the Rothstock and the Kanzli , see pp. 60, (i'J) 
afford the enjoyment of a most charming, uninterrupted prospect over the 
Lake of Lucerne and the Alps of Uri and I'nlerwahl, which renders this route 
far preferable to the descent on the E. or X. sides. The descent to Kusnacht 
(as well as the path to Immensee) has the advantage of being in the shade 
during the morning, allows a somewhat longer stay on the summit, and 
yet enables the traveller to reach Lucerne before noon, the steamboat leav- 
ing Kusnacht later than Wiiggis. 

Steamboats between Arth. Immensee. and Zug. i times dailv. in 1 hr. 
(p. 46); between Kusnacht and Lucerne 3 limes, in 1 hr. ; between Wiiggis 
and Lucerne 5 times, in 3 lt hr. (p. 66). 

Rigi Railway (p. 59) from Vitznau to the plateau above the Kaltbad 
( p. 64 ) in l'| 4 hr. (descent in 1 hr.); fare for the ascent 5, for the descent 
'J'l-jfr. •, HI lbs. of luggage tree, overweight charged at Ihe rale of 1 IV. 40e. 
per ewl. Three trains daily in connection wilh the sleauihoats .,u (h,. Lake 

RIG1. :>->. Route. . r >7 

of Lucerne. Extra-train:; despatched at any hour for not fewer than 24 pas- 
sengers. The station al Yitznau is close to the steamboat pier (see p. 09). 

Horses and Guides. The principal paths are so minutely described in 
the following pages that they cannot be missed. The concourse of travellers 
who frequent the route during the summer months is moreover so great 
as to render the services of a guide superfluous; a boy, however, may be 
readily engaged for 1 fr., who will show the way to the summit and c'arrv 
any light luggage. Guides and horse-proprietors begin to importune travellers 
at Zurich, Horgen, Zug. Ac. The ascent on horseback is not unpleasant, 
the descent is disagreeable, and more fatiguing than on foot. The leader 
of the horse expects a fee. A government regulation of June 17th, 1808 
(recently abrogated, but sufficient to convey an idea of the proper charges), 
lixed the following charges for the canton of Schwyz : Horses. (1). From 
Arth or from Goldau to the Kliisterli 7, Statl'el, or Kaltbad 9, Kuliu 
or Scheideck 10 fr. ; for return by the savin route from the Kliisterli 0, 
Staft'el, Kaltbad, or Kulm G, Scheideck 10 fr. ; for return by Immense?', 
Kiisnaeht , or Waggis from the Staffel or Kaltbad 9, from die Kulm 
or Scheideck 10 fr. — (2). From Gcrsau to the Scheideck 7, Kliisterli 8. 
Kaltbad, Kulm, or Slaflel 12 fr. ; tor return to Gersau from Scheideck 0, 
Kliisterli, Staffel, or Kaltbad 6, Kulm 10 fr. — (3). From Kiisnaeht or 
lmmeusee to the Statl'el 8, Kulm, Kliisterli, Kaltbad 10, Scheideck 12 fr. : 
for return to Kiisnaeht and lmmensee from the Statl'el 3, Kulm, Kliisterli. 
Kaltbad 6, Scheideck 10 fr. ; for return by Arth, Goldau or Wiiygis 
from the Kliisterli, Statl'el, Kaltbad 9, from Kulm or Scheideck 10 fr. — 
(4). For a horse ordered for the next day for the return, and not counter- 
manded until then, 5 fr. must he paid. 

Chairs (for the ascent 3 or 4 porters, according to the traveller's weight, 
are necessary, for the descent 2) : (1). From Arth or from Goldau to the 
Kliisterli for each porter 4 fr. 30, Kaltbad or Statl'el f). Kulm or Scheideck 
G fr. ; for return from Kliisterli 3 fr. 60, Kaltbad or Statl'el 4 fr. 30, Kulm 
or Scheideck 5 fr. 30 c. — (2). From Gersau to Scheideck for each porter 
4 fr. 50, Kliisterli 5 fr. 50, Kaltbad or Staffel G fr. 00, Kulm 8 fr. ; for re- 
turn from Scheideck 3 fr. 80, Kliisterli 4 fr. 80, Kaltbad or Statl'el 5 fr. 80, 
Kulm 7 fr. 80 c. — (3). From Kiisnaeht to the Statl'el 4 fr. 50c; Kulm, 
Kaltbad, Kliisterli G, Scheideck 8 fr. ; for return from the Staffel 3 fr. 80, 
Kulm, Kaltbad, Kliisterli 5 fr. 30, Scheideck 7 fr. 30 c. 

Porters. (1). From Arth or from Goldau, according to weight (20, 
40, 60, 80 or 100 lbs. J, to the Kliisterli life. 3, 3'| 2 , 4 or 5 fr. ; Kaltbad or 
Statl'el 2, 3'J 2 , -4»/ 2 , or 6 fr. ; Kulm or Scheideck 3, 4'| 8 , 5. 6 or G 1 )^ fr. — 
(2). From Gersau to Scheideck l'| 2 , 3, 3>| 2 , 4 or o; Kliisterli 2, 8'| 2 , 4. 
4>j 2 , u>|2 fr. ; Kaltbad or Staffel 2>| a , 4, 4>| 2 , 5, G fr. : Kulm 3, 4>J 2 , 0, G, 
6i| 2 fr. — (3). From Kiisnaeht to the Statl'el li| 2 , 3, 3'Ja, 4, fr. ; Kulm, 
Kaltbad, or Kliisterli 2, 3'| 2 , 4"/a, 5, G fr. ; Scheideck 3, 4>) 2 , 5, G, G'|a fr. 

For Waggis (Canton of Lucerne), the following official tariff was 
fixed in I860: Horse with conductor to Kaltbad 6, Staffel or Kliisterli 8, 
Kulm 10 fr. ; for return the same day 4, 5 or G fr. ; Chairs, for each porter 
tu Kaltbad 4, Staffel, or Kliisterli 5, Kulm 6 fr. (sainerate for the descent, 
if there has been no previous agreement for a reduced charge). Porters, 
hv weight (20 to 40, 40 to GO, GO to 80, 80 to 100 lbs.), to Kaltbad 2>| a , 3, 
3'"| 2 , 4'|afr., Staffel or Kliisterli 3, 3>|a, 4'j 2 , fr., Kulm 3'| 2 , 4i| 2 , 5, G fr. ; 
Guides (with 20 lbs. of luggage), to Kaltbad 1 fr. 20 c, Statl'el or Kliisterli 
l'| 2 , Kulm 2fr. 

Herniations. The following are the most important clauses : § 3. The 
horses for hire must be sound and strong, the gear in g(*od order. § 8. The 
chief of the guides (Tourmeister), who holds office under the superintenenced 
of the burgomaster, is responsible for the observance of the regulations. 
His duty is to maintain order amongst the guides, to render assistance to 
travellers, and to give notice of any infringement of the regulations. § 11. 
Each horse must have a leader. § 12. The chief of the guides has the 
sole right of offering guides or horses to travellers, without, however, con- 
trolling their choice. § 14. The guides are forbidden to importune travellers. 
§ 15. Civility and sobriety are strict);- enjoined. Guides are personally 
responsible for the luggage enlrusled to them. § 1G. The\ are forbidden 

. r >& Route :>•->. UK! I. Hotels. 

In ask lor gratuities in excess of tin.* tarilV. § 19. The chief nf the guides 
has to adjust any differences that may arise among the guides themselves, 
or between travellers and their guides: if he cannot succeed in doing so, 
the matter must be brought before the mayor (Gcmeindeaminann), or the 
nearest magistrate. 

The ascent of the Rigi is attended with no difficulty: the first portion 
is the steepest. The traveller who feels fatigue at the commencement ot 
the undertaking, never fails to recover as he approaches the summit, and 
inhales the pure and invigorating mountain air. The Kulm should be 
reached at least an hour before sunset, in order to secure the evening view, 
the morning fogs too often causing disappointment. 

Hotels. On the Kulm: Hotel R i g i -K ul m (p. G2|. R. in the old house 
3—4. in the new 4—5 fr., L. 1, B. i'|j. table d'hote at 12'| a or in the even- 
ing, exc. W. 4, the cheapest wine 3 fr. a bottle, tea with cold meat 2>|<, 
A. 1 fr. The rooms to the S. (generally with 2 beds) alone command a 
complete view of the Alps. Telegr. office in the house. — "Rigi-Staffel, 
'.'•jhr. below the Kulm, recently enlarged, R. l'J... B. li| 4 , S. 2>| 2 , A. », fr.. 
pension 5 to 6 fr., according to the rooms. — Sch wert . near the Klcisterli 
( p. GO). 3 ,'i hr. to the K. below the Staffel, unpretending, pension 3'|.j fr. : 
The Sonne, near the Schwert, is also unpretending, but well spoken of. 
The Klosterli has no view, but is less exposed to wind and fog than the 
Staffel or Kulm: the sun often shines there when the surrounding heights 
are enveloped in cloud ; it is therefore a very suitable place for persons in 
delicate health who contemplate a prolonged stav on the mountain. — The 
! Kaltbad (p. 62), > 2 lir. to the W. of the Staffel (R. 2—6, B. l'| 2 , A. i| 2 , 
bottle of wine 3 fr. ) is generally full in the height of summer; pension 
6 fr., not including room, baths, whey, wine, and attendance, which cost 
4 — 5 fr. additional per diem; rooms must be ordered beforehand, so that 
ordinary travellers rarely find accommodation here. — : *Hotel and Pen- 
sion Rigi-S c he i deck (p. 65), magnificent view, second onlv to that 
from the Kulm, K. from li| 2 , B. l'|4, D. 3' ,-.., I., and A. P,., fr. Pension excl. 
R. 5 fr. Whey, milk, or the chalybeate water of the Scheideck 15 c. per 
glass; ordinary bath 1 fr., whey-bath 4 fr. Telegr. office. The establish- 
ment was considerably enlarged in 1870. 

In the height of the season travellers are recommended to telegraph 
( ' ;•_> fr.) from Ziirich, Lucerne, Horgen, Wadenswyl, Zug, Schwyz, Altorf, 
or Stans, if they wish to secure good accommodation at the Kulm. 

The **Eig'i (5905', 4472' above the Lake of Lucerne), a group 
of mountains, comprising a circuit of 24 to 30 M., lying between 
3 lakes (Lucerne, Zug. Lowerz), is chiefly composed of strata of 
conglomerate (p. 54); the N. and W. sides belong to the meio- 
cene formation. The N. side is precipitous, but on the S. it 
consists of wide terraces, and gentle slopes, covered with fig, 
chestnut, and almond trees, and fresh green pastures, which sup- 
port upwards of 4000 head of cattle. The N. peak, usually 
called the Rigi, would hardly be mentioned in comparison with 
the giants of the Alps, but for its advantageous position, which 
commands a panorama of at least 300 miles in circumference. 

It was formerly termed by the inhabitants of the vicinity 
the Kigi-Weid (pasturage of the Rigi); at present it is known, 
however, only as the Rigi. The cow-herds and the frequenters 
of the Kaltbad were at one time the only persons who were 
aware of its existence. In l(j89 an inhabitant of Arth erected 
the Chapel of Our Lady of the Snow (St. Maria zum Schnee) 
for the use of the cow-herds The image of the Virgin which 
was placed there in 1700. soon acquired a reputation for the 
miraculous cures it was sooerstition>lv believed to effect. Hence 

Railway. RIG I. 'J'J. Route. 59 

arose the custom of making pilgrimages to the spot, and inns 
gradually sprang up, which in 1760 scarcely afforded suffi- 
cient accommodation for the pilgrims. The Kulm was frequented 
on fete-days by the inhabitants of the immediate vicinity , and 
afterwards by those of the neighbouring cantons; and in 1760 
strangers first began to resort thither. Their numbers rapidly 
increased; in 1815 a hut was built on the summit, and in 1816 
a very inconsiderable inn , erected by voluntary contributions. 
The Hotel of the Rigi-Kulm dates from 1848. the new part was 
built in 1856. The Rigi is now annually ascended by 40,000 
persons on an average, a number which the railway will pro- 
bably soon increase. 

Rigi-Railway (fares etc. see p. 56). This bold undertaking, 
projected by M. Riggenbach, director of the railway-works at 
Olten, was commenced in 1869, and completed in the spring of 
1871. Vitznau (p. 69) on the Lake of Lucerne is the starting- 
point. The ascent, at first gradual, soon increases to 1 in 4 
(Mont Cenis railway 1 in 12 only). After '/4 nr - the train passes 
through a tunnel 240 ft. in length, and over an iron bridge of 
the same length, by means of which the Schnurtobel (a deep 
gorge with picturesque waterfall) is crossed. Farther up no 
great difficulty was encountered in the construction of the line, 
but the incline continues to average 1 in 5. Stat. Kaltbad (p. 62). 
The line terminates at present on the plateau farther up, termed 
the Staffelhblte (p. 60), but will be extended as far as the Kulm 
in 1872. The entire length of the line is about 3 2 / 3 31. , about 
one third of it being constructed in curves. The difference in 
height between the termini is 4000'. 

Construction. The gauge is that of most ordinary railways. Be- 
tween the rails runs a third broad and massive rail provided with teeth, on 
which a cog-wheel under the locomotive works. The train is propelled up- 
wards by steam-power, while in its descent the speed is regulated by an 
ingenious mode of introducing atmospheric air into the cylinder. The 
carriage for the passengers is placed in both cases in front, of the engine. 
The larger carriages have 54, the smaller 34 seats, but one only is des- 
patched at a time. In case of accident the train can be stopped almost 

It need hardly be observed that multitudes of travellers still prefer to 
walk or ride to the summit. The railway, however, appears to be con- 
structed on sound principles, and to be hardly less safe than a level line. 
It is therefore recommended to those whose time is limited. 

Paths (compare p. 56). From Arth (p. 48) (1364') a 
wide, well-trodden track, which cannot be mistaken, ascends the 
Rigi. At the last house in the village near St. George's Chapel, 
it turns to the 1. ; in 12 min. the foot of the mountain is 
reached; 12 min. more, a cascade of several falls, over blocks of 
conglomerate, often dry in the height of summer; 8 min. meadow: 
4 min. a large tract of fern ; 12 min. Kasgatterli, a hut in which 
cheese is kept; path to the r. to be avoided ; 20 min. waterfall; 
4 min. TJnteres Dachli (3084') ('Rigi Inn', R. 1, bed 2 fr. ; 

60 Route ■>:>. K1GI. Staffel. 

it is well to a-k price-* here beforehand), which affords a survey 
of the whole of the valley of Goldau , the scene of the landslip 
I p. .")4). the lake of Lower/., and the Mythen as far as the neigh- 
bourhood of Scliwyz. The path from Goldau (p. 01) here joins 
that from Arth. At the cross near the inn begin the stations 
. >r halting -places of pilgrims, 13 in number, which lead by 
a continual ascent to the chapel of Our Ltidy of the Snow. 
The path which diverges at the 3rd station to the 1. leads to 
the Scheideck (p. Of) J, but is not easily found without a guide. 
At the Oberes D/ichli (20 min.; refreshments), in the vicinity 
of which is a spring of good water, the forest is quitted, and 
half the a -cent is accomplished; the remaining portion is less 

Two paths lead from the Oberes Dtichli to the Kulm, one 
for horses, the other for pedestrians only. The bridle-path 
( l :i / 4 hr. ), to the 1. from Oberes Dachli, leads in 10 min. to the 
eighth station, the Chapel of St. Malchus , where it unites with 
the path from Lower/, (p. (il ). Between this station and the 
Klosterli, which is !/•> hr. farther, a cross in the rock in- 
dicates the place where another steep foot-path leads to the 
summit in 3 / t hr. The little church of Our Lady of the Snow. 
with the Hospice, inhabited by some Capuchins, and known by 
the name of Klosterli (4266') (inns see p. 58), was built in 
1089; many pilgrimages are made to it, especially on Aug. 5th 
and Sept. (ith. On Sunday mornings all the mountain cow-herds 
assemble here to attend divine service. Near the hospice the 
bridle-path from the Scheideck unites with that from Arth. 
From this point the Kaltbad can be reached sooner than by 
going round by the Stafl'el. When the Staffel (5210'). 40 min. 
from the Klosterli, is reached, a part of the magnificent panorama 
is unfolded. Travellers are recommended to make the ascent of 
the *Riyi-Rothstock (554;)'J (12 min. to the S.W.J, whence a 
picturesque view of the central part of the Lake of Lucerne, 
not visible from the Kulm, is obtained. It frequently happens 
that the Kulm is enveloped in dense mists, whilst the Roth- 
^tock, below the clouds, commands an entirely clear horizon. The 
sunset seen from the Itothstock is considered by some to be 
more beautiful than from the Kulm; but the sunrise is certainly 
far more imposing from the latter. All the Rigi paths , with 
the exception of the footpath mentioned below , unite at the 
Staffel. Lest all the rooms of the Kulm should be occupied, 
neither fatigue nor rain should cause delay, although the last 
half-hour of the ascent is somewhat laborious. Half-way, to the L, 
is an aperture, the h'essisbodenloch , 12' wide, and 100' deep. 
A stone thrown into it is seen to emerge on the N.W. face of 
the cliff, and then disappears in the abyss. Near the Stafl'el a 
person is statimied by the Schwyz government t» collect for the 

Seeboden Alp. RIGI. •->->. Route. 61 

poor; it is the only place on the Schwyz side of the Rigi (to which 
canton belong the paths from Kiisnacht, Immensee, Arth, Goldau, 
Lowerz, Gersau) where contributions of this nature are solicited; 
unfortunately the same cannot be said of the Canton of Lucerne 
(AVaggis path). — The Footpath (l'/o hr.) mentioned above is not 
recommended, as it misses the view from the Iiothstock. Beyond 
the Oberes Dachli it diverges to the r. straight towards the Kulm, 
bounded on the 1. by a forest of pines. 

From Goldau (from Arth to Goldau l'/o M., seep. 54) is 
the best and easiest of the Rigi paths, being almost as broad as 
a carriage-road; after I hour's ascent the L'nteres Dachli is gained 
(p. 59). where the paths from Arth and Goldau unite. To the I. 
are the steep declivities of the Rothenfluh (5233'). 

From Lowerz (p. 55).' The traveller coming from Arth who 
desires to form an accurate idea of the destruction caused 
by the Kossberg landslip (p. 54), should proceed to Lowerz 
(4 1 /., M.). Travellers from Lucerne may avail themselves of the 
steamboat to Brunnen (p. 71), and thence proceed hy carriage 
in 1 hrs. by Schwyz to Lower/.. Leaving Lower/., the road should 
be followed for about '^ hr., as far as a direction-post, where 
the footpath diverges, ascending gently through meadows, in front 
of some detached houses. After an ascent of 1 hr. a chalet 
with a cross is reached, where the path divides; that to the r. 
leading to the Kulm. that to the 1. to the Rigi-Scheideck (see below). 
In 1 / 4 hr. the path reaches a beautiful wood and traverses it for 
about one hour, before arriving at the valley of the Rigi, which 
is crossed below the chapel of Malchus (p. 60). On the oppo- 
site (1.) slope of the valley, the path unites with that from 
Goldau. The footpath from Lowerz is nowhere fatiguing; the 
ascents are gradual , whilst level tracts and occasionally even 
slight descents afford a pleasant variety. From Lowerz to 
the Rigi-Scheideck (p. 65) 3 hrs., guide desirable. Near Ober- 
(jftchwand the Gersau path is reached. 

From Kiisnacht (p. 48). The path diverges to the r. by 
the figure of a saint, near the end of the village, leading by 
the brook, which is crossed near a large new house; in '/ 2 l> r - 
the ruins of a house destroyed by lire; at the direction-post 
'auf die Rigi' the path turns to the 1. ; in 20 ruin. Rossweid 
is reached, where a rock bears a cross to the memory of a man 
killed by lightning in 1738 (view over the N. part of the Lake 
of Zug; at the N. extremity the white church of Cham, p. 33); 
then through a wood for 20 min.; afterwards a tract of fern is 
traversed (view to the 1. over the Lake of Sempach , to the r. 
over the Lake of Baldegg). In >/4 hr - thp Seeboden-Alp (Inn) 
is reached , where the paths from Immensee and Tell's Chapel 
unite with the Kiisnacht path; in 18 min. the L'pper Seeboden- 
Alp is reached, with a chalet, where refreshments may be had. 

62 Route :>•>. RKil. Kultbad. 

Then, alter ;i steep zijjzag ascent of 1' 4 hr. . the St a lie 1 is 
attained. Theme to the Kulm ( ' '■> hr. ) see p. til. 

From Immense e (p. 4?). About •/., M. from Immensee, 
near the inn /Cur Kiche , the high-road from Kiisnacht to Arth 
is reached (p. 4S); about 50 paces to the 1. of the junction, by 
the inn 'Zur Ilye . the path which ascends to the r. must be 
taken; in l a 4 hr. the lower Seeboden-Alp (see above) is reached, 
where the paths from lmmensee. Telfs Chapel, and Kiisnacht unite. 

From G reppen (p. 48), on the E. bank of the Kiisnacht 
branch of the Lake of Lucerne, a good bridle-path recently con- 
structed also ascends to the summit in -) 1 i-i hrs. 

From Wiiygis [p. 69). This path cannot possibly be missed 
(direction-post near the steamboat-pier ) ; it winds through the 
midst of orchards, the produce of which the traveller has fre- 
quent opportunities of purchasing. The path crosses the spot 
inundated in 1795 by a thick bed of mud, which descended like 
a stream of lava from the Uigi, and as it took a fortnight to reach 
the lake, left the inhabitants ample time to save themselves and 
their property. A number of houses and a large tract of fertile 
land were devastated. At the Chapel of the Holy Cross (Heilig- 
kreuzkapelle) (I 1 4 hr.) good beer may be procured ('/2 fr- P er 
bottle). A wall of rugger 1 rocks is next skirted; 30 min. the 
Hochstein or Felsenthor, an arch formed of two enormous masses 
pf conglomerate , on which rests a third block surmounted by a 
cross. The nature of the rock indicates that occurences similar 
to the landslip of Goldau (p. 54) and the mud-torrent mentioned 
above, have taken place here also. 

The Kaltbad (4727'), 3 / 4 hr. from the Hochstein, is men- 
tioned at p. 58. Through a cutting in the rock to the 1. of the 
hotel the traveller reaches the Chapel of St. Michael, where mass 
is daily celebrated for the herdsmen. The walls are covered 
with votive tablets, one of which extols the virtues of the cold 
spring (41 u Fahr. ) which issues from the adjacent rock. By 
the Chapel, a footpath leads to the (10 min.) */iiinzli (4770'), 
an open rotunda on a projecting rock, from which a magnificent 
\iew is obtained, similar to that from -the Staffel, but with a 
more picturesque foreground. From this point a footpath leads 
to the Staffel , in the same time (40 min.) as the path from 
the Kaltbad; it ascends from the Kanzli (not towards the K. ) 
to the r. as far as the point where the S. portion of the lake 
becomes visible ; it then continues to ascend the ridge of the 
mountain, until, about half way up, it unites with the path from 
the Kaltbad, so that the visitor to the Kanzli need not return 
to the Kaltbad. The direct path from the Kaltbad presents few 
attractions; it leads to the Staffel in 40 min.; from the Staffel 
to the Kulm is an ascent of '/■_» hr. more, see p. 60. 

The Rigi-Kulm (5905') is the loftiest ami inostj;. poin 

H:Beiglit aWe the sea-level in Paris feet. E:I)istance in a direct Unein Swiss leagues (ll:3enpD VIEW OF THE ALPS FIHSTIE BIG! fCULHL MmMmdb$mkMwPfcf>^ 1 t^ 

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Kulm, IUGI. ;>2. Route. 63 

of the Rigi group (^ the entire circumference of which is 25 — 
30 M.), and is covered with verdure to the summit. Its N. side 
makes a precipitous descent into the Lake of Zug, whilst on 
the S. side it is connected with the other heights of the Rigi. 
The large hotel (p. 58), with the adjacent older building, is 
situated about 130 paces below the summit, sheltered from the 
N. and W. winds. 

View. The first object which absorbs the attention of the traveller, 
is the immense chain (120 M. in length) of the snow-clad Alps (comp. the 
accompanying Panorama). The chain commences in the far E. with the 
Sentis in the Canton of Appenzell, over, or near which the lirst ravs of the 
rising sun appear in summer. Somewhat nearer the Rigi, the huge snowy 
crest of the Glarnisch rises above the ridge; then the Todi, in front of 
which the Clariden, to the r. the double peak of the Scheerhorn ; next the 
Windgelle, the sharp pyramid of the Bristenstock, at the foot of which the 
St. Gotthard road begins to rise near Amstag in the valley of the Reuss ; 
the Blackenstock and the Uri-Rothstock , side by side, are both so near 
that the ice of their glaciers can be distinguished; more to the right the 
Titlis, the highest of the Unterwalden range, easily distinguished by its 
immense covering of snow. The eye next travels' to the Berne'se Alps, 
crowning the landscape with their heights of perpetual snow. To the ex- 
treme 1. the Finsteraarhorn, the loftiest of all, adjacent to it the Schreck- 
horn, the three white peaks of the Wetterhorn, the Munch, the Eiger 
with its perpendicular walls of dark rock on the N. side, and the Jung- 
frau. To the W., rise the rugged summits of the sombre Pilatus, forming 
the termination of the Alps in this direction. — Towards the north the 
entire Lake of Zug is visible, and the houses of Arth, Zug, and Cham. To 
the 1. of the Lake of Zug, at the foot of the Rigi, Tell's Chapel, midway 
between Immensee and Kiisnacht, a little to the 1. of the white house; 
separated from the Lake of Zug by a narrow strip of land, the Kiisnacht 
arm of the Lake of Lucerne; more to the \V. Lucerne with its crown of 
battlements and towers, at the head of its bay. Beyond Lucerne is seen 
almost the entire canton of that name, with the Emme meandering through 
it like a thread of silver; the Reuss also appears here and there. More 
distant are the Lake of Sempach, the W. side of which is skirted by the 
railway to Bale, and the lakes of Baldegg and Hallwyl. The western 
and north-western horizon is bounded by the Jura chain, above which 
peep some of the crests of the Vosges. — To the N., hut to the 1. of the 
Lake of Zug, the handsome buildings of the ancient Abbey of Muri are 
visible, beyond which rises the castle of Habsburg; in the distance the 
Black Forest with its highest summits, the Feldberg (to the r.) and the 
Belchen (to the 1.). Beyond the Lake of Zug is seen the ridge of the 
Albis with the Uetliberg, which almost entirely conceal the Lake of Zurich ; 
the extensive cantonal hospital and the cathedral in the town of Zurich 
are, however, visible. In the extreme distance rise the basaltic cones of 
Hohenhoewen and Hohenstoffeln (close together) and the Hohentwiel in 
Swabia. Towards the east, behind the N. slope of the Rossherg, a glimpse 
of the Lake of Egeri, on the ,S. bank of which was fought the famous 
battle of Morgarten. Beyond Arth, opposite the Kulm, is the Rossberg, 
the scene of the disastrous Goldau landslip. Between the Rossberg and 
the E. ramifications of the Rigi, the Lake of Lower?, with its two little 
islands ; above it, the town of Schwyz, at the foot of the barren heights 
of the Mythen, overtopped by the magnificent Glarnisch. To the r. , the 
valley of the Muotta, celebrated in military annals. To the south and 
south-east the different summits of the Rigi form the foreground: 
Hochfluh (below it the Rothenfluh), Scheideck, Dossen, and Schilt, at the 
foot of which lies the Klbsterli. To the 1. of the Schilt, the Lake of 
Lucerne in the vicinity of Beckenried, to the r. that part, of the lake 
known as the Lake of Buochs, the Buochser Horn above it: a little more 
to the r. the Stanser Horn with Stans at its base; nearer the less elevated 

64 Iloute l>:>. KHU. Kulm. 

Biirgcnstock and 11k- Ri^i-i:<itli.sloek. Beyond these hei^m.*. In the I., tin' 
lake (if Sarncn, embosomed in forest, to tlir r. the hay nf Alpnach, con- 
nected with the Lake of Lucerne hy a narrow strait formed by the Lnpper- 
berg. a spur of Pilatus. 

From the middle of July to the middle of September, in 
favourable weather, the hotel is very much frequented (pre- 
caution^ about securing accommodation, see p. 58). The concourse, 
of stranger*, ((imposed of such various elements, is of itself a 
source of no little amusement to the observant spectator. Every 
grade of society is here represented ; all the languages of Europe 
combine to produce a very Babel of incongruous sounds. At 
sunset all are attracted to the summit by one common object. 
Loiterers arrive breathless at the point towards which they have 
been toiling so many hours. An indifferent performer on the Al- 
pine horn awakens the echoes, and sorely tries the temper by his 
illtimed exertions. When the sun has at length disappeared, the 
prosaic, attractions of the supper-table become predominant. Not- 
withstanding the great number of rooms that the hotel contain*, 
it is not an uncommon occurrence for late comers to be con- 
signed to the salle-a-manger for the questionable night's repose 
such an apartment is likely to afford. 

Half an hour before sun-rise, the Alpine horn sound* the 
reveille. All is again noise, bustle, and confusion. A* the sun, 
it is well known, will wait for no man. impromptu toilettes of 
the most startling description are indulged in. V red Indian in 
his blanket would on these occasions be thought extremely well 
and appropriately dressed, and have many imitators . for though 
the custom is interdicted under the penalty of a line, a blanket 
is too ready and tempting a garment to be disregarded. The 
sleepy eye soon brightens, the limb stiffened by the exertions 
of the preceding day is lithe again in that exciting moment ; the 
huge hotel is for the nonce without a tenant; and if the eager 
crowd are not, like the disciples of Zoroaster, ready with one 
accord to prostrate themselves before the great source of light 
and life in which they see the fitting emblem of all good , it 
may be safely premised there are few whose thoughts do not 
turn in silent adoration towards that mighty hand which created 
the great light which rules the day', and whose first beams 
are now being so anxiously expected. 

A faint streak in the E.. which pales by degrees the bright- 
ness of the star*, is the precursor of the birth of day. This 
insensibly changes to a band of gold in the extreme horizon ; 
each lofty peak is in succession tinged with a roseate blush ; 
the shadows between the liigi and the horizon gradually melt 
away; forests, lakes, hills, towns, and villages reveal themselves: 
all is at first, grey and cold, until at length the sun suddenly 
bursts from behind the mountains, in all his majesty, flooding 

Scheideck. K1GI. 22. Route. 65 

the whole of the superb landscape with light and warmth (comp. 

Among the most picturesque points of this magnificent scene, 
which embraces a circuit of nearly 300 miles , are the Lakes of 
Zug and Lucerne, which last branches off in so many directions, 
as almost to bewilder the eye. They approach so close to the 
foot of the Rigi, that it seems as if a stone might be thrown 
into them. Eleven other small lakes are also visible. 

For a quarter of an hour before and after sunrise the view 
is clearest; at a later hour the mists rise and condense into 
clouds, frequently concealing a great part of the landscape. The 
chamois-hunter in Schiller's Tell aptly observes : 
Through the parting clouds only 

The earth can be seen, 
Far down 'neath the vapour 
The meadows of green. 

But the mists themselves have a certain charm , rising sud- 
denly from the depths of the valleys , veiling the Kulm , and 
struggling against the powerful rays of the sun. The different 
effects of light and shade, varying so often in the course of the 
day , are a source of constant admiration to the spectator. At 
a very early hour the Bernese Alps are seen to the best advan- 
tage; and in the evening those to the E. of the Bristenstock. 
Those who have sufficient leisure will not repent devoting 
several days to the Rigi. In the evening and morning the vast 
concourse of visitors is a great hindrance to the pensive study of 
the scene, whilst during the day the lover of nature can without 
interruption contemplate the mighty prospect around him. When 
the view has been sufficiently surveyed, any leisure time may 
be advantageously devoted to visiting the Staffel, the Rothstock, 
the Kaltbad, the Klosterli, or even the Scheideck. 

The temperature often varies as much as 45° within the 24 
hrs. ; plaids and shawls, therefore, should not be forgotten. During 
the prevalence of the S. wind (Fohn) the mountains seem to 
draw nearer , their jagged outlines become more definite , their 
tints warmer. The same effect is produced by the W. wind on 
the Jura, but both are generally the precursors of rain. 

A singular atmospheric Phenomenon is sometimes witnessed on 
the Rigi, as on some other high mountains. When the vapours rise 
perpendicularly from the valleys, on the side opposite the sun, without 
enveloping the mountain itself, a kind of screen is formed, capable of ex- 
hibiting the outline of the mountain and any objects on it. In such a 
case persons standing on the summit of the Rigi have their shadows cast 
upon this misty screen in greatly enlarged proportions, encircled by a 
prismatic halo, which is sometimes double, if the mist is thick. 

The *Rigi-Scheideck (5406'), the ridge of the Rigi running 
S.E. towards the Lake of Lowerz , with the hotel mentioned at 
p. 58 commands a less extensive view than the Kulm, but also 
embracing the entire chain of mountains , and some points not 
visible from the Kulm (see Panorama at the inn). The Schei- 

B-sdekek, Switzerland, jjt|h Edition. 5 

66 Route 23. LAKE OF LUCERNE. 

deck ia a ehftiniiiig retroat, quiet and peaceful, presenting a 
marked wutrast to the incessant bustle of the Kulni. The table- 
land on the summit, upwards of 1 M. in length, affords an 
agreeable promenade; the Dossen (see below) is about a / 4 hr. 

A good path, which begins at the platform of the hotel 'Zum 
.Schwert', near the Klosterli (p. 60J, leads in 2 hrs. to the Schei- 
deck, passing at the foot of the Dossen (f)f)li)') (' ' 4 hr. suffices 
for the ascent of the Dossen ; charming view over the Lake 
of Lucerne and the I'nterwalden districts). The route is easily- 
found. The same may be said of that from Uersau to the 
Scheideck (ascent 3'/4, descent 2 hrs.; path steep, but well- 
kept). On leaving the village a brook is passed, the r. bank of 
which must be followed; near the Saw-mill (l'/i hr.), the path 
crosses to the 1. bank; 20 min. from the top, a narrow ridge 
is reached, where a superb view suddenly opens over the lakes 
of Lowerz and Zug, the Kossberg , Lowerz, Goldau, and Arth. 
Path from Lowerz, see p. 61. A direct path leads from the 
Scheideck to the Kulm, rendering it unnecessary to descend to 
the Klosterli. Horses and guides (unnecessary) see p. o7. 

23. From Lucerne to Como (Milanj by the St. Gotthard. 
Lake of Lucerne. 

143 31. Steamboat from Lucerne to Fluelen in 2 3 |4 hrs. ; Diligence 
(see below) from Fluelen to Camerlata in 22 3 |« hrs. Through-tickets for the 
entire route may be procured at the Post-Office, Lucerne (where coupe- 
places are most easily secured), and also at the S I earn boat-Off ice. 
The luggage is weighed and charged for on board the steamers. 

Steamboats 4 or 5 times daily from Lucerne to Fluelen and back, to 
Waggis in '|j, Beckenried in 1, liersau 1'ji, Brunnen (by some services 
passengers for stat. Treib are disembarked in small boats) 1'1'j, Fluelen 
2 3 |i hrs. ; 3 times a day to Alpnach-Gestad, 2 or 3 times a day to Kiisnacht. 
First class to Fliieleu 4 fr. GO c, 2nd cl. about one-half; return-tickets, 
available for three days, are issued at one fare and a half, but the journey 
cannot be broken ; to Fluelen and back 6 fr. Season-tickets at greatly re- 
duced rates are also issued for the convenience of persons making a pro- 
longed stay on the banks of the lake. — Host of the steamboats to and 
from Waggis and Fluelen touch at the Railway -Station at Lucerne 
(comp. p. 49). — Rowing-boats (p. 50) are seldom used for long ex- 
cursions; the tariff may be consulted at the inns on the lake. 

The wind sometimes changes with extraordinary rapidity, and the 
boatmen maintain thai it blows from a different quarter as each promon- 
tory is rounded. The most violent is the Kohn (the S. wind), which 
sometimes renders the navigation of the S. bay of the lake (Lake of I'ri, 
p. 72) impracticable for sailing or rowing-boats, and dangerous even for 
steamboats. In line weather the Bis e (X. wind) usually prevails on the bay 
of Uri from 10 a. m. to 4 p. m. During the rest of the day a gentle S. wind. 

Caution. Travellers are frequently assailed during their progress by 
guides, voituriers, touters, etc. They are recommended, therefore, to-arrange 
their plans previously to arriving at their destination, and not allow them- 
selves to be inlluenced by the statements of this fraternity. 

Distances. Fluelen to Amstag 10' fe, lo Andermatt 24, to the Hospice 
of St. Oolthaid 34, to Airolo 42, to 1-aido 52',-, to Bellinzoua TS',1. lo 
Lugano S)7'|j, lo Como 1 1 T ■ , * Engl. M. 

Dariiutl/ifH. Ld. VajJntM' 

m T^ *^° -■ >&. £ a) - 


UngKrh ml Us , 

-, -^f 3 V ' > 

LAKE OF LUCERNE. 23. Route. 67 

Migencci From Fluelen to Andermatt in 5 lira., 7 fr. 10 c. ; Airolo 
9 lira., 13 fr. 10 c. ; Faido ll'l* lira., 13i| 2 fr. ; Bellinzona 14»/ 2 hrs., 23 fr. 
20 c. 5 Lugano 18i| 2 hrs., 27 fr. 4U c. ; Camerlata 22 3 | 4 hrs., 31 fr. 90 c. 
The diligences over the St. Gotlhard have three seats in the coupe' (very 
comfortable, booking see above), and six in the interior (the two middle 
seats inside are of course to be avoided as affording little or no view) ; 
in addition to these there are two other seats beside the conductor and driver 
(comp. Introd. IX). 

Carriages. Conveyances may be obtained for which the landlords of 
the hotels at Fliielen, Andermatt and Hospenthal, Airolo, Faido, Bellinzona, 
JIagadino, Lugano (Hotel du Pare) and Cumo provide a change of horses. 
A two-horse carriage, accommodating 4 lo 5 persons, from Fliielen to 
Andermatt or Hospenthal costs 35 fr. ; from Andermatt or Hospenthal lo 
Airolo 30 fr. ; Airolo-Faido id, Faido-Belliuzona 25. Bellinzona-Lugano 2J 
(Bellinzona- JIagadino 15), Lugano-Como 25 fr., altogether 150 fr., and a 
fee of about 24 fr. to the driver in addition (for each station 2 fr. at least) ; 
this mode of travelling is, for 4 persons, little dearer than the coupe of 
the diligence. A written agreement (including fees) should be made with 
the proprietor of the carriage at Fliielen, Como, Lugano, or JIagadino, for 
the entire journey. In order to procure fresh horses it is only necessary 
to show this agreement at each stage. Payment is made at the end of 
the journey. These are the precise charges according to tarilf. Extortionate 
demands are however occasionally made, especially on the Italian side, a 
spurious printed tarilf being even sometimes exhibited; bat those should 
of course be disregarded, and the assistance of the police appealed to if 
necessary. — One-horse carr. (not always to be had) from Fliielen to 
Amstag 9, to Wasen 15, Andermatt or Hntqicnlkal 20 (and back 30) fr., 
and gratuitv. Two- horse carr. from Fliielen to Amstag 15, to Wasen 
25, Andermatt or Hospenthal 35 (and back 55) fr., St. Gotthard 50, Airolo 
65 fr., and gratuity (tariff of Apr. i'Jth, 1869). — Omnibus from Fluelen 
to Altorf 1 fr. 

Pedestrians about to cross the F'urca and Grimsel (RR. 32, 33) may 
drive as far as Klus (p. 75) or Amstag, where the St. Gotthard road, pro- 
perly speaking, begins to ascend. Amstag to Andermatt li> l |a M-, t0 Hos- 
penthal li| a M. farther. Those who wish to see the X. side only ot the 
Pass of St. Gotthard need not proceed beyond Andermatt. 

St. Gotthard Minerals are exposed for sale everywhere, but imposition 
is frequently practised. 

The Pass of St. Gotthard was the most frequented of all the routes 
across the Alps until the commencement of the present century, but as it 
was not practicable for vehicles, it was gradually deserted after the con- 
struction of the roads over the Simplon (R. 63). the Splugen (UK. 88, 8J> 
and the Bernardino (R. 91). In 1820 the governments of the ca,ntons of Lri 
and Tessin commenced the present road , which is lo'la ft. in width. It 
was completed in 1832. In convenience and utility it is second to none ot 
the Alpine passes; and in magnilicence of scenery the St. Gotthard is tar 
superior to any of the other passes. The St. Gotthard and Bernardino 
routes are usuallv practicable for carriages during 4 or 5 months, from the 
early part of June (the Splugen generallj a week earlier), but as late as 
June large quantities of snow are occasionally met with. In winter tra- 
vellers are conveyed across the mountain in small one-horse sledges. Alter 
a heavy snow-storm, communication is often interrupted for a whole week. 

Military History. The canton of L'ri and the valley of the Ueuss were 
the theatre in which the bloodiest scenes of the campaign of the f reucli 
against the Austrians and Russians were enacted in 1799. Marches were 
made and skirmishes fought on heights previously untrodden except Dy 
herdsmen and hunters (comp. R. 7b). In May, 1799, the French under 
Soull retreated into the valley of the Reuss, after having been twice 
prevented from effecting a landing at Fluelen by the men of I n. * r °™ 
the 16th to the 18th of Mav they contended with the Austrians in « 
Leventina (p. 82), and on the 19th they retired to the Unsons u> tug 


<)S Soutt :'.'(. LAKE OF Ll.'CEHNE. From Lucerne 

vallcv nl' 1'rscrn (p. 13SJ. On Mav 28tli'tlio Austrian general £(. ■/«/«» 
obtained possession of (lie Teufelsbrncke. After a succession of skirmishes 
the first decisive battle was fought at Zurich (June 6th), when the Arch- 
duke Charles was victorious, and the French were compelled to evacuate 
the country. The Austrians instead of following up their success, remained 
for two months inactive, thereby enabling their opponents to recover from 
the blow and procure reinforcements. Thus recruited, the French once 
more made their appearance in the field. Lecourbe crossed the Surenen 
(p. 87), Loifoii the Susten (p. 131), and Gudin forced a passage over 
the Grimsel and the Furca (pp. 136, 137). The Austrians, attacked on all 
sides, retreated leisurely to Andermatt (Aug. 14th lo 19th), and retired into 
the Orisons over the Oberalp (p. 312). — About a month after these events, 
information was brought to the French general Lecourbe, that a con- 
siderable army had appeared at the S. base of the St. Gotthard. This in- 
telligence surprised him, as no hostile manifestation had been expected 
in that quarter. It was believed that the Russians had retired from the 
plains of Lombardy across the Splngen, but the veteran Siiwarow had 
returned at the head of 18,000 infantry and 5000 Cossacks, whom he dis- 
mounted, using their horses for the purpose of transporting his artillery. He 
forced 1 lit", passage of the St. Gotthard on Sept. 24th, and drove the French 
before him as far as the Lake of Lucerne, where Lecoitrbe occupied a 
strong position on the 1. hank of the Reuss at Seedorf, having previously 
removed all boats and destroyed the bridge. Sitwarotv^s purpose was 
to effect a junction with the Russian forces which had been stationed under 
Kursakmv near Zurich, not having heard of their defeat at the second 
battle of Zurich (Sept. 25th). But when he found himself unable to pro- 
cure means of transport, be was compelled to retire through the Schachen- 
thal across the Kinzigkulm, through the Muottathal over the Pragel, and 
through the Sernfthal over the steep and difficult I'anixer Pass to Ilanz 
(RR. 73, 76, 77), a masterly retreat without parallel in military annals. 
Constantlv pursued bv the French, he led his armv successfully to the 
valley of "the Rhine (Oct. 9th, 1799), with a loss of 3000 men, more of 
whom were killed by the fatigues and dangers of (he journey, than by the 
bullets of the enemy. After his retreat the French once more occupied 
the canton of I ■ ri as far as the Hospice of the St. Gotthard, which they 
demolished, using its fragmenls as fuel. In May, 1800, 15,000 French 
under Jfuiire// passed over the St. Gotthard into Italy, at the same time 
that Napoleon effected the passage of the Great St. Bernard (p. 237). 

The **Lake of Lucerne ( 1433') ( Vierwnldstiitter-See, or 'Lake 
of the Four Forest Cantons'), hounded by the cantons of L'ri, 
iS'c/itci/r, L'nterrctdden, and Lucerne, is unsurpassed in Switzer- 
land, and even in Europe, in the grandeur and magnificence of 
its scenery. Its beautiful banks are also intimately connected 
with many historical associations, of which Schiller has given us 
an animated picture in his William Tell. The lake is nearly 
cruciform in shape, the hay of Lucerne forming the head, the 
hays of Kusnacht and Alpnach the arms, and the hay of Buochs 
and Lake of l'ri the foot. Length from Lucerne to Fliielen 
'lit M.; width 1 — 4 M. ; between the extremities of the two 
arms lf> M. 

Soon after Lucerne is quitted, the view from the steamboat of 
the town, with its towers and battlements, is strikingly pictu- 
resque fcomp. p. 50). To the 1. rises the Kigi, to the r. Pila- 
tus, in front of the traveller the Biirgenstoek and the Blumalpe 
or Stanser Horn ; behind Pilatus , to the 1. . the Bernese Alps 
gradually become visible, the Sehreckhcirner, Monch, Eiger, and 

to Como. WAGGIS. 23. Route. 69 

Jungfrau ; the Fiuster-Aarhoni only is hidden. The little pro- 
montory to the 1. is the Meygenhorn. In front of it lies Altstad 
('old shore', so named because the bank of the lake formerly 
extended only thus far, both banks of the Reuss from this to 
Lucerne being mere marshes), a small island planted with pop- 
lars. Immediately after Meggenhorn is passed, the lake of Kiis- 
nacht opens to the 1. , and the bay of 8tansstad to the r. , and 
the central point of the cross formed by the lake is attained. 
In the distance to the E. , Kiisnacht (p. 48J is visible; near 
the steamboat, on the 1. , stands the ruin of Neu - Habsbury 
(p. 54). To the 8. the frowning, forest-clad Biiryenberg, or 
liiirgenstock (3(3(38'), rises abruptly from the water (its summit 
commands a singularly beautiful view of the four arms of the 
lake). From this part of the lake the appearance of Pilatus 
(p. 52) is very striking. Its barren and rugged peaks , seldom 
entirely free from cloud or mist (p. 54), frown grimly over the 
cheerful landscape, in marked contrast to the Rigi on the oppo- 
site side of the lake, the lower slopes of which are covered with 
gardens, fruit-trees, and houses, while above, forests and green 
turf clothe it to its very summit. 

Beyond the projecting spur of the Tanzenbury , on a tongue 
of land to the 1. , are the ruins of the castle of Hertenstein [in 
the distance the Scheerhorn (p. 296), with its two horns and 
glaciers, is a conspicuous object]. 

Waggis (Concordia, R. 2, B. i% D. 3 fr. ; *Lowe, R. li/o, 
B. l l /i, A. l'/2) pension 6 fr. Also several pensions, among 
them those of Oeriy, Zimmermann-Schurch, Waldis), surrounded 
by fruit-trees (chestnuts, almonds, figs), a picturesque village, 
the garden of Lucerne, is the usual landing-place for the ascent 
of the Rigi which rises in the rear. [Rowing-boat to Lucerne 
in 2 hrs. 4 1 /.; fr., Alpnach-Gestad in 2'/. 2 hrs. (i 1 /^ fr. , see 
p. 88; charming walks through Greppen to Kiisnacht (p. 48), 
and to Fitznau.j The next station is 

Fitznau (Pension Pfyffer), or Vitznau , with its lofty wall of 
red rock, the Bothenfluh, in which is the Waldisbalm, a stalac- 
tite-grotto about 1000' long, difficult of access. Vitznau is the 
station for the Rigi Railway, the terminus of which is close to 
the lake (comp. p. 59). 

Two promontories here extend far into the lake, apparently 
terminating it, the one a spur of the Rigi, the other a part of 
the Biirgenstock (see above). These are aptly termed the Nasen 
(noses), and may possibly have been once united. Near the K. 
Nase the snow -clad pyramid of the Tbdi (p. 295) and the two 
peaks of the Pragel (p. 304) become visible. Beyond this strait 
the lake takes the name of Lake of Buochs, from the village of 
Buochs fltbssli, *Kreuz) , a pleasant rustic retreat , above which 
rise the Buochser.Hpm and tiie.Stanser Horn (ascent see p. 85). 

70 Route 23. GERSAU. From Lucerne 

One-horse carr. from Buochs to Engelberg 12, two-horse 20 fr. 
and fee (c.omp. p. 84). 

Beckenried(*Sonne,- *H6tel et Pension Feller ; *Mond, R. l'/2> 
B. 1 fr. ; gooil pension at all about 5 fr. ; Stern, on the lake), 
formerly the place of assembly for the delegates from the Four 
Forest. Cantons. Diligence to Stans twice daily, see p. 84; 
two-horse carriage to Brienz about 50 fr. . one-horse 30 fr. ; 
two-horse carr. to Engelberg (p. Si)") 25. and back in one day 
35 fr. Road to Seelisberg, see p. 72. 

On the opposite bank, on a narrow but. fertile strip of land, 
lies the village of 

Gersau (Hotel Muller, with gardens and lake-baths; the land- 
lord is proprietor of the Rigi-Scheideek (p. 65); R. 2—4, B. l'/ 4 . 
L. and A. IV4. D. 3. S. 2 fr. ; Pension excl. room 5 fr., L. 
per week 1, A. 2'/ 2 — 1 fr. ; *Sonne) in the Canton of Schwyz, 
completely enclosed by rocks. Its picturesque houses, scattered 
in a wide crescent on the slope of the mountain, and the sur- 
rounding plantations of fruit-trees and chestnuts, give it a very 
attractive appearance. The village is protected from cold winds, 
and is therefore recommended as a residence for invalids in 
spring or autumm. In the ravine behind it is a silk-mill, and 
above, on the brow of the mountain, the inn on the Rigi-Schei- 
deck (p. 65). During four centuries this diminutive corner of 
land, scarcely 8 sq. M. in extent, and with a population of about 
1000 (Gersau has now 1727 inhab.), enclosed between the 
Fitznauerstock (4750') and the Hoehfluh. boasted of being an 
independent state . the smallest in the world , till the French 
deprived it of its rights in 1798. The town -hall bears the 
following inscription : '■Received into the Confederacy 1315, 
purchased its freedom 1390, assigned to the Canton of Schwyz 
1817'. The manners and customs of Gersau are still in some 
respects peculiar. Not many years ago it was a rendezvous, on 
the anniversary of the consecration of the church, of all the beggars 
of the surrounding country, who during three days indulged in 
fare to which for the rest of the year they were entire strangers; 
the three festive days expired, this choice assembly dispersed 
to their accustomed haunts and avocations. 

The chapel on the bank to the E. of Gersau derives the ap- 
pellation of Kindlismord (infanticide) from the story, it is hoped 
an unfounded one, that a poor fiddler, returning from a wedding 
at Treib, here dashed out the brains of his starving infant against 
the rocks. The spot is indicated by a black cross. A pictu- 
resque footpath leads from Gersau to Brunnen by Kindlismord, 
6 M.; another to Fitznau, 6 M. 

To the E. rise the barren peaks of the two Mythen (6243' 
and 5754 '"). and at their base. 3 M. inland, lies Schvyz (p. 55); 
nearer is situated the church of Inyenbohl, in the distance to 

to Como. BRINNEN. 23. Route. 71 

the r. the Achselberg or Achslenstoek (6830') with its crown of 
bare crags, resembling a ruined castle. On the bank of the lake, 
at the mouth of the Muotta, lies the considerable village of 

Brunnen (* Waldstadter Hof on the lake, new first-class hotel ; 
*Adler, with a 'dependanee' on the Axenstrasse, R. l'/ 2 , B. l'/ii. 
L. and A. 1 fr. ; *Citrhaus A.rcnstein, see below; *Russli, pension 
fr. ; *Pens. Inderbitzi. on the lake ; *Pens. Aufdermaur, on 
the Gutsch; *Hirsch, R. and L. "2, B. 1, D. 2'/ 2 fr. ; lake-baths 
'A> fr.) . the port of the canton of Schwyz, perhaps the most 
beautifully-situated, place on the Lake of Lucerne, of late years 
much frequented, and suitable for a stay of some duration. The 
boatmen and carriage - drivers of Brurnen are noted for the 
exorbitance of their charges. Ferry to Treib l'/2 fr- 

Fine view from the Giitsch, a small eminence behind Brunnen, em- 
bracing the two arms of the lake and the lovely valley of Schwyz. — A 
beautiful walk tn Morschach (2156') (2 M.), which may be reached by a 
good carr. - road from the Axenstrasse. From the "Curhaus Axenstein 
(Hotel and Pension), a large establishment, recently erected on an eminence, 
at the so-called 'Brandli\ and provided with pleasure-grounds, a splendid 
survey of both arms of the lake may be enjoyed. In a geological point 
of view the numerous erratic blocks found near Morschach are interesting 
fcomp. Introd. XIV). — The Stoss (4232'), a chapel on the E. spur nf 
the Frohnalp, commands a fine view, and is the site of a small sanitary 
estab. (pension 4 fr.) (a. boy 'should be taken as guide). — From the "Frohn- 
alp (5787'), l l l? hr. S. of the Stoss, a magnificent view (panorama l 1 ^ fr. ; 
the fore-ground surpassing that of the view from the Rigi), embracing the 
entire Lake of Lucerne (inn on the summit). — Walk on the Axenstrasse 
(p. 73). — Other excursions; to the Lake of Lowerz (p. 55), returning by 
Schwyz (p. 55) ; to the Munttathal (p. 303) as far as the fall of the Gestiibt- 
bach near Kied ; to the Kindlismord Chapel (p. 70) and Gersau (p. 70); 
to the Riitli (see below); to Seelisberg, Bauen etc. (see below); to Tell's 
Chapel (p. 72); to the Jlyt.hen (p. 55). 

Opposite Brunnen lies Treib (steamboat-stat., see p. 66), a 
small harbour in the canton of Uri, the landing-place for Seelis- 
berg (2490') , a village 1 hr. above the lake (Pension Hauser, 
5 fr.). 

The "Curhaus Sonnenberg, situated near the Chapel of Maria- Sonnen- 
berg (2759'), 20 min. above Seelisberg, consists of two houses sheltered by 
a wood, and much frequented for the sake of the pure mountain air and 
the whey-cure, from June to the end of September. Pension 5 fr. and 
upwards. Beautiful view from the Keinzli, 3 |4 hr. (in the forest to the r.) 
over the lake and the plain as far as the Weissenstein. About 'Is hr. S. 
of the Curhaus lies the picturesque Seelisberger See, at the precipitous" 
If. base of the Niederbauen or "Seelisberger Kulm (6323'), which 
mav he ascended from the Curhaus (guide necessary, 5 fr. and fee) in 
3'| 2 — 4 hrs., or from Emmatten (see below) in 3 , | 2 hrs. The path to 
Emmatten is followed towards the N., passing the Seelisberg lake; after 
i|... hr. the route is to the 1. towards the base of the Bauen. The ascent 
is steep, and after rainy weather laborious. The narrow path leads part 
of the way through wood, descending for a short distance. None but good 
walkers should attempt the excursion. — The ascent, however, is easier 
if the path to Emmatten be followed for 1 hr. ; the route then ascends 
rapidly across meadows for 3 |4 hr., traverses the wood for 1 hr.. and gra- 
dually" sloping pastures for >|2 hr. , reaches the chalet (Alpine fare, 
bed of hay if necessary), whence the summit is attained in 40 min. more. 
The ascent from Emmatten is the shortest, as it, begins >\t hr. from the 
village. The "view is preferred by many to that from the Rigi. 

72 Route 23. TELL'S PLATTE. From Lucerne 

From Beckenried fp. 70) toSeelisberg Zijahrs., picturesque road 
as far as Emmatten ("Pension Schiinegg, from 5 fr. -, baths, whey, etc.), 
the lake being visible up to this point. If the traveller intend to proceed 
to Bauen (charmingly situated on a bay of the Lake of Uri), to be ferried 
from thence to Fliielen, he should take the path towards the lake, s jt 31. 
beyond Seelisbcrg, where the precipitous walls of rock (the Schwandiflvh, 
the Te ufe Ism iinster, see Schiller's Tell, Act IV, Scene 1), rise from the 
lake, and thence proceed by the old chateau of Beroldingen to Bauen. 
This is a very delightful walk. 

Near Bruimen, the S. arm of the lake, called the Lake of 
Uri, commences. The banks approach each other, and the preci- 
pices become almost perpendicular. Lofty snow-clad mountains, 
often partially veiled with clouds, are visible through the gorges 
which open at intervals. 

At the extremity of the sharp angle which here abuts on the 
lake, a short distance from the W. bank, the Wytenstein, or 
Mytenstein, a pyramid of rock, 80' in height, rises from the 
water, bearing the inscription in colossal gilt letters: l Dem 
Sanger Tell's, Friedrich Schiller. Die Vr-Cantone, 1859.' (To 
Frederick Schiller, the bard of Tell. The Swiss Cantons. 1859.) 
The rock bears a second inscription to the memory of a young 
Swiss officer, who lost his life by an accident at this spot some 
years ago. 

About '/ 4 hr. farther, below Seelisberg (p. 71), and f) min. 
from its landing-place, are the three springs of the Rutli, which 
trickle from an artificially planted rock , and are surrounded by 
pretty grounds. This plateau, with the *inn built in 1868, be- 
longs to the Confederation . The spot is thus described by Walter 
Fiirst in Schiller's Tell: 

"On the lake's left bank, 

As we sail hence to Brunnen, right against 

The Jlythenstein, deep hidden in the wood 

A meadow lies, by shepherds called the Rootli, 

Because the wood has been uprooted there. 

'Tis where our canton's bound'ries verge on yours ; 

Thither by lonely by-paths let us wend 

At midnight and deliberate o'er our plans". 
At this romantic spot, on the memorable night of Nov. 7th, 1307, 
33 men, from Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, assembled and bound them- 
selves by an oath to be faithful to each other, and not to rest until they 
had ejected their oppressors from the soil. Tradition relates that on the 
spot where the three confederates, Werner Staujfarher of Steinen in Schwyz, 
Erni (Arnold) of Melchthal in Unterwalden, and Walter Fiirst of Atting- 
hausen in Uri, stood when the oath was taken, three fountains sprang up, 
over which a hut was subsequently erected. 

About 20 mill, later, the steamer passes Sissikon (Pension 
I'ri-Kothstock, 4 — 4'/-) fr) on the E. bank. The rugged Achslen- 
stock (p. 71) is visible through the gorge. The steamboat next 
reaches Toll's Platte, a ledge of rock at the base of the Axenfluh 
or Axenberg (33f>3'), where, shaded by overhanging trees and 
almost washed by the waters of the lake , stands the romantic 
Chapel of Tell, containing a few rudely-executed frescoes of scenes 
from Tell's history. It is said to have been erected by the Canton 

to Como. AXENSTRASSE. 23. Route. 73 

of Uri on the spot where the Swiss liberator sprang out of Gessler's 
boat, and to have been consecrated in 1388 (31 years after the death 
of Tell), in the presence of 114 persons who had been personally 
acquainted with the hero. On the Sunday after Ascension-day, 
mass is performed here , and a patriotic sermon preached ; this 
service is attended by the inhabitants of the neighbouring shores 
in large numbers, their boats being all gaily decorated for the 
occasion. Near the chapel the lake is 800' in depth. The pe- 
culiar, contorted formation of the calcareous strata of the Axen- 
fluh attracts the attention even of the unscientific. The new 
* Axenstrasse , leading from Gersau to Brunnen and Fliielen, 
generally lying low on the bank of the lake, and affording a 
succession of beautiful views, is also extremely interesting from 
its bold construction, and in several places penetrates the rock 
by means of tunnels. On this road, immediately above Tell's 
Platte, 2 L /2 M. from Fliielen, is situated Tell's Platte Hotel, 
R. 1, B. i, A. l /. 2 fr., Pension 5 fr. ; also a steamboat-station. 

As soon as the chapel is passed, Fliielen becomes visible. The 
scenery of this portion of the lake (from the chapel to Fliielen 
20 min.) is strikingly imposing. Opposite the 'Platte' on the W. 
bank lies Isleten, at the mouth of the Isenthal (worthy of a visit), 
which branches off in two directions near the village of the same 
name (rustic *inn) : one branch (to the S.) is the Grosse Isen- 
thal, bounded by the Engelberger-Rothstock (9256'), the other the 
Kleine Isenthal, terminated by the L'ri-Rothstock ('J620'). 

Through the former of these two valleys (the Grossthal), the tra- 
veller can either proceed to Wolfenscltiess (p. 83), passing (to the W.) be- 
tween the Hohenbriesen (7898') and the Kaiserstuhl, over the Schonegg-Pass 
(G827', very steep on the farther side), and by Ober-Rickenbach (2927'); or 
he may take the route to Engelberg (p. 85), to the S.W., by the Eothgratli. 
Through the other valley (Kleinthal) a rugged path leads to the rocky 
terrace ' im Kessel', passing the Musenalp (2 hrs.), ascending steep strata 
of slate, then crossing a glacier with a gentle slope on the S. side of the 
mountain to the summit of the " Uri - Rothstock (9621'), in 8 — i) hrs. An 
easier, but considerably longer path leads by the Schloszfel&en in the Gross- 
thai over the Schwarzfirn-Olacier by the Hangbaum-Alp to the Bliintlisatp, 
and across the rocks (disintegrated by exposure to the weather) to the 
summit. If the traveller wishes to reach the top early in the morning, 
he must spend the night in the chalet on the Hangbaum - Alp. Descent 
through the Grossthal (see above); guide necessary, 15 fr. a day. From 
Engelberg the summit may also be attained in 7 — 8 hrs. The Uri-Koth- 
stock is, like the Titlis, almost perpendicular on the E. and S.E. sides, 
and is composed of gigantic and contorted limestone rocks, torn asunder 
and piled one on another in fantastic but magnificent confusion. The view 
from the summit is extremely imposing : to the S. is the chain of the 
Alps, with the Sentis at their E. extremity ; immediately below lies the 
Lake of Lucerne at a depth of 811)0'; to the K.E. and X. the view embraces 
the Kigi, Pilatus, and the Entlebuch mountains, the lower hills of X. 
Switzerland, and the plains of Germany. 

On the ridge between the two peaks of the Iri-Rothstock 
lies a glacier distinctly visible; on the 1. is the QiUchen (806;*)'), 
rising abruptly from the lake , with its summits resembling a 
castle. Between Fliielen and Senior f (1447', the village to the 

74 Route :'.y. U.TORF. l'r><m Lucerne 

r., with a convent), the Reuss (see below) flows into the lake. 
The valley of the Reuss is bounded by the huge pyramid of the 
Bristenstock (10,080')- Above Fliielen rise the Great and Little 
Winduelle f 10,463'). 

*2r>i/ s M. Fliielen (1433'). Ital. Fiora (*Adler, R. from 2, B. 
I'/o. F>. 3. A. and L. 1 fr. : *Kreua . moderate; Tell; all near 
the quay; Baths in the lake, on the Axonstrasse , 1/, M. from 
Fliielen. Carriages, see p. 67), the port of Uri. Behind the 
church is the small castle of Rudenz , which formerly belonged 
to the family of Attinghausen. The Reuss has been here con- 
verted into a canal ( i/ 2 hr. walk, or l / t hr. by boat to its influx). 
The St. Gotthard route, as far as Andermatt, is most interesting 
ground for the botanist. 

Altorf (lf>3:V) or Uri (*Adler or Post, R. 11/,. B. 1 fr. : 
*Sc.hl>i*sel ; *I.i'nre ; Sonne). 2 M. from Fliielen. situated in a 
fertile valley surrounded by mountains, is the capital of the 
canton of 1 ri , with a. pop. of 2724 (7)0 Prot. ). The church 
contains (o\er the S entrance) a 'Nativity' by Vandyck; in the 
X. chapel an 'Entombment' by Carracci ; adjacent is a marble 
Madonna in relief, by H. Imhof of Rome, placed here in 1848. 

This;inl little town (rebuilt after a conflagration in 1799) would 
havi' little interest for travellers, if tradition did not point it out as the 
.scene of the exploits of Tell, which resulted in the liberation of Switzer- 
land from the Austrian yoke. — A Colossal Flattie of Tell, in plaster, pre- 
sented to Altorf in 1861 by the riflemen of Zurich, is said to occupy the 
spot whence the intrepid archer aimed at the apple placed on the head of 
his son at the command of the tyrant Gessler. At the base is an inscription 
from Schiller's Tell. About 150 paces from this stands a fountain, with a 
statue of flrsler, the bailiff of the village (on one side of the banner are 
the arms of the canton, the head of a bull ; on the other the arms of the 
village), erected at his own expense ! Tradition identifies this spot with 
that of the lime-tree by which Tell's child stood during the agonizing 
moment when he awaited the arrow of his father, and which is said to 
have floiirished here till 1567. It is maintained by some that the lime- 
free was thirty paces farther back, on the ground where the tower now 
stands: the latter is, however, known to have existed in the 14th century. 
On its sides are frescoes representing Tell's celebrated feat with his bow, 
his leap from the boat, and the death of Gessler. and below: 'The battle 
with Prince Leopold at Morgarten, Nov. 15th, 131")' (see p. 301). 

The Capuchin Monastery, above the church, claims to be the 
most ancient in Switzerland. It commands a beautiful view; so 
also the neighbouring Pavilion Waldeck. (Ascent by the tower, 
or above the statue of Tell. ) Above the convent lies the Bann- 
■trald, a 'sacred grove', in which the woodman's axe is proscribed, 
as it protects Altorf from the falling rocks (see Schiller's Tell, 
Act III. Scene 3). 

On the r.. beyond the town, is situated a Convent, on the 1. 
the Arsenal; farther on, to the 1. Burglen (1804') (*Tell, mode- 
rate, suitable for a prolonged stay), a village, picturesquely situ- 
ated on a height at the entrance of the Schachenthal . the birth- 
place and home of Tell. The supposed site of hi< house is 

to Como. AMSTAG. 23. Route. 75 

occupied by a Chapel, erected in 1522, the walls of which are 
painted with scenes from his life. The inhabitants of the 
Schachenthal [through which a bridle-path leads over the Klau-- 
sen-Pass to the Baths of Stachelberg (p. 294) in the Linththal], 
are said to be the handsomest race in Switzerland. 

The road here crosses the rapid Sch'ichenbac.h in its artificial 
bed. near its junction with the Reuss. The large meadow on 
the r. near the bridge is used as a place of assembly by the 
cantonal authorities. 

The Constitution of the Canton of Uri (pop. 14.800, Rom. Calli.) is 
purely democratic. The supreme power is vested in the people, who as- 
semble on the first Sunday in May in the above-mentioned meadow (Lands- 
gemeinde.platz ) to consult on the affairs of the canton. Everv male in- 
habitant who has attained his twentieth year, the clergy excepted, is en- 
titled to speak. The dignitaries, on horseback, with the Landamniann at 
their head, march in grand procession to the place of assembly; in front 
is a small detachment of military, next a band, then the banner of the 
canton borne by ushers in yellow and black uniforms, followed by two 
men in ancient costume of the same colours, bearing the two horns of the 
'Bull of Uri'. The subjects to be taken into consideration are proclaimed 
to the assembled multitude from a semi-circular stage erected for the 
purpose. Each orator is heard in turn, then the voting (by show of hands) 
begins. At the close of the proceedings, the Landammanii and other dig- 
nitaries resign their powers; they are either reelected, or others are 
chosen in their stead. 

The handsome church among fruit-trees on the I. is that of 

On the opposite side of the Reuss the church-tower of Attinyhausen 
and the ruins of the castle of that name are visible on the r. In this 
castle Werner von Atlingfiar/.-ien, the last but one of his race, mentioned 
by Schiller in his William Tell, died in 1307. Waller Filrst fp. 72), one 
of the three confederates of the Riitli and fatln'r-iD-law of Tell, was also 
a native of Attinghausen ; the house now tenanted by Herr Engstler, is 
said to have been his dwelling. 

l'/4 M- RUtMngen. Near (3 M.) Klus, opposite to the vil- 
lage of Erstfelden. the road approaches the Reuss. (Path from 
Erstfelden to the Surenen-Pass see p. 78.) To the I. rise the 
rugged peaks of the Little Windgelle, or Setcelistork (9846'), and 
the adjacent Great Windrjelle or Kalkstcck (10,463'). 

The Valley of Ers I I'elden , on the 1. bank of the Reuss, opens 
near the parish church, and extends to the Schlossberg Glacier (over which 
a fatiguing path leads in 10 — 11 hrs. to Engelberg ; guide necessary), a 
walk of 4 hrs. between steep and lofty mountains. It contains two Alpine 
lakes, the gloomy Faulensee PI? hr. from the glacier) and the Obersee ( 3 |4 hr. 
beyond). The Favlenbacti, which flows out of the latter, forms a beautiful 
cascade. The whole excursion occupies 10 to 11 hrs. ; guide, Jos. Piintener 
at Klus. 

On the road to (2y 2 M.) Silinen (1771') a beautiful view is 
obtained of the pyramid of the Bristenstock (10,085'), which 
occupies the entire background , and is visible from base to 
summit. Near the chapel of the 'fourteen champions' stands the 
tower of the ancient castle of the noble family of Silinen. 

lO'/o Amstag (1713') (*Stern [Post]; *Kreuz; *Hirsch; Lowe; 
in all, R. 1 1/ 2 , B. 1 fr.), a small, substantially built village, 
beautifully situated at the foot of the Bristenstock and the Wind- 

76 Route 23. MADERANER THAL. From Lucerne 

gelle , near the confluence of the Karstelenbach and the Reuss, 
at the mouth of the Maderaner Thai, through which the Karstelen- 
bach flows. 

The "Maderaner Thai (4 hrs. in length from Bristen to the Hiifi 
Glacier), enclosed by lofty mountains (K. the Great and Little Windgelle, 
the Great and Little liuciien, the Scheerhorn ; 8. the Bristenstock, Weiten- 
alpstock, Oberalpstock, and Hiifistock), and traversed by the impetuous 
Karstelenbach, is rich in picturesque and imposing scenery, and has been 
more frequently visited since the erection of the inn (see below). The 
path (longer route by the Staffeln see below) crosses the Karstelenbach at 
Amstag and ascends rapidly cither to the r. CI4 hr. longer) or to the left 
through forest, past the Chapel of St. Antony to ( 3 |4 hr.) the hamlet Bristen 
(refreshments at the cure's). Here the path slightly descends and crosses 
to the r. bank of the foaming Karstelenbach. After 7 min. the bridge to 
the r., leading to the narrow Etzlithal (see below) is to be avoided. After 
25 min. the path recrosses to the 1. bank (tine view from the bridge) and 
leads to the (5 min.) houses 'Am Schattigen Berg\ It then ascends the 
meadows to the (4(1 min.) inn of the Lunge nslutz, and in 5 min. more to 
the Cross of the same name, which commands a fine view (during the 
ascent the fall of the Golzernbach is seen on the opposite side of the 
valley). Then across the Griessenbach, partly through pine -forest, to the 
chalets of Stossi. The path crosses the brook at a Saw-mill, leads between 
the pine-trees, and passes the houses i. 3 \ t hr.) on the Balmwald. In >| 4 hr. 
more the "Hotel Alpenclub, recommended as head - quarters for excursions 
among the Todi-group, is attained. Fine view from the garden. Interest- 
ing walk (2 — 3 hrs. there and back) to the "Hiifi-Glacier; from the inn a 
rocky eminence is reached in 3j 4 hr. , whence a fine survey is obtained of 
this vast ice -cataract; then a descent of l'| 2 hr. to the extremity of the 
glacier, where the Karstelenbach issues from it ; across the latter to the 
waterfalls of the Lammernbach and the * Stauberbach, descending from the 
Brunmthal (especially imposing towards evening; best point of view a 
green hill rising from the bottom of the valley). Keturn-route to the inn 
by the chalets of Guffern and Balmwald. ~ To the traveller returning to 
Amstag the path (6 hrs.) by the Staffeln, the lofty pastures on the X. 
slope of the valley, is recommended: from the inn (with guide) in 2' |, hrs. 



BoMsehingel) a descent in a~stra'ight"' dir^o™ y," t t he " ™* dle ' )l %a 
the Auengiiter (p. 204) to Stachelben, V W ' b> the Altenorenalpuni 
Sand-Alp (p. 2W5) in 2'u , and tl ?nce ?' \° r t0 the r ' t0 the Ufpef 
interesting Youte). ThosJVvho selec ' he latter JV" -fTr^ ( ,Yn7t 
the chalets of the Sandalp (bed of hav) ™1 \ a Y > / { ^S^, sleep at 
following morning. (lor this route and U.e^enToTt „e° T S ? Chelberg . ^ 
- By the Krunni Pass to Dissen t is (81 u h ™ \ °' the ^ odl . see p. 295.) 
inferior to the last; a trustworthy guide nm.«;„ 11 gran , d excursl0n > b , ut 
IS. side of the valley by (H |4 hr.) Rinderbiihl u, t ne 7 >'h Pa ! h _? si: ™ ds ° n the 
which annually alters its form and requires cautirm T* o '"""' < ' lac "'''' 
culminating point is reached (S!l7(i'|, nnumandme a , ,"„ k S - m ° r f e I™ 
Oberalpstock. Hence a descent through the wil,i j , Y\ perb view of ,he 
Arietta and ( i|, hr. ) Vissentis (p. 311: ). - From ^' e """"" »<> (3 hrs.) 
Etzlithal and across the Krruzli I'ass to s ud 1 g . tlu '" ugh "' e 

tiguing walk: to the pass (Till/) in f>', 2 his., whence it . (bl ' rs -)' a ta ' 
scended to Sednm (p. Mil). e ■ Sl ' , ""that is de- 



(%Ti Seffiji zona^ 

to Conio. GOSCHKNEN. J;i. Route. 77 

The Oberalpstock (10,925'), ascended from the Jladeranerthal, is a 
strikingly grand point of view. Ascent from the inn to the Brunni Pass 
(see above) 5>| 4 hrs. ; thence to the r. , over snow and loose stones to 
the summit in 2 hrs. more. 

The ''Bristenstock (10,085'), ascended from Amstag (in 7, down in 5 hrs., 
with guide), is recommended to mountaineers. It affords an admirable 
survey of the mountains of the Reuss and Maderaner valleys. 

At the bridge over the Reuss, beyond Amstag, the St. Gott- 
liard route, which here rises above the bed of the valley, strictly 
spealiing, commences; on the 1. is the mighty pyramid of the 
Bristenstock, while the foaming Reuss rushes through the ravine 
below, forming a succession of waterfalls. In the early part of 
summer, huge masses of avalanche-snow, presenting the appearance 
of earth or stone detritus, lie in some of the gorges, and do not 
molt until the height of summer. Beyond 

Intschi (2190') (l'/ 2 M. from Amstag) a fall of the Intschi- 
alpbach is passed. A picturesquely situated bridge carries the, 
road again to the r. bank of the Reuss. A short distance tar- 
dier the road crosses the Fellibach, on the banks of which the 
violet-moss (a reddish lichen, with violet-scent) grows plentifully 
on the rocks. On an eminence on the opposite bank stands the 
hamlet of O'urtnellen. Beyond the village of Wyler is a third 
bridge, the Pfaffenspruny ('priest's leap') ('2(5'2'2'), by which the 
road recrosscs to the I. bank. Far below, the river is precipi- 
tated through its narrow gorge. View beautiful in both direc- 
tions. The road crosses the impetuous Mayenbach (Mayen-Reuss), 
which rises on the Susten (R. 31), shortly before reaching 

1 6 M.) Wasen (3010') (*Oehs, R. 1, B. li/ 2 fr.,; *H6tel des 
Alpes; Krone), a considerable village with loftily situated church 
(magnificent view from the terrace). The footpath ascending 
to the r. , (i0 yds. beyond the bridge, cuts off the windings of 
the road. 

Near (3/ 4 \| . ) Wattingen is the fourth bridge over the Reuss, 
below which is a beautiful fall of the Rohralpbach to the r. The 
village consists of a few roadside houses, one of which , bearing 
a representation of the Riitli conspiracy , is said to have been 
the original dwelling of the Barons of Wattingen. 

By the next (3/4 M.) bridge (Schvnibruck) the 1. bank of the 
Reuss is reached. Near (8/4 M.) Goschenen (3615') (*Rbssli, 
R. l</ 2 , B. 1, D. l'/2 fr-5 Hotel des Alpes), on the 1. of the road. 
is the Teufelsstein, a huge mass of rock. Magnificent glimpse of 
the Gosohenenthal , which here opens, and is traversed by the 
Goschenen Reuss; in the background, beyond the solitary Obschenen- 
Alp, the valley is terminated by the Winterberg (10,8FiO'), from 
which the Dammafirn , an imposing glacier , descends in two 

By the Hciderlibriick (3816'), the sixth bridge, the r. bank of 

78 Route :>:i, DEVIL'S BRIDGE. I'rom Lucerne 

the Reuss is regained. Here, about '/ 4 M. beyond Goschenen, 
the sombre and rocky defile of the '"SclwUenen (2 M. long) begins, 
bounded by vast and almost perpendicular walls of solid gra- 
nite , at the base of which dashes the impetuous lleuss. The 
road ascends the mountain by numerous windings, most of which 
may be avoided by selecting the footpath or the old bridle- 
path. Beyond a few of these windings, the now disused Long 
liridye is passed (pedestrians save time by crossing it). Then 
by the Sprenyibrilck, the seventh bridge, the road returns to the 
1. bank. The road in the Schiillenen is much exposed to ava- 
lanches , and is , at one of the most dangerous spots , protected 
by a gallery, 80 yds. in length, at the two extremities of which 
are the arms of I'ri. 

The *Devil's Bridge (2 1 /o M- from Goschenen) or Teufels- 
briicke (the eighth), in the midst of a scene of wild desolation, 
is now reached (i()'29'). The Reuss here forms a beautiful fall, 
which is precipitated into the abyss 100' beneath, while its spray- 
bedews the bridge above. The wind (facetiously called 'Hutschelm', 
or 'hat-rogue', by the natives) sometimes comes down the gorge 
in violent gusts, and endangers the hats of unwary travellers. 

The new bridge, constructed of granite in 1830. has a single 
arch of 26' span. The old bridge, still in existence 20' below, 
is now disused and entirely overgrown with moss. 

A battle between the Austrians and French took place here on Aug. 
14th, 1799. The former had taken up a strong position near the bridge, 
but were unable to withstand the impetuous attack of the French. They 
therefore blew up the small side-arch, in consequence of which hundreds 
of soldiers were precipitated into the abyss, and communication was 
cut off. The French then scaled the r. bank of the lleuss, and compelled 
the Austrians to retire in the night. This advantage, however, was not 
long maintained •■, a month later Suwui'ow marched over the .St. Uotthard 
and pressed hard upon the French, who had tilled the L'rner Loch (a tunnel 
constructed in 17U7 ) with masses of rock. The obstacles were, however, 
removed, and the road re-opened. Xear the ruins of the Teufelsbrucke 
the Russians found themselves exposed to a murderous lire, in spite of 
which they forced a passage, and drove the French hack as far as the 
Lake of Lucerne. 

Immediately beyond the Teufelsbrucke the road winds up- 
wards past a chapel to the (7) min.) TJrner Loch y, a tunnel 
80 yds. long, 10' high and 17' wide, cut through the solid rock 
in 1707. Until the construction of the new road this gallery was. 
only broad enough for pedestrian- and horses, but will now admit 
two carriages abreast. Prior to 171)7 a hanging chain - bridge, 
the IStiiubende liriicke, conducted the traveller round the Teufeli- 
stein, through a constant shower of spray. 

t "Black yawning a portal, thy soul to affright, 

Vet beyond it there smiles but a land of delight, 

Where the autumn in marriage is met with the spring ! . .li/iitlei 

lo Combi ANDERMATT, 23. Route. 79 

The Valley of JM or Urseren, which the road enters on 
emerging from the gloomy Urner Loch, forms a striking contrast 
to the savage region just traversed. This peaceful valley (p. 138), 
with its rich pastures, is watered by the Reuss, and surrounded 
by lofty barren mountains partially covered with snow. Before 
the Reuss had forced a way for itself by the Schollei.en (p. 77), 
this valley was in all probability a lake. Corn flourishes here 
to a very limited extent, and trees are scarce. Winter lasts 
nearly 8 months, and during the brief summer fires are often 
necessary. The 1400 inhab. of the valley gain their livelihood 
by feeding cattle, and conveying travellers and their luggage 
across the .St. Gotthard. 

13'/o M. Andermatt (4730') or Urseren, Italian Or sera 
(*Sl. Gotthard, R. 2, B. iy 2 , D. 3, A. 3/ 4 f r . ; post and telegr. 
office opposite; Dtei Kbniye; * Hotel Oberulp , new; *Bellevue, 
a large new estab. on the Oberalp road; A' cone), 1 M. from the 
Teufelsbriicke, is the principal village (tio7 inhab.) of the valley. 
Adjoining the church, which is believed to date from the time 
of the Lombards, is a charnelhouse , the coping of which is or- 
namented with skulls bearing inscriptions (comp. p. 47). From 
the *Mariuhilf chapel , above the St. Gotthard inn , a good 
survey of the valley is obtained : in the background the Furca 
with its inn, to the 1. the Mutthorn; a few paces behind the 
chapel, the Six-Madun , or Badus (see below), is visible; to 
the E. in long zigzags ascends the road over the Oberalp (R. 78). 

The pine -copse at the foot of the Annabery and its glacier, 
much thinned by the French, Austrians, and Russians in 1799, 
protects the village from avalanches, and is therefore sacred from 
the axe of the woodman. 

The fine Collection of St. Gotthard Minerals of the late 
chaplain has been purchased by the proprietor of the 'Three 
Kings', and is exhibited in a small house opposite. — M. .\ayer- 
Donazians has a good collection of minerals and nat. hist, objects 
for sale at moderate prices. 

From Andermatt by the Oberalp to Dissentis in the valley of 
the Vorder-Rhein (Grisons), see R. 78. — From Andermatt over 
the Furca and Grimsel, see RR. 33,32. 

The Six-Madun or Badus (UlilC'ji a vast triangular pyramid of rock 
forming the closing barrier of the Oberland of the Prisons, is frequently 
ascended (in 4 l J-> hrs.) from Andermatt; a fatiguing walk, guide necessary 
(ascent from Sedrun less laborious and shorter, p. 311). '1 he traveller may- 
then descend to the Toma-See ( p. 311 ), and thence to the valley of the 
Vorder-Rhein. The summit, which consists of rugged heaps of gneiss blocks, 
commands a view of innumerable peaks of the Alps of the Orisons, Bern, 
and the Valais, with their snow-fields and glaciers, and of the Vorder- 
Rheinthal in its entire extent. 

On the way from Andermatt to Hospenthal the Glacier of 
St. Anna is a conspicuous object, high above the mountain-ridge 
on the 1. 

SO Route :>.i. ST (iOTTH.VHD. From Lucerne 

Hospenthal (4787') ( Meverhof, a lai'Rc building beyond the 
village. It. 2, K. l'|j, 1). 3, Pension 6 fr. ; Liiwe, more moderate), 
l'/j M. from Andcrmatt, derives its name from a hospice long 
since suppressed. The tower on the hill is said to be the 
remains of a castle built by the Lombards. The magazine (Sust) 
at the end of the village is now disused. 

The St. Gotthard Road now ascends the mountain in numerous 
windings through a desolate valley, on the 1. bank of that branch 
of the liouss which flows from the Lake of Lucendro, and below 
Hospenthal unites with the ether branch descending from the 
Furca (p. 139). From its source to Andcrmatt the Keuss has a 
fall of '200', and from Andcrmatt to Fliielen 3000' more. It, is 
crossed for the last time in the canton of Tessin, not far from 
its source (the Lake of Lucendro, 083 i'; to the r., but not visible), 
by the Rodunt-Rridye (0'253'), P/4M. from the culminating point 
of the pass. At the summit of the Pass of St. Gotthard (61136'") 
the road passes between several small lakes. 

The remark is sometimes made, that although the St. Gotthard 
is frequently mentioned, it is never seen. This is to a certain 
extent true, inasmuch as it is not a distinct peak, but an entire 
mountain-group which bears this name. The peaks to the W. 
are the Fibbia (8996'), the Pizzo di Vinei, or Lucendro (9708'), 
the Winterhorn, or Piz Orsino (8750'); farther W. the Leckihorn 
(10,007'), 1 lie Pizzo Pesciora (10,410'), and the Pizzo Rotondo 
(10,650 ft.). The last of these is the loftiest and least accessible 
of the St. Gotthard peaks. To the E. . immediately above the 
summit of the pass, rises the Sa.ino di San Guttardo (8983'); 
beyond it the. Monte Prosa (9849 ft.), and still farther X. E. the 
*Piz'.o Centrale, or Tritthorn ( 10.006' ), erroneously termed Blau- 
berg on Dufour's map. The latter has frequently been ascended 
(in 3'/ 2 - 4 '/.; hi.-.) since the execution of a panorama of the 
view by lleim (guide 6 fr., and 1 fr. gratuity for each person). 
Path constructed by the landlord of the Hotel de la l'rosa. Last 
part fatiguing. Magnificent view; the Piz Basodino, the Monte 
Hosa group, Galenstoek, and Todi are the most conspicuous 

10 M. Albergo del S. Gottardo (0807'), post-stat. , 1/4 M 
to the S. of the culminating point, a large gloomy inn in the 
Italian style. Opposite to it are the Hospice (telegr. stat.) and 
the small "Hotel de la Prosa (H. and L. '2, B. 1 fr.), recently 
erected. The Hospice, erected at the expense of the canton of 
Ticino , contains 15 beds for poor travellers, who are received 
gratuitously (upwards of 10.000 are entertained annually). New- 
foundland dogs of a superior race may be purchased here at prices 
varying from 75 to 400 fr. St. Gotthard minerals at fixed prices. 
From the hospice to Airolo is a walk of l 1 ^ hr. (by short cuts), 
ascent 3 hrs. ; the diligence takes the same time. 

to Como. AIROLO. 23. Route. 81 

In winter and spring the snow is often piled up in heaps 
40' high, and sometimes remains unmelted on each side of the 
road throughout the summer (comp. p. 67). Snow-storms and 
avalanches are most prevalent on the S. side. 

About iy 2 M. to the S.E. below the hospice the road crosses 
the Ticino, which flows from the Sella-See, a lake lying to the 
E. , not visible. A few min. farther on , near a large mass of 
rock lying by the road , an inscription near the old bridle-path 
preserves a memorial of the events of 1799 (p. 68). The words 
'/Suwaroto victor' only are now legible. 

General Oudin, who was posted at Airolo with a detachment of 
Lecourbe's division, was compelled to retire before the superior force of 
the Russians, though gallantly contesting every inch of the ground. At 
one moment the well -sustained lire of the French became so murderous 
that the Russian grenadiers wavered ; upon this the veteran Suwarow 
caused a grave to be dug, in which he lay down, declaring that he would 
be buried at the spot where 'his children' had retreated for the first time. 
Humiliated by this spectacle, the Russians were stimulated to new efforts, 
and on Sept. 25th, 1799, drove back the French and became masters of the 
Pass of St. Gotthard. General Schiceikowsky forced a passage through 
the Soraccia or Canaria valley by a hitherto untraversed route, and attacked 
the French on the left flank and in the rear. 

Near the first house of refuge , Cantoniera S. Antonio , the 
road enters the Val Tremola (Triimmelnthal) , a dismal valley 
1^2 M. long, into which avalanches are frequently precipitated), 
and descends in numerous windings, which the pedestrian 
may cut off by taking the old bridle-path at the bottom of the 
valley , following the telegraph-wires the whole way. Near the 
second house of refuge, Cantoniera S. Giuseppe (refreshments), the 
Val Tremola terminates, and a fine *view of the green valley 
of Airolo, as far as Quinto, is obtained. To the r. is the mouth 
of the Val Bedretto (p. 140), from which the W. branch of the 
Ticino , which afterwards unites with the St. Gotthard branch, 

8 M. Airolo (3668') (*Posta, R. 2, B. 1 fr.), the first village 
in which Italian is spoken, on the Ticino, convenient head-quarters 
for excursions on the S. slopes of the St. Gotthard. 

Bridle-path through the Bedretto Valley over the Niifenen-Pass to Ober- 
gestelen in the Valais in 8 hrs., see p. 140; or from AW Acqua over the 
S. Giacomo-Pass (7572') and through the Valle Toggia into the Formazza 
Valley, to the Falls of the Tosa in 7 hrs., see p. 143. Or, passing the Ritom- 
See (6000'), through the Piora-Valley over the Uomo-Pass (7257'), and 
through the Val Termine to S. Maria and Dissentis in 10 hrs. (R. 79). — 
Through the Canaria- Valley over the N era- Pass and the Unleralp to Ander- 
matt (7 hrs.), fatiguing, and on the S. side not without danger. 

Below Airolo the geologically interesting Canaria- Valley opens. 
The road enters the Stretto (defile) di Stalvedro, which in 1799 
was defended by 600 French against 3000 Russians for 12 hrs. 
(comp. p. 68). The French afterwards retired over the Niii'cnen 
into the Valais. The ruins of a marble tower of Lombard origin 
(Casa dei Pagani) command the mouth of this picturesque ravine 

BjEDEkek, Switzerland. 5th Edition. 6 

8'2 Route J3. I'AIDO From Lucerne 

on the r. On the 1. bank of the Ticino four parallel ridges of 
rock descend to the river, through which four openings have been 
cut for the road. About 1 M. beyond this ravine, on the r. bank, 
is the beautiful cascade of the Calcaccia , the waters of which 
rebound gracefully from their rocky bed. 

The road, now nearly level, next passes (3 M.J Piotto, (l'/4 M.J 
Ambri (to the r. the Pis Massari, opp. Quinto), then (l'/ 2 M.J 
Fiesso and the insignificant village of (2 M.J Dazio Grande 
(3059'J. Immediately beyond the inn (very unpretendingj the 
mouth of a second *ravine is reached. The Ticino has here 
forced a passage for itself through the Platifer (Monte Piottino), 
and precipitates itself in a succession of "cataracts through the 
gloomy ravine. The road descends the gully close to these 
*waterfalls , and crosses the river three times. For a distance 
of 50 paces it runs beneath an overhanging rock, and l 1 /., M. 
from Faido again crosses the river. To the r. , before Faido 
is reached, the Piumegna precipitates itself by a picturesque fall 
into the Ticino. 

IO1/2 M. Faido (2366'J, Ger. Pfaid (*Angelo, R. I1/2, L- % 
B. 1, S. 2 l /2) A.. 72 f r - > Pfince of Wales, new; Angleterre), 
capital of the Leventina , a village of a thoroughly Italian 

The Leventina, or Valley of the Ticino, formerly belonged to the canton 
of Uri, and was governed in the most despotic manner by bailiffs, who 
purchased their situations from the Landsgemeinde (p. 75), as was the 
custom in almost all the democratic cantons, as well as in the republics 
of antiquity. A revolt broke out in 1750, but was suppressed with the aid 
of the Swiss troops ; the leaders were executed, and their heads suspended 
from the chestnut trees. The French effected a change in the mode of 
government in 179S. The canton of Uri endeavoured to re-establish the 
original constitution in 1814, but the Congress of Vienna decided that the 
Leventina and the other seven Italian bailiwicks belonging to the twelve 
Swiss cantons should together constitute the new canton of iessin,or Ticino. 

The road passes through beautiful scenery ; the numerous 
church-towers in the Italian style , crowning the summits of the 
hills, have a picturesque effect. To the r. and I. cascades pre- 
cipitate themselves over the cliffs ; that of *Cribiaschina resembles 
a veil in form. Huge masses of rock lie scattered about , on 
which luxuriant chestnut trees have taken root. Vines and mul- 
berry trees begin to appear. At the point where the road de- 
scends in numerous windings to the bottom of the valley , the 
Ticino forms another beautiful fall , spanned by a bridge over 
which the road passes. The valley suffered severely from the 
disastrous inundations of Nov., 1868. 

Giornico (1233'J, Ger. Irnis (Ceroo; Corona), 6 M. from Faido, 
capital of the district, is worthy of notice on account of its 
antiquities and picturesque situation. The former consist of a 
lofty and ancient tower, remains of a Gallic or Lombard forti- 
fication (near the church of S. Maria di Castello), and the church 

to Covin. BELLINZONA. -j:t. Route. 83 

of S. Niccolb da Mira, in the earliest Romanesque style, said U< 
occupy the site of a heathen temple. Beyond Giornico to the r. 
is another picturesque waterfall, that of the Cremusina. 

91/2 M. Bodio (1086') (ffitet de Ville, or 1'oste; Aigle). Be- 
yond Polleggio (978'j the Brenno emerges from the Vat Blegno 
and falls into the Ticino. The valley of the Ticino now becomes 
wider, and takes the name of the Riviera, or River-valley, as far 
as the mouth of the Moesa (see below). Luxuriant vines, chest- 
nuts, walnuts, mulberries, and fig-trees now remind the traveller 
of his proximity to 'the garden of the Earth , fair Italy'. The 
vines extend their dense foliage over wooden framework supported 
by stone pillars, 10' to 12' in height. Many of the inhabitants 
of this valley subsist almost entirely upon the produce of the 
chestnut-trees. Frequent inundations render the district unhealthy. 
The next village, 3 M. from Bodio, is Biasca {Unione, tolerable), 
with its old church on an eminence (1112'). A series of chapels, 
the 'via cruris', leads to the Petronella-Chapel, whence the view is 
fine. The cellars in the neighbouring rocks serve as storehouses 
for the wine-merchants of Bellinzona. It is not necessary to pass 
through Biasca ; a branch of the road, in a straight direction, passes 
it and rejoins the high-road beyond. Diligence from Biasca to 
Olivone, and bridle-path to Dissentis by the Lukmanier, see R. 79. 

6 3 /4 M. Osogna (9134'), at the foot of an abrupt rocky peak 
with rounded summit. The next villages are Cresciano (886'), 
with picturesque waterfalls; Claw (1027'), at the base of a 
mountain (8924') of the same name , one of the most beautiful 
and fertile in Switzerland, on which the convent of S. Maria 
(2074') is situated. Then over the Moesa, which descends from 
the Bernardino (p. 363), to Arbedo (81 3'), celebrated as the scene 
of the sanguinary and unequal struggle of June 30th, 1422, when 
3000 Confederates were defeated by 24,000 Milanese. 

From a distance, the aspect of Bellinzona with its lofty walls 
and turrets (which formerly extended into the valley), its three 
castles and extensive barracks at the IS. gate, is striking and 
imposing. The luxuriance of the vegetation and the beautiful 
forms of the neighbouring mountains increase the charm of the 

9'/2 M. Bellinzona (777'), Ger. Bellenz (Hotel de la Ville, 
outside the S. gate, R. 2 l /%, L. >/ 2 ; B. l'/g fr. ; *Angelo, near 
the S. gate, in the town, Italian style), on the Ticino, one of 
the three capitals of the canton of Tessin, with 2361 inhab., 
presents all the characteristics of an Italian town. It was strongly 
fortified in the middle ages, and was regarded as the key to the 
route from Lombardy to Germany. The fortifications have recently 
been partially restored. It was the scene of frequent conflicts 
between the .Swiss and the Milanese, but from the beginning of 
the 16th to the end of the 18th cent, the former remained in 

SI Route 24. STANS. 

undisturbed possession. The Abbey-Church adjoining the post- 
offlce is a fine building in the Italian style of the 16th cent. 

The three picturesque Castles were the residences of the three Swiss 
Bailiffs (comp. p. 82), in whom the judicial and executive authority was 
vested. Each of the castles possessed a small garrison and a few cannons. 
The largest, the Castello Grande, on an isolated eminence to the W., be- 
longed to Uri; it is now used as a prison and arsenal; visitors are readily 
admitted (gratuity to guide). Of the other two, on the E., the lower, 
the Castello di Mezzo, belonged to Schwyz •, the upper, the Castello Corbario 
or Corb<< (1502'), now in ruins, to Unterwalden. The view from the Castello 
PJrande is striking and beautiful; that from the elevated Chapel of S. Maria 
delta Salute not less so. 

A bridge of 14 arches , 300 paces long , here crosses the 
Ticino, which in summer is so low that 9 or 10 of the arches 
are dry. The banks are protected from inundations by a strong 
embankment, 2287' long (riparo tondo). 

From Bellinzona to Como and Camerlata, see R. 92; to 
Magadino, see R. 94; to Milan, see R. 99. 

24. From Lucerne to Altorf by Stansstad and 
Engelberg. Surenen. 

Comp. Map. p. 66. 

Steamboat three times daily between Lucerne and Stansstad in ife hr., 
see. p. 87; Omnibus OI2 fr.) from Stansstad to Stans five times daily in 
20 min., in connection with the steamboats. Diligence from Beckenriert 
(p. 70) to Stans twice daily, fare 95 c. From Stans to Altorf 11 hrs. ; 
carriage-road as far as Engelberg, thence by a footpath. The traveller 
should arrange to sleep at Engelberg, 1 3 1 {a M. from Stans. A guide 
(10 fr.) is required for the passage of the Surenen to Altorf, a walk of 
7 hrs. ; but only necessary , in the reverse direction , from Altorf to the 
summit of the pass (6 fr.). 

From Lucerne to Stansstad see p. 88. 

Stansstad (p. 88) is about 2*/2 M. from Stans. One-horse 
carriage from Stansstad to Engelberg 12 fr. , two-horse 20 fr. 
Travellers are recommended to dismiss their vehicle at Grafenort 
(9 M. distant, a drive of 13/ 4 hr., one-horse carr. 6 fr.), beyond 
which the road becomes so steep that passengers are frequently 
compelled to alight and proceed on foot (one-horse carr. from 
Beckenried [p. 70] to Engelberg 15 fr. and 2 fr. gratuity). 

Stans or Stanz (* Krone, R. 1, B. 1 fr.; "Engel; * Pension 
Jlutzberg , 4 l / 2 ir -)- the capital of Xidivalden, the E. portion of 
the canton of Unterwalden, with 2070 (Rom. Cath.) inhab., lies 
in a rich and fruitful valley, although illuminated by the sun 
from Nov. 11th to Febr. 2nd only one hour in the morning. 
Above it rise the Hohe-Briesen (7895') and the Stanserhorn (p. 85). 

Stans has acquired a melancholy celebrity in the annals of modern 
warfare. When the Swiss cantons were summoned hy the French to 
swear allegiance to the new Helvetian Republic (1798), this town, with 
the whole canton of Unterwalden, refused to appear. The French general 
Scliatienbing advanced from Lucerne, Sept. 3rd, 1798, with 16,000 men, and 
endeavoured to effect an entrance into Stansstad under cover of artillery 
placed hy him at the foot of I'ilatus. The inhabitants of Unterwalden threw 
up strong intrenchments along the banks of the lake, and kept the enemy 
in check from the 3rd to the 8th Sept. The Flench then forced a passage 

ENGELBERG. 24. Route. 85 

by land by Alpnach, took the intrenchmenls after ;in obstinate resistance, 
and advanced with a formidable army to Stans, where a frightful massacre 
ensued. The numbers were fearfully disproportionate — i6,UU0 to 2000; 
women and children took part in the conflict, animated by the Capuchin 
monk Paul Styger, who represented the new constitution to be a work 
of the devil. Whole families perished. Resistance was useless. Six hundred 
houses in the environs of Stans were burnt to the ground, and the toun 
itself only escaped through the intercession of a French general. The 
loss of the French was never precisely ascertained, but was estimated at 
3— 400J men. Contributions were sent from Switzerland, Germany, and 
even from England for the survivors. The noble-minded Pestalozzi adopted 
the orphan children (80 in number), educating and providing for them 
with the tenderness of a father (see p. 173). 

The choir of the handsome Parish Church contains two coloured 
statues, i B. ISicolaus de rape' and l B. Conrad Schaiber' ; i. e., 
St. Nicolaus von der Flue (p. 89) and his grandson. Adjoining 
the church is the ^Monument of Arnold von Winkelried (p. 14), 
a tine group in marble, but badly placed. 

A tablet by the Burial Chapel in the churchyard bears an 
inscription in memory of victims of the French massacre. 

The Town Hall contains portraits of all the bailiffs from the 
year 1521: beneath is a collection of Unterwalden flags; also 
two French banners of 1798 ; a picture by the blind artist Wiirsch, 
who perished in 1798 ; another by Volmar, representing Brother 
Klaus taking leave of his family. 

In the Arsenal is preserved the coat of mail of Arnold von 
Winkelried; on the road to Sarnen (H/a M. to the \V., p. 89j 
is a Chapel dedicated to his memory (see above). Beautiful 
vie>v from the Knieri, above the Capuchin Monastery. 

The Stanser Horn (6232') is ascended from Stans, or from the Rozloch 
(p. 88), in 3 hrs. The path from Stans is the better; the two routes unite 
on the Blumalp. View remarkably fine. — The ascent of the Buochse: 
Horn (5938') (4 hrs.) is less recommended. 

The road to Engelberg (lS 1 ^ M. from Stans) first traverses 
rich meadows. To the 1. the Wallenstbcke (8612'); in the 
background rises the Titlis (p. 86), with its glaciers and fields 
of snow. Between Thalwyl and Wolfenschiess (4 M.) the road 
crosses the Engelberger Aa; high up on the 1. lie the chalets of 

The next village is (_2'/2 M.) Orafenort (1868'), which con- 
sists of a chapel, an inn, and a farm belonging to the Abbey 
of Engelberg (7 M. from Engelberg). About y 4 M. farther the 
road ascends, and traverses a forest for upwards of 4 M. , on 
emerging from which the impetuous Aa is approached. The 
ice-clad Titlis stands forth majestically; then to the 1. the Grosse 
and Kleine Spannbrter (7671'), whose rocky peaks rise from amidst 
glaciers and snow-fields. The green Alpine valley of Engelberg, 
6 M. in length and % M. in width, bounded on three sides by- 
lofty, snow-capped mountains, is now suddenly disclosed to view. 
At the entrance of the valley, above the buildings of 
Engelberg (3291') (* Zum Titlis. pens. 0—8 fr. ; * Enyel, 

S(i Route :'/. TITLIS 

5 fr. ; *Sonnenberg, new ; *Pension Aluller, *Engelhery ; private 
rooms at Dr. Cattani's and elsewhere; usual charges, R. l'/'ii B. 1) 
D. 2 fr., whey also procurable. Eugene Hess and Jos. Amrein, 
good guides"), rises the stately Benedictine Abbey of the same 
name, founded in the 12th cent., termed by Pope Calixtus XI. 
Mons Angelorum, re-erected after a conflagration in 1729. 

The "Church contains modern pictures by Desclncanden, Kaiser, and 
Wiirsrli (p. 851. High altar-piece an Assumption by Spiegler , 1734. In 
the chapter-house two transparent pictures by Kaiser, the Conception and 
the Nativity. The Library, although robbed of its greatest treasures 
by the French in 1798, still boasts of several valuable MSS. and specimens 
of early printing (among others, a Mamot.rectus of 1470). A well-executed 
relief of the Engelberger valley may also he inspected. The hours of 
admission can be ascertained at the hotels. 

The educational institution connected with the Abbey is in 
high repute. The farm-buildings, with the dwellings for the 
labourers, are extensive; upwards of 1000 cheeses are frequently 
stored in the large *cellar. The revenues of the abbey, to which 
the entire district was formerly subject, were considerably im- 
paired by the French in 1798. 

Engelberg is the residence of the talented wood-carver Nico- 
demus Custer. It is protected from the N.E.. and is well-suited 
for a stay of some duration. Numerous short excursions may 
be made in this neighbourhood; of the longer, the following 
deserve mention : 

Ascent of the Rigidalstock (9094'), 4'la hrs., the last hour laborious, 
fine panorama; of the Widderfeld, 4 hrs., less fatiguing. Tat schbaehf all an d 
Herrenrevti see below. 

The Titlis (10,657'), rising on the S.E.. may be ascended (with guide, 
10 fr. and a gratuity) in 7 — 8 hrs. from Endelberg. It is advisable to proceed 
on the evening previous to the ascent to the t2 l |z hrs.) Triibsee-Alp (riding 
feasible thus far), where a bed of hay may be obtained (2 fr. !), and to 
start the next morning at 2 a. m., in order that the snow may he traversed 
before the heat of the day. Those who make the ascent from Engelberg 
direct frequently start at midnight with lanterns. Above the Triibsee-Alp, 
on the Stand, the paths from Engelberg and the Engstlen-Alp unite. 
Beyond this point the path ascends a steep slaty acclivity in zigzags, then 
over rugged limestone rocks to the glacier (Rothegg), the first portion of 
which is covered with soft snow ; by a slight depression, the route passes 
between long fissures; the ascent then becomes more rapid, steps being 
hewn if the 'Firn' is hard enough ; still higher, a broad gently-sloping 
field of snow is traversed. The large crevasse which it crosses presents 
no difficulty; slate-rocks and snow are next encountered, and after an 
ascent of 2 hrs. over fields of ice and snow the summit is attained. The 
highest rounded point (room for 20 persons) is called the Nollen. The. 
view, which is highly picturesque and imposing, extends over the entire 
Alpine chain from Savoy to the Tyrol, ^X. Switzerland, and S. Germany. 
The ascent of the Titlis, although requiring considerable perseverance, is 
perhaps the least difficult of all glacier excursions. 

Over the Joch Pass to Meiringen in 10 hrs.. see K. 30; two other paths 
l'iid to the Melchthal, see p. 89. 

On the path hence to Altorf is the picturesque waterfall of 
the Tatsrhbarh (40 min.^ which flows from the Hahnrn- or Engel- 
berg; '25 min. farther the chalet Herrenreuti (breakfast may be 
obtained here), belonging to the \libey of Kngelbere, i- readied 

SURENEN PAS*. 24. Route. S7 

From this point a view is obtained of the glaciers of the Grassen 
(9140') and Faulblatten. The Stierenbach forms a beautiful cas- 
cade about 1 hr. farther. Near some chalets, 4 hrs. walk from 
Engelberg and I1/4 hr. from the Surenen Pass, snow-fields are 
encountered in the early summer , but disappear as the season 
advances ; beyond the pass they remain the whole year, and must 
be traversed for a considerable distance. The Surenen Pass, or 
Surenen Eck (7518''), separates the Blackenstock (9685') and 
Uri-Rothstock (9621') on the 1. , from the Schlossberg (10,286') 
on the r. 

The Titlis increases in grandeur as the traveller ascends, and 
a long unbroken range of summits and glaciers extends as far 
as the Surenen. On the other side the prospect embraces the 
summits of the two mountain-ranges enclosing the Schachen- 
thal, which opens on the opposite side of the Reuss; the Win d- 
gelle is one of the most conspicuous; in the extreme distance 
the horizon is bounded by the snowy crest of the Glarnisch. 
On the E. side of the Surenen the snow-field is of greater extent, 
and the path more precipitous. It then leads over loose stones 
to the Waldnacht-Alp, where the path divides : r. over the bridge 
to Erstfelden (p. 75), from which route the beautiful Fall of the 
Waldnachtbach or Langebach is visible; 1. to Attinghausen and 
Altorf (p. 74). 

A French division under Lecourbe advanced in 1799 across the Surenen 
into the Reuss valley, and attacked the Austrians, but was soon obliged 
to retreat, as Suwarow pressed forward with his troops from the St. 
Gotthard (p. 68). 

25. From Lucerne over the Briinig to Brienz 
(and Meiringen). 

Comp. Maps pp. 66, 98. 

36 3 |4 31. Steamboat from Lucerne to Stansstad in l \z hr., to Alpnach- 
Gestad in U[4 hr. ; Post-omnibus from Alpnach-Gestad to Brienz in 6, 
to Meiringen in 8^4 hrs. From Brienz travellers may at once proceed 
(steamboat corresponds with diligence) to Interlaken, and thence to 
Neuhaus and Than ( Sclierzligen), whence railway to Bern. One day, there- 
fore, now suffices for the journey from Zurich to Interlaken, or for that 
from Lucerne to Bern. 

Through-tickets to Interlaken are obtained at the post-office (branch- 
office next door to the Engl. Hof) in Lucerne (in which case the coupe 
may be secured), or on board the steamboats : from Lucerne to Brienz 
7 fr. 60 c, to Interlaken coupe 12 fr. 10 c, 40 lbs. luggage free. — 
Diligence from Beckenried (p. 70) to Stans in 1 hr., fare 95 c. ; from 
Stans to Stansstad Post-omnibus (>| 2 fr.) 5 times daily in connection 
with the steamboats. — From Lucerne to Stansstad and Stans by land, sec 
p. 84 and below. 

Carriages. Two-horse from Lucerne to Brienz or Meiringen 70 to 
80 fr. From Stansstad to Sachseln one-horse 8 fr., two-horse 15 fr. ; to 
Lungern 15 — 25 fr. From Alpnach-Gestad to Lungern one-horse 12 fr., two- 
horse 20 fr. ; to Brienz one-horse 18 — 20, two-horse 30 — 32 fr. , always to 
be had. — From Beckenried to Lungern two horse 25 — 30 fr. 

Rowing-boats (comp. p. 66) from Lucerne to Stansstad in 2 hrs. 
with two rowers A l [-2 fr. ; to Alpnach-Gestad in 3 hrs. 6 l \o fr. 

Pedestrians who propose to proceed direct from the Rigi to the 

88 Route 25. ALPNACH-GESTAD. From Lucerne 

Briinig, mav find the following directions useful. Breakfast on the Ligi, 
descend to VVaggis (in 2'/a hrs.), thence by small boat (two men G tr., 
three 8 fr., four 10 fr., and gratuity of '|z fr. for each rower) to Alpnacu- 
Gestad, in 2'|2— 3 hrs. (luncheon in boat); from Alpnach-Gestad by car- 
riage to Sachseln (6 31.) and thence on foot; or the whole distance to 
Meiringen (25'|a 31.) may be performed on foot. 

The Road from Lucerne to Alpnach-Gestad leads first along 
the wild Kriensbach, then by Horn (1673') with its picturesquely situated 
church, to Winkel ("Stern, unpretending), a village on the bay of the lake 
described below, and along its bank to Hergiswyl (' Ktissli, E. 1 fr., B. 1 fr.), 
whence a bridle-path ascends Pilatus (p. 03). The road now skirls the 
base of the hopper (see below) on the bank of the lake, and at the Aclien- 
briicke (see below) reaches the Lake of Alpnach, on the N.W. bank of which 
it leads to Alpnach-Gestad (see below). 

When the central point of the lake is reached (see p. 69) 
the steamboat enters the bay of Stansstad ; at the loot of the 
steep Biirgenstock, to the L, lies the little village of Kirsiten; 
farther back, to the r., at the foot of Pilatus, is Hergiswyl (see 
above). The bay extends N. as far as Winkel (see above), near 
which is the bold promontory of Spitzen-Eck. The steamboat 
steers S. to Stansstad (1433') (Zum Winkelried; Rbssli; Schliissel; 
Freihof). Stad , Staad, or Gestade , signifies a landing-place or 
harbour; Stansstad is therefore the 'harbour of Stans'. A square 
tower with pinnacles, termed the Schnitz-Thurm, which rises on 
the bank , was erected by the Swiss in 1308 , as a protection 
against the assaults of the Austrians, from whose yoke they had 
emancipated themselves. 

The E. spur of Pilatus, the Lopper, extends far into the lake. 
Its base is skirted by the above-described road between Lucerne 
and Alpnach. The brook on the opposite bank, which falls into 
the lake at Stansstad, has deposited so much detritus that the 
connection between the Al nach lake and the Lake of Lucerne 
has become very narrow. This arm of the lake is now crossed 
by an embankment and a bridge (Achenbriicke) ; the latter is 
raised to permit the passage of the steamboats. Above the Bay 
of Alpnach rises the Rozberg (2132'), separated from the Platti- 
berg by the *Rozloch , a narrow ravine , in which the Mehlbach 
forms several waterfalls and turns the water-wheels of the paper 
manufactory. The pleasant *Pension Blattler (p. 49) is here 
situated on the lake, amidst gardens and orchards ; adjacent are 
sulphur-baths. The ascent of the Biirgenstock (2'/a hrs.) forms 
a pleasant excursion, see p. 69. 

The Footpath from Stansstad to Sachseln skirts the lake for 
a short distance, and then enters this narrow pass. At Allweg (2'|i 31. from 
Stansstad), where there is a chapel in memory of Winkelried (pp. 14, 85) 
("Pension and whey-cure estab.), the path joins the High-road to Sar- 
ncn (no diligence). At the village of Kerns ('Krone) (wrestling matches 
on the 1st of August), 2>jj 31. from Sarnen , the scenery becomes more 
picturesque. The direct road from Kerns to Sachseln, ellecting a saving of 
l l i 2 31., does not pass through Sarnen, but crosses the entrance of the 
Jlelchthal (see p. 89). 

Alpnach-Gestad (*H6tel Pilate or Post, on the lake, 1!. 2, B. 1, 
L. and A. 1 fr. ; Stern; Rijs.ili) is the harbour for the village of 

to Briem. SARNEN. 25. Route. 89 

Alpnach (1437') (ScMussel; Sonne), l'/ 2 M. distant. The village 
church with its slender spire, a modern structure, was erected with 
the proceeds of the sale of timber from the formerly inaccessible 
forests of Pilatus, which between 1811 and 1819 were first ren- 
dered available by means of a wooden slide, 25,000' long, upon 
which the wood descends in 6 min. to the lake. Ascent of Pi- 
latus, see p. 53. 

The road to Sarnen follows the 1. bank of the Aa , which 
descends from the lake of Sarnen to that of Alpnach; near Alp- 
nach, Kagiswyl, and Sarnen covered wooden bridges carry the 
road across the affluents of this stream. 

41/2 M. Sarnen (1558') (Adler, R. 1 fr., B. 1 fr. ; Obwalder 
Hof, new; Schlilssel; Sarner Hof), chief town (pop. 3720, 81 
Prot.) of Obwalden, the W. portion of the canton of Unterwalden, 
and the seat of Government, is situated at the junction of the 
Melch-Aa and the Sarner- Aa, and possesses a nunnery and Ca- 
puchin monastery. The Town Hall contains portraits of all the 
magistrates of Obwalden from the year 1381 to 1824, also one 
of St. Nikolaus von der Flue (see below), and a relief map of 
Unterwalden and Hasli. The church, on an eminence, the can- 
tonal hospital and the work-house at the S. end of the town, 
and the arsenal on the Landenberg (1667') are conspicuous ob- 
jects ; fine view of the Sarnen and Melch valleys from the latter. 
The peasant women of Unterwalden interlace the plaits of their 
hair with white riband, fastening it up with a peculiar spoon- 
shaped silver buckle. 

The Lake of Sarnen (1546'j, 4'/., M. long, l>/ 2 M. broad, 
is well stocked with fish. Pedestrians effect a saving of '/2 nr - 
by rowing to the other end of the lake (2 fr.). The Valley of 
Sarnen , although pleasing and picturesque , has no pretension 
to the grandeur of Alpine scenery. Beautiful view to the \V. 
from the Schwendiberg . 

E. of Sarnen is the Melchthal, a romantic valley, 15 M. in length, 
studded with numerous rustic dwellings, and enclosed by lofty mountains 
(f/ochstollen, 8154'; Lauberstock, 8389'). At the upper end is the Melc/isee 
(6427') (p. 130), whose waters are lost in a cleft ot the rock, and 3 M. below 
re-appear as the Melch Aa. From the village of the same name an in- 
teresting pass leads over the Jucldi (7131') to Engelberg (p. 85) in hrs., 
and another over the Storregg (6703') in 4'|:> hrs. ; a third over the Aleldi- 
alp to Meiringen and the Engstlen-Alp (p. 129). From the Juchli the summit 
of the Hutstock, commanding a fine view, may be attained in .3 hrs. 

At the entrance of the valley stands St. fliklait&en (2622'), or St. Klaus, the 
first Christian church erected in this district; adjacent is an ancient tower, 
termed by the natives HeidenUmrm (Heathens' lower). Nearly opposite, 
3 M. from Sarnen, is the Ranfl (i. e. brow of the mountain), formerly a 
barren wilderness, with the hermitage of St. Nikolaus von der Flue, 
much of the woodwork of which, as well as fragments of the stone which 
served him for a pillow, have been carried away by relic-hunters. The 
family name of the Saint was Lbwenbrugger, but living near a precipice 
(Flue) in the vicinity of Sachseln, he acquired the name of Nikolaus von 
der Flile. Here he passed the greater part of his life with his family and 
ten children, tilling his farm, and attending to his worldly afVairs. lie was 

90 h'nuie I'.O lUUNKi. 

industrious and of irreproachable character, as a soldier brave and humane, 
and as a provincial counsellor talented and upright. At the same time 
he possessed strong religious predilections and an insatiable thirst after 
knowledge. In his fiftieth year he retired altogether from public life. 
Tradition says that for the first 20 years of his seclusion he subsisted en- 
tirely upon the sacramental elements, of which he partook monthly. All 
who were in trouble or in need of advice resorted to the holy man and 
derived comfort from his sagacious counsels. After the successful termi- 
nation of the war against Charles the Bold of Burgundy, the Federal de- 
puties assembled at Stans, but not agreeing concerning the division of the 
spoil and the incorporation of Solothurn and Freiburg in the Confedera- 
tion, were about to separate on no friendly terms, when Brother Klaus 
entered the chamber. At the appearance of this venerable man, the sanc- 
tity of whose character was universally known, the deputies arose and 
greeted him with respectful salutations ; (according to the chronicle) his 
pacific efforts were signally blessed, for in one hour every thing was ami- 
cably arranged. After his death he was canonised: his memory is still re- 
vered by the populace, and there is scarcely a hut in Unterwalden that 
does not possess a portrait of Brother Klaus. 

The handsome *Church (1663) of the village of Sachseln 
(Kreuz; Engel; Lowe) with a portal of marble pillars, contains 
the bones of St. Nikolaus, with several other valuable relics. 

The village of f3 3 / 4 M.) Giswyl (1673'] (*Krone), situated 
between the lakes of Sarnen and Lungern, was partially destroyed 
in 1629 by inundations of the Lanibach. A lake was thus 
formed, 'which 130 years later was artificially conducted into the 
Lake of Sarnen. Fine view from the churchyard. On the slope 
to the 1. the ruins of the ancient castle of the von Rudenz family 
are seen. 

The summit of the Brienzer Rothhorn, p. 126, may be reached from 
Giswyl in 6 hrs. ; the path for the first 3 hrs. is good, afterwards precipitous. 

The road now ascends (for 2 M.) the Kaiserstuhl (2326'] 
(*Kaiserstuhl) , and by Biirglen on the height reaches the Lake 
of Lungern (2162') (the three peaks of the Wetterhorn stand 
out to the S.), the E. bank of which it (l l / 2 M ) skirts; li/o M. 
farther , the large village of Lungern , built entirely of wood, 
situated in a mountain-basin, is attained. 

Lungern (2165') (Hotel Brilnig ; Lowe) is situated at the 
foot of the Briinig and the S. end of the lake, but at some 
distance from its bank , as the drainage has diminished its size 
by one-half. A picturesque waterfall of the Dundelsbach pre- 
cipitates itself over the rocks on the W. side. 

The new post-road over the Briinig ascends by numerous 
windings through the wood, affording occasional views, till it 
reaches the summit of the Briinig pass (3648'), near which the 
canton of Berne is entered. Beyond the pass are situated an old 
custom-house (Hotel Briinigkulm) and the Hotel du Briinig. 
Magnificent prospect from the Wylerhorn (6282'), 1 hr. S.W. of 
the Briinig, 3 hrs. from Brienz. 

The new road to (5 1 /4 M.) Meiringen descends to the 1. at 
the custom-house. As the road to (6 M.) Brienz is descended, 
the Kngellidnier (p. 1 23) become visible. The hamlet of Briinig, 

ENTLEBUCH. -JO. Route. 91 

a short distance below the pass, lies to the 1. amidst green 
pastures. To the 1. a view of the valley from Meiringen to Im- 
Hof (p. 132"), and of Meiringen itself, is now enjoyed; at the 
foot of the S. mountain-range to the 1. , the lower fall of the 
Reichenbach (p. 123) is visible; in a straight direction the fall 
of the Oltschibach (p. 125); in the valley the river Aare, and 
to the r. a portion of the lake of Brienz. The road gradually 
descends, occasionally steep, by Brienzwyler (Bar) to the Bridge 
of Brienzwyler, where it unites with the high road from Mei- 
ringen to Brienz. From this point to Brienz, as well as to 
Meiringen, see p. 125. 

26. From Lucerne to Bern. Entlebuch. Emmenthal. 

57 3 |4 JI.» Diligence to Escholzmatt in 6 l /< , to Langnau in 8 hrs. 
Railway from Langnau to Bern in 1 hr.; fares 4 fr., 2 fr. 80 c, 2 fr. 

The road passes through Littau, St. Jost, Matters, and Schachen. 

The old road here ascends by steep windings, passing the Baths of 
Farnbilhl (rustic) to the Bramegg (3612')- A view of Pilatns, the Rigi, and 
the Alps of Schwyz and Uri from the inn. The road then descends to 

The high road, which the diligence follows, skirts the base of 
the Bramegg, passing the monastery of Werthenstein, and reaches 

123/ s M. Wohlhausen (1889'). [On the Menzberg, at the foot 
of the Napf (see below) is a sanitary establishment of some re- 
pute.] The road, following the course of the Emme, now leads 
S. to Entlebuch (2402') ("Hotel du Port; *Drei Konige), where 
the Entlenbach unites with the Kleine Emme which waters the 
Entlebuch, a valley about 30 M. long. On both sides are lofty 
mountains, which do not, however, reach the snow-line. The breed- 
ing of cattle and manufacture of cheese are the principal pur- 
suits of the inhabitants, who are remarkable for their intelligence 
and activity. Wrestling-matches see Introd. XVI. 

The Napf (5194'), W. of Entlebuch, the summit of which commands 
a magnificent view, is frequently ascended (3 hrs.) from Entlebuch or 
Trubschachen (see below) : t 1 '? latter is the more convenient route, passing 
the village of Trub ( ,; 'Inn), 40 min. to the N.E. of Trubschachen. Carriage- 
road as far as Trub. 

Beyond Schupfheim (2306'), the principal village of the val- 
ley, rebuilt after a Are in 1829, the road quits the valley of the 
Wald-Emme (by which a road to the 1. leads to Sorenberg, 
ll 1 ^ M. ; thence to the Brienzer Rothhorn, an ascent of 5 1 /2h r s., 
p. 126), and ascends the valley of the Weisse Emme to 

13 7 / 8 M. Escholzmatt (2867') (*Lowe; Krone), a scattered 
village, the last in the Entlebuch. Wyssenbach (*Inn) is on the 
Lucerne frontier. The road now enters the canton of Bern, and 
follows the course of the lifts , passing Kroschenbrunn , Trub- 
schachen, and a handsome Hospital (for 100 orphans and 300 
paupers), an edifice highly creditable to the skill of the Emmen- 
thal carpenters, 

92 Route 28. BERN. Hotels. 

10y 8 M. Langnau (220")') (* Hotel Emmenthal; *Hirsch, R. 2, 
L. 1/2: u - W2 lr -; J-iJu-'e), a thriving village with 5886 inhab., 
is the capital of the Emmenthal, a valley about 30 M. long, 
12 — 15 M. wide, watered by the lifts and the Grosse Emtne, 
and one of the richest and niost fertile in Switzerland. Its 
wooden houses enjoy a high repute, and are sometimes exported. 
The cheese produced here is much esteemed. Luxuriant and 
carefully cultivated meadows, a fine breed of cattle, and com- 
fortable dwellings with well kept gardens , all afford evidence 
that the Emmenthal is peopled by an industrious and prosperous 
race. A monument at Langnau was erected in 1849, to the 
memory of the men of Bern who fell during the war of the Sepa- 
rate League in 1847. 

Railway. The train, after leaving Langnau, crosses the lifts, 
then the Emme, and passes the thriving villages of Emmenmatt, 
Signau (Bar), and Zaziwyl. It then skirts the Hornbery in a wide 
curve, and passes Konolftngen, Tagertschi, and Worb (Sonne; 
Lowe), the latter a wealthy place, with an ancient castle. Pleasing 
glimpse of the Stockhorn chain to the 1. From stat. Giimlingen 
(1850'J 011 the Bern and Thun line to Bern, see p. 99. 

27. From Lucerne to Bern by Aarburg and 

71'J 2 M. Central Swiss Railway. In 4 to o'i-j Ins. Fares 12 (r. 5, 
8 fr. 50, 6 fr. 1U c. 

From Lucerne to Aarburg, see R. 6 ; from Aarburg to Her- 
zogenbuchsee, see R. 3 ; from Herzogenbuchsee to Bern, see R. 5. 

28. Bern. 

Hotels. ,: Berner Hof (PI. a), adjacent to the Federal Council Hall, 
U. 'i fr. and upwards, L. 1 , B. l'| 2 , 1). excl. YV. at 1 o'cl. 4, at o'cl. 4'|-j, 
A. 1 fr. (newspapers; baths in the hoiel); "Hotel Bellevue, adjoining 
the Mint (PI. 19) , less expensive; both these hotels command a full view 
of the Alps. Opposite the station: ■.Soli \v eiz erho f (PI. b), a little to the 
1. on leaving the station, K. 2 fr. and upwards, B. i'ja, 1). at 12 l J 2 o'cl. 3, at 
5 o'cl. 4, A. ^ fr. ; immediately to the 1. as the station is quitted, 
'Boulevard, with spacious apartments, It. 2 l |2, D. 3, B. l'| 2 fr. ; "Hotel 
de France, near the station and the post-office, K. i'j^, B. 1 fr. — In the 
town: Faucon (PI. d), K. and L. 2'J 2 , B. l'| 2 , D. 3, A. 1 fr. ; Pf is tern 
(Abbaye des Boulangers, PI. e), near the clock-tower. 'S torch (PI. k); 
Jlohr (PI. f); Affe (PI. g); Schmieden (Mavtchaux, I'l. h); Webern, 
Marktyasse; these five last are all good second-class houses. — Unpretend- 
ing: Oc hlussel (PI. 1.); Bar; * \\ ild er Jl an 11 , in the Aarberger Sir., 
It. 1 ' , 4 ., B. 1, 1). incl. YV. 2 fr. — Pensions Jiiggi and Mcttenhoi, 
outside the Murtenthor; Pension Zimnier wald (p. D^j. — Hotel et 
Pension Schiinzli, see p. 97. 

Restaurants, etc. Kail wa\ -Rest an ran t. the station the 

Restaurant du Boulevard (see above); "Cafe du Nord, at 

the from the station; at the S eh w e i /. e r h of (see above); 

Cafe Casino near the Town-hall, terrace with complete view of 

the Alps. Al Ihe pavilion on Ihe M ii n s t e r T e i i*a s s e Ip. W.i). eoll'ee, 

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Fountains. BERN. -28. Route. 93 

tea, ices (i| 4 and i|. 2 fr.), may be obtained after 1 p. m. (Sundays 
after 4 p. m.); occasionally concerts in the evening. — Outside the 
town: 'Cafe Schanzli, now Hotel et Pension des Etrangers 
(PI. E. 2, ' Rabenthal - Schanzli ' , p. 97), beyond the Railway bridge 
(i|2 M.) on the lofty r. bank of the Aare, to the E. near the new Botanic 
Garden, magnificent view; : Cafe in der Enge (p. 97), 1 M. beyond the 
Aarberg Gate. 

Bootmaker recommended to mountaineers: Riesen, Spitalgasse. 

Zahnd's Museum, untere Alpenegg 223 d, an extensive collection of 
stuffed groups of Alpine animals. 

Baths. Swimming-Bath at the Holzplatz, below the Bernerhof. River- 
Baths below the Unter-Thor Bridge, near the ' Pelikan \ The water of the 
Aare is very cold.— Warm Baths (also Turkish, etc.) at Staub's, outside 
the Murtener Thor, in the Laupenstrasse. 

Carriages. One-horse, drive within the town 1 pers. 40c; >|« hr. 
1—2 pers. 80 c, 3 — 4 pers. 1 fr. 20 c, every additional '| 4 hr. 40 or 60 c 
Two-horse, at the same fares as for 3 or 4 pers. with one horse. Each 
box 20 c, small articles free. From 10 p. m. to 6 a. m., double fares. For 
the entire day, i. e. over 6 hrs., 1 — 2 pers. 12 fr., 3—4 pers. 18 fr. 

Railway Station near the church of the Holy Ghost, at the W. end of 
the town. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 21), near the station to the N., entrance 
in the centre; branch-office in the Kramgasse. 

English Church Service in the chapel of the Biirgerspital (PI. 23). 

Principal Attractions. If the traveller's time is limited, he 
should first visit the Miinster-Terrasse (Zahringer monument); Miinster- 
platz (monument of Erlaeh), Miinz -Terrasse (PI. 19), Casino - terrace and 
Council Hall, the great bastion, the Falkenplatzli , and thence proceed 
to the Cafe at the Enge; back by the Railway bridge (p. 97), past the 
newly laid out Botanic garden, to the ' Schanzli 1 (Cafe, see above). Up 
fo this point the views gradually become more extensive and beautiful. 
Then back by the Railway bridge, through the town E. as far as the 
Xydeck bridge (p. 97), and across this to the Bear's Den. — If the visitor 
linds this walk too fatiguing , he may proceed at once from the great 
bastion across the railway bridge to the Schanzli, the finest of all the 
points of view. 

Bern (1650'), capital of the canton, contains 36,002 inhab. 
(2644 Rom. Cath.), including its extensive suburbs. Bern joined 
the Confederacy in 1353, and is still the most important of the 
Swiss cantons, though it has lost Argovie (Aargau) and Vaud, 
which became independent in 1798. The city is built on a 
peninsula of sandstone-rock, formed by the windings of the Aare, 
which flows 100 feet below. Most of the principal streets run 
from E. to W. The busiest and most frequented is nearly 1 M. 
in length , extending from the Ober-Thor to the Nydeck bridge, 
under the names of Spitalgasse, Marktgasse , Kramgasse, and 
Gerechtigkeitsgasse. The houses in the principal parts of the 
old town are built on arcades (Lauben), beneath which the pave- 
ment for foot-passengers runs. Of all the towns of Switzerland 
Bern has best preserved its characteristic features. 

Most of the numerous fountains are adorned with statues. 
The most singular is the *Kindlifresser-Brunnen (Fountain of 
the Ogre, PI. 7"), in the Corn-hall-square, near the Clock-tower. 
It is surmounted by a grotesque figure in the act of devour- 
ing a child , while several others , doomed to the same fate, 
protrude from his pocket and girdle ; beneath is a troop of armed 

94 Route 28. HRRK. Cathedral. 

bears. The bear, the heraldic emblem of Bern , is a "constantly 
recurring object. Bruin appears on the neighbouring Baren- 
brunnen, equipped with shield, sword, banner, and helmet. 

Two gigantic bears, tolerably executed in granite, keep guard 
over the pillars of the (W.) Upper-Gate; others support a shield 
in the pediment of the Corn-Hall (PI. 17), a handsome building, 
which till 1830 always contained a store of corn in case of fa- 
mine (beneath it is a spacious wine-cellar frequently visited by 
strangers). A whole troop of bears go through a performance at 
the "Clock-Tower (PI. 29). 

At 3 min. before every hour a wooden cock gives the signal by 
clapping its wings and crowing; 1 min. later the bears march round a 
seated ligure, and a harlequin indicates the number of the hour by strik- 
ing a bell. The cock then repeats his signal, and when the hour strikes, 
the seated figure, an old man with a beard, turns an hour-glass and 
counts the hour by raising his sceptre and opening his mouth; while the 
bear on his r. does the same by inclinations of his head ; at the same time a 
stone ligure in the tower above strikes the hour on a bell with a hammer. 
The cock concludes the performance by crowing for the third time. This 
spectacle always attracts a number of admirers. The Clock-tower is now 
almost in the centre of the town, but at the time of its erection (in- 
scription: ' Bertholdus V. dux Zaeringiae, red. Burgund., urbit conditor 
turrim et portam fecit a. Ghr. 1191, renov. 177(f) it was at the E. ex- 
tremity, and served as a watch-tower. Another tower of similar con- 
struction stands in the same street, the Kafigthurm (PI. 8), farther W., 
now used as a prison. 

The "Cathedral (PI. 13), a fine Gothic structure, 280' long, 
112' broad, 76' high, commenced in 1421 , completed in 1573, 
restored in 1850, is remarkable for its beautiful decorations and 
the open-work Balustrade of the roof, the design of which varies 
between each pair of pillars. The W. Portal is particularly 
handsome; the carvings represent the Last Judgment; at the sides 
the upper figures are the Prophets , the lower the Apostles and 
the Wise and Foolish Virgins. The unfinished Tower, 234' high, 
is covered -with an unsightly tiled roof. The entrance to the 
tower-stairs is by the side-door in the W. portal. By ascending 
223 steps, the visitor reaches the lodge of the tower-keeper and 
a gallery commanding a beautiful view. The tower-keeper ('/s 
fr.) exhibits a diagram showing the relative proportions of all the 
largest bells in the world. 

Interior ( admission 30 c. for each pers.). The Choir contains some 
remarkable specimens of Stained Olass, dating from the 15th cent., that 
of one window representing the dogma of Transubstantiation, that of an- 
other the Life of Christ. The Choir- Stalls (1512) on one side are orna- 
mented with carvings of the Apostles ; on the other, Prophets. The re- 
mainder of the church is almost destitute of ornament, 'ihe organ, said 
to rival the celebrated instrument at Freiburg ("performance almost every 
evening in summer, at dusk, adm. 1 fr. , families 2 fr.) , is supported by a 
vaulted loft, constructed in 1848. The cathedral boasts of two Monuments only : 
one to Berthold von Zdhringen, the founder of Bern (see p. 95), erected by 
the city in 16U0; and the other to the magistrate Friedricn von Steiger, 
surrounded by six slabs of black marble bearing the names of the 702 
men of Bern who fell March 5th, 1708, at Grauholz, 6 M. to the N. of 
Bern near the ZoUikol'uu stalion (p. 13), in an encounter with the French. 

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Museum. P.KRN. :>{{. Route. 95 

The open apace to the W. in front of the cathedral has been 
adorned with a bronze "'Statue of Rudolph von Erlach (PI. 11), 
the conqueror at Laupen (p. 159), erected in 1848 ; at the 
corners are four bears modelled by Vollmar of Bern ; on the 
pedestal are inscriptions. 

The ^Cathedral Terrace (Miinster-Terrasse) , formerly the 
churchyard of the cathedral , is now a shady promenade , fur- 
nished with seats, and adorned with a bronze statue of Berthold 
von Zahringen (PI. 12) C-Bertholdo V. duci Zaeringiue conditori 
urbis Bernae civitas , a. 1847'); three sides of the pedestal are 
covered with bronze reliefs, illustrating the foundation of the 
city. A bronze bear acts as helmet-bearer. The pavilions at the 
corners of the platform are used as a Cafe (p. 92). The terrace, 
115 paces long by 100 wide, 104' above the river and 97' above 
the street at its base, is surrounded by a balustrade. 

"Views. Alpgliihen. The great attraction of Bern is the view it com- 
mands of the Alps and snow-clad peaks of the Bernese Oberland, which 
in clear weather are visible from every open space (the Cathedral and 
Cathedral terrace, the Jliuiz-Terrasse, Federal Hall, Bastion outside the 
Upper gate, Cafe Schanzli, Enge outside the Aarberg gate). By varying 
the point of view, the following mountains become visible in addition to 
those represented in the annexed panorama : on the r. of the Doldenhorn, 
the Balmhorn (12,099') with the Altels ( 11,002', b7'j 2 31. distant), and over 
the Gurten, the bell-shaped summit of the Stock/iorn (<211', Is 31.); also 
to the 1. of the Schrauen the peaks of the Spannorter (10,62o', 53 31.) and 
the Schlossberg (10,2S6', 54 31.), both in the canton of L'ri; the ridge of 
the Bduchlen near Kseholzmatt (5313', 24 31.), and the Feuerstei/i above the 
Entlebuch (7138', 3U 31.). Nothing can surpass in sublimity the aspect of 
these mountains at sunset in tine weather, especially when the W. horizon 
is partially veiled with thin clouds, and the phenomenon called the Alp- 
gliihen ('Glow of the Alps'), or Jfachrjliihen ('after-glow') is produced. Long 
after the shadows of evening have fallen upon the valleys, and the linger- 
ing rays of the evening sun have faded from the snowy peaks themselves, 
the mountains begin to glow from their bases upwards, as if illumined by 
a bright internal lire. 

The *Museum (PI. 20), admission gratis on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays from 3 to 5, on Sundays from 10 to 12, is also 
accessible to strangers daily (1 fr. for 1 — i pers.). In the 
Museum of Natural History (in the upper story) the bear of course 
occupies a very prominent position. The St. Bernard dog 'Barry', 
which is said to have saved the lives of 15 persons, is also 
exhibited. The collection is the largest in Switzerland, and 
contains specimens of all the indigenous animals , well worthy 
of the notice of zoologists. Of foreign animals, remarkable spe- 
cimens only are exhibited. Some admirable specimens of crystal 
found in 1868 at the Tiefengletscher (p. 138) may be inspected 
here; one of them is 270 lbs. in weight, and several others 
exceed 200 lbs. Small portfolios of dried Alpine plants may 
be purchased here, price 6 to 50 fr. 

The Museum of Antiquities , in the lower story , contains 
curiosities from Japan and Canada, Roman and Pompeian anti- 
quities, the field-altar of Charles the Bold, and other relics of 

96 Route 'JX. HKRN. Feder. Council 'Hall. 

the booty of (irandson and Morat, reliefs, etc. — Adjacent to 
the museum, on the S. side is the 

University (PI. 30) (200 students), founded in 1834; on the 
N. side the library (PI. 3), especially rich in histories of 
Switzerland, and containing carpets captured in the Burgundian 
wars C/o f r 0- 

On the N. side of the town stands the new Rom. Cath. 
Church (PI. 16) in the Gothic style, designed by Deperthes of 
Rheims , a simplified imitation, on a reduced scale , of the ca- 
thedral of Rheims. E. of the church stands the Town Hall 
(Rathhaus, PI. 22), dating from 1406, restored in 1868, with a 
large covered staircase in front , and the arms of the different 
districts of the canton on the facade. 

The *Pioture Gallery (PI. 18) in the upper story of the 
Federal Council Hall (entrance by the principal portal; adm. 
gratis daily, except Saturday , in summer 9 — 4 , in winter 9 to 
3 o'clock; from Sept. 15th to Oct. 15th a gratuity must be 
given) , contains some good modern paintings , the position of 
which is, however, occasionally changed. 

I. Room. 2. Albano, Virgin and Child; 5. P. Breughel, Eve of Mayday ; 
11. Diintz, Portrait. Casts: Imhof, David with the head of Goliath ; Sorrnen- 
schein, Tomb of Madame Langhans at Hindelbank; Dorer, design for a 
tombstone. — II. Room. Reinttardt, Swiss costumes; 63. Meyer, the 
Matterhorn ; 64, 65. Lory, the Scheidcgg, Jungfrau, and Valley of Lauter- 
brunnen; 76. Mind, Group of cats. — III. Room. 100. Diday, Landscape. 
Casts: Imhof, Hagar and Ishmael, Ruth gleaning, Eve. — IV. Room. 
128 — 130. Girardet, Pastoral scene, Alms-giving, Going to school ; 132. Morilz, 
The husband at the tavern; 134, 135. Diday, Valley of Lauterbrunnen, 
Chalet in the Bernese Oberland; 136. De Meuron, Chamois-hunter; "140, 
141. Calame, Vicinity of the Handeck, Waterfall near Meiringen; 144. 
Koller, Stray cow and calf; 145, 146. Steplian, Mountain scene in the 
Canton of Glnrus , Landscape from the neighbourhood of Meiringcn ; 
152. Geonje, Landscape near Geneva; 154. 155. winter. School-examination, 
The little friend; 159. Vaulier, Saying grace; 163. Humbert, Herd crossing 
a brook; 164. Kappis, Tyrolese village life. — The remaining rooms 
contain casts from the antique, and several modern works. 

The Arsenal (PI. 32) was despoiled of its greatest treasures 
by the French in 1798, but still contains many interesting relics. 

At the upper (S.AV.) end of the town stands the *Federal 
Council Hall (Bundes-Rathhaus) (PI. 32), a handsome edifice in 
the Florentine style, 174 paces long, 75 wide, completed in 
1857 (custodian on the r. of the principal entrance, 1 fr. for 
1 — 3 pers.). The simple grandeur of the different chambers is 
striking. The sessions of the two great national Councils (see 
Introd. Ml), usually held in July, are open to the public; this 
affords foreigners an opportunity of studying the institutions of 
Switzerland. The speakers use the German (often the Swiss 
dialect), French, and Italian languages. Speeches of the president, 
motions, resolutions, etc., are always translated into French and 
Italian by an official interpreter. The visitor should not fail to 
ascend to the platform on the roof, as it commands the most 

Enge. BERN. 2«. Route. 97 

extensive *view in Bern, embracing the beautifully-situated town, 
its environs, and the Alps. — Opposite to it is the new Museum, 
employed as a club, with concert and reading room, etc. ; intro- 
duction through a member. 

On the E. side of Bern is the *Nydeckbrucke , an imposing 
structure of three arches, completed in 1848. The centre arch has 
a span of 160', and is 98' above the Aare. The bridge, 180 paces 
long, and prolonged on the town side by a viaduct, was constructed 
almost entirely of erratic blocks from the Kirchet (p. 132). 

On the r. bank of the Aare, close to the bridge , is the new 
*Bears' Den (Barengraben, PI. 2). constructed in 1857, the old 
den near the Aarberg Gate having been removed to make room 
for the railway. The ancient Egyptians had not a greater veneration 
for the Ibis, than the modern Bernese have for the Bear, which 
would seem to be the tutelary deity, as well as the heraldic 
emblem, of the canton. Here Bruin in propria persona is sup- 
ported, according to immemorial usage, at the expense ot the 
municipality, and the public are prohibited from making him 
any offerings except broad or fruit. On the night of 3rd March, 
1861, an English officer fell into one of the dens, and was 
torn in pieces by the male bear after a long and desperate struggle. 

Bern is famed for its Charitable Institutions; it possesses two 
Orphan Asylums, a Lunatic Asylum, a Foundling Hospital (Jenner's), two 
handsome and spacious hospitals, the Jnselspital (PI. 24) near the Casino, 
and the Biirgerspital (PI. 23) near the station, with the inscription: 'Christo 
in. paiiperibi/s*. The latter was once the largest edifice in the town, hut 
now the Penitentiary ( Zuchthaus), at the Aarberg Gate (capable of accom- 
modating 400 inmates ), and the Council Hall compete with it in dimen- 
sions. The extensive new Lunatic Asylum of Waldau near Bolligen, 2 1 , l j M. 
to the N.E. of the town, erected in 1854, is fitted up for the reception of 
200 patients. 

Crossing the Railway Bridge (see p. 13), at the N.W. end 
of the town, the traveller passes the Botanic Garden (PI. 5), 
recently laid out on the sunny slope of the r. bank of the Aare, 
and reaches ('/ 2 M. ) the *Schanzli (PI. E. 2; Hotel et 
Pension Schanzli - Victoria , with dependance , pleasant terrace 
and grounds, baths of various kinds), which commands the finest 
view in the environs of Bern. In the foreground the city lies 
extended, above it is the wooded Gurten (see below), to the 1. 
of which rise the High Alps of the Bernese Oberland, and to 
the r. the Stockholm chain ; to the extreme W. the Moleson. 
About 1 M. from the Aarberg Gate, to the N., on the 1. 
bank of the Aare, is situated the *Enge, a large peninsula, almost 
entirely surrounded by the Aare, several hundred feet above the 
river. This commands another charming view of the city and the 
Alps. Opposite the N. extremity of the Enge is the castle of 
Reichenback (p. 13), 33/ 4 M. from Bern (near it a brewery). 

The view from the Gurten (2841'), the long ridge to the S. of Bern, is 
similar to that from the city, but more extensive. It embraces not only 
the mountains of the Oberland (p. 95), but also the entire Stockhorn chain. 

Bmdekku, Switzerland. 5th Edition. 7 

% Route 29. WABtiRN. Bernese 

the Freiburg Alps, the Jura mountains fur a distance of upwards of 100 31., 
with portions of the Lake of Neuchatel ; to the 1. of the High Alps, the 
mountains of Unterwald and Lucerne as far as I'ilatus. (At the summit 
a new "Inn.) The carriage - road from Bern, 4 M. to tlie top, leads from 
the Aarberger Thor to (X'|« M.j Wabern, whence several paths ascend 
through a wood to the summit of the Gurten. On the hill near are the 
Bdchtelen and Victoria asylums for deserted children. At Klein- Wabern is 
the Pension Balsiger, recommended for a prolonged stay. 

Longer excursion to((i M.) Zimmerwald ( Pension Indermiihle), charm- 
ingly situated, and (.4>j-.> M. farther) Bulscheleck (3445' ), with e-xtensive and 
superb view of the Alps. Belpberg see p. 99. 

29. The Bernese Oberland. 

Time. Travellers whose time is very limited may obtain a glimpse 
at the surpassing beauties of the Bernese Oberland in three days, but so 
rapid a survey is hardly compatible with true enjoyment of the scenery. 
(Suitable places for passing the night are indicated by italics). First day : 
From Bern by railway in 1 hr. to the steamboat-station Scherzligen beyond 
Thun, steamboat to Neuhaus in l'J4 hr., diligence to Interlaken ij» hr., 
steamboat to the Giessbach in 3 J4 hr., rowing boat to Brienz in ')» hr., 
diligence or two-horse carr. to Meiringen in l'/« hr., on foot to the baths 
of Rosenlaui ( 2>| 2 hrs. ), sufficient time after arrival to visit the glacier. 
Second day : On foot to the Great Scheideck (2»| 2 hrs.), Grindelwald (2 hrs.), 
the Little Scheideck (4>| 8 hrs.), the Wengemalp (' |2 hr.), in all 9'jj hrs. 
Third day: On foot to Lauterbrunnen (2'|-i hrs.), Staubbach, Interlaken 
(2'Ijs hrs.), Neuhaus ('| 2 hr.), by steamboat to Thun and by railway to Bern. 
— If the traveller has a fourth day at his disposal, he will do well to 
ascend the ' Schynige Platte ' ; or he may proceed on the third day to 
MUrren, and on the fourth visit the upper part of the Lauterbrunnen valley 
and the Schmadri - Fall (or extend his walk to the Upper Steinberg), and 
take a carriage from Lauterbrunnen to Xeuhaus, etc. 

Those who do not wish to return to Bern may proceed on the first day 
from Bern to the Giessbach by Thun, Neuhaus, and Interlaken, back to 
Interlaken, and thence to Lauterbrunnen; second day, the Wengemalp, 
Grindelwald; third day, the Great Scheideck, Meiringen; fourth day, by the 
Brunig to Lucerne (R. 25), or to the Grimsel (K. 32), etc. Or a carriage may- 
be taken to Grindelwald , whence the traveller may proceed to Meiringen 
and the Grimsel on horseback or on foot. 

Tariff of March 23rd, 1866, a copy ot which every landlord and driver is 
bound to possess. One-horse carr. per day 13, two-horse 25 fr. ; from Neu- 
haus to Interlaken each pers. 1 fr. From Interlaken to Zweiliitschineu 
7 or 12 fr. ; to Lauterbrunnen and back, with 3 hrs. halt, 9 or 17 fr. ; to 
Grindelwald and back in one day 14 or 25 fr., in two days 25 or 45 fr. ; 
to Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and back in one day 17 or 30 fr., in 
two days 25 or 45 fr. ; to Grindelwald via Lauterbrunnen and the Wengem- 
alp, the horses being employed by the travellers for riding over the latter, 
for two days 25 or 55 fr. ; 5 or 10 fr. are also charged for conveying the 
carriage from Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald (3 or 6 fr. , if the excursion 
be made in the reverse direction) ; to Lauterbrunnen, MUrren, and Grindel- 
wald and back in two days 28 or 55 fr., in three days incl. the Wengem- 
alp and Grindelwald 35 or 65 fr., transport of carr. as above; to Habkern 
or the Beatenberg and back 15 or 25 fr. ; to Wimmis 15 or 25 fr. Charges 
for other excursions are mentioned in the respective routes. 

Horse or Mule per day, incl. attendant, 11 fr. ; if several be engaged 
at once, 10 fr. From Interlaken: Faulhorn and back in two days 
30 fr. ; Abendberg and back 10 fr. — From Lauterbrunnen: over the 
Wengemalp to Grindelwald (or vice versa) 15 fr. ; Murrcn 10 fr. ; Trachsel- 
lauinen and back 15 fr. — From Grindelwald: Faulhorn and back 15 
(it a night be spin! on the summit 22) fr. ; to the Lower Glacier 4, to the 
Upper (i fr. ; to the Mer de Glace U, there and back 12 fr. ; Little Scheideck 

Darmstadt, Ed. Wagner 

,„ A- Sim™, r -^rP ' ''£«jif 

Oberland. THUN. 29. Route. 99 

11 fr. ; Mannlichen and back 15 fr. ; Meiringen 21 fr. — From Meiringen 
Rosenlaui and back 10 fr. ; Scheideck 15 fr. ; Faulhorn 25 fr. ; Faulhorn 
and to Grindelwald 30 , to Lauterbrunnen 40 fr. ; Handeck and back in 
one day 15, in two days 20 fr. ; Grimsel 25, Rhone Glacier 30 fr. — Beyond 
these charges no addition for return -journey can be demanded, except 
where a horse is employed for a number of consecutive days and dismissed 
at a distance from the place of hiring. 

Guides (see Introd. VIII) 6—8 fr. per day of 8 hours, return 6 fr. ; porter 
6 fr., return 6 fr. For the usual route by Lauterbrunnen, Grindelwald, the 
Scheideck, Jleiringen, and Grimsel no guide is necessary. On fine days the 
route is much frequented and cannot be mistaken. Boys to show the way 
are contented with 2 fr. per day and no return - payment. They are to be 
met with at the principal places on the route, at the Grimsel Hospice, at 
Brienz, or at Grindelwald. 

Patience and Small Coin are indispensable in the Bernese Oberland. 
Contributions are levied upon the traveller's purse under every possible 
pretence. Vendors of strawberries, Uowers, and crystals first assail hiin, 
and he has no sooner escaped their importunities than he becomes a victim 
to the questionable attractions of a chamois or a marmot. His admiration 
must not be engrossed by a cascade, ever so beautiful, or by a glacier, 
ever so imposing and magnificent ; the urchin who persists in standing on 
his head, or turning somersaults for the tourist's express enjoyment, must 
have his share of attention and something more substantial with it. Again, 
if the route happen to pass an echo, a pistol shot is made to reverberate 
in one's ears, and payment is of course expected for the unpleasant shock. 
Swiss damsels next make their appearance on the scene, and the ebbing 
patience of the traveller is again sorely tried by the national melodies of 
these ruthless songsters. Then there is the Alpine horn and the llanz 
des Vaches, which, although musical when heard at a distance, are ex- 
cruciating when performed close to the ear. The fact is, the simplicity 
and morality of the aboriginal character in these once lonely regions has 
been sadly marred and corrupted by modern invasion. These abuses have 
become so crying, that the attention of Government has been directed to 
them, and commissioners have been sent to inquire into the matter. Their 
advice is : ' Give to nobody ' ; the remedy therefore lies principally with 
travellers themselves. 

a. From Bern to Thun. 

Central Swiss Railway. In 1 hr.; fare 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 60c. 
Seat on the right to be preferred , for the sake of the view of the Alps ; 
but from Miinsingen to Uttingen on the left. — Those who wish to travel 
to Neuhaus (Interlaken) direct should procure through-tickets at Bern. In 
this case they proceed to the Scherzligen (see below) terminus, 'J a M. from 
Thun, where they embark without detention. 

The line crosses the Aare bridge (p. lb, beautiful glimpse of 
the whole Alpine chain on the r.), and then passes the grounds 
of the Botanic Garden and the Schanzli (p. 97). At Wyler 
Feld the line from Bern to Herzogenbuchsee (p. 13) diverges to 
the S.K. Beautiful view of Bern and the Alps on the r. Next 
stations Ostermundingen, Oiimlingen, Rubigen, and Miinsingen. On 
the r. are the Stockhorn chain and the Niesen (p. 102), the ex- 
treme spurs of the High Alps, and to the 1. the Monch, Jung- 
fruu, and Bliimlisalp. 

From Miinsingen to the Belpberg, the only eminence between 
the Aare and the Giirbe. On leaving the railway stat., the road to the r. 
should be taken, leading to the ( 3 | 4 M. ) ' Schutzenfahre'. By this ferry 
the Aare is crossed, and the path (partly cut in steps) ascends (l l |i hr.) to 
the Harzem Spilzt (2953'), the highest point, which commands a line survey 
of the vallev of the Aare as far as Bern and the Jura chain, the mountains 


100 Route -Jit. THl!N. Bernese 

of the Emmenthal, Than and its lake, witli the Alps from Pilatiis to the 
Niesen and the Stockhorn chain. The traveller may descend to the S.E. by 
the village (3M.1 of fterzensee (rustic inn I, picturesquely situated on a 
small lake, to the railway station (3 31.) Kitten. 

Stat. Kiesen. Near stat. Uttigen the line crosses the Aare, 
ami reaches the Thun station, on the 1. bank of the Aare, near 
the lower bridge 7o M. from the steamboat wharf; passengers 
proceeding direct to Neuhaus (Interlaken) keep their seats until 
they reach the Scherzligen terminus and steamboat-station. 

Thun (1844'), with 4623 inhab. (200 Rom. Cath.), charmingly 
situated on the Aare, 3 / 4 M. from the point where it emerges 
from the lake, forms an appropriate introduction to the beauties 
of the Oberland. 

Hotels. -Bellevue, R. 2, L. 1, B. li| 2 , D. 4, S. 3, A. 1 , pension 7— 
9 fr. ; delightfully situated outside the town, steamboat-station. — Freien- 
hof, moderate. "Kreuz, R. l'|a, B. l 1 ^, L. and A. 1 fr., fine view from 
the balcony ; Hot el-Pen sionBaumgarten, R. from 1 '|j , pension from 
6fr. ; "'Krone, adjoining the Town Hall, unpretending; Falke, line view. 

Pensions. He la Villette, to the S. , on the road to Hofstetten; 
Bellevue (8fr.) and Bellerive (5 — 6 fr.) at Hofstetten, opposite to 
the landing-place at Scherzligen; Schonbiihl. Bernstrasse , well situated 
(5 — 7 fr.). Des Alpes at Eichbiihl, near the castle of Hiinegg. t M. from 
Thun. — Itten, on the Amsoldingcn road, well spoken of (5 fr.). 

Cafe. Oherherren, opp. the Freienhof, beer. Best heer at Gfeller's 
brewery, not far from the station, to the 1. on crossing the bridge. 

Telegraph Office at the Post-office. 

Baths in the lake (i| 2 fr.), near the Pension des Alpes. 

English Church Service at the chapel in the grounds of the Bellevue. 

Rowing-boat on the lake, according to tariff at the Bellevue, 3 fr. per 
hour, 2 hrs. 5 fr., 3 hrs. 7, 1/2 day 8, whole day 10 fr. ; the terms of the 
boatmen themselves are less exorbitant. Fiacre U) c. per drive. — Carved 
Wood at Kelirli-RterehFs in the grounds of the Bellevue. 

The principal street presents some curious features ; in front 
of the houses a row of magazines and cellars, about 10' in height, 
projects , on the flat roofs of which is the pavement for foot 
passengers and the approach to the shops. Thun is the centre 
of all the trade of the Oberland. Near the bridge a covered-way 
of 218 steps leads to the Church, erected in 1837. Picturesque 
*view from the churchyard, embracing the old-fashioned town, the 
two arms of the rapid river, the fertile and well-cultivated plain, 
and the Niesen. beyond which the snow-fields of the Bliimlisalp 
are visible in all their extent. — Near the churchyard rises the 
large square tower of the old Castle of Zdhringen-Kyburg (1182') 
with a turret at each corner , and within its precincts the more 
modern Bailiffs' Residence, erected in 1429. The descendants 
of the barons of Thun have emigrated. The Austrian counts 
of that name are said to descend from the same family. 

Thun is the seat of the Federal Military School for the education 
of officers and sergeants, especially for the artillery and engineers. 

Walks: above the town on the r. bank of the Aare, through the grounds 
of the Bellevue (access free), to the rotunda on the "Jacobshiibeli (2388'), 
which commands an extensive 'view of the lake, the Alps, Thun, and the 
valley of the Aare; the 'Pavilion of St. Jacques', the path to which is 
indicated at the rotunda, lies considerably higher, but the view from it 

Oberland: WIMMIS. 29. Route. 101 

only embraces Thun and the valley of the Aare; the Alps and the lake are 
not visible. — Another walk may be taken on the bank of the lake by a 
shady path on the Biichimalt, to the commencement of the (1 31.) Bachigtit 
(19<5'), the park of which (the Bachiholzli) commands some lovely views. 
Admission only on application to the proprietor, 31. de Parpart. 

The handsomest of the villas on the lake is Schadau (the property 
of 31. de Rougemont), a modern building in the (iothic style, charmingly 
situated, without pretension to architectural taste, but of a picturesque 
general ell'ect. The sculptures in sandstone with which it is decorated 
deserve inspection. On Sundays the garden is open to the public. — 
Farther on, on the r. bank, is the chateau of Hunegg , the property of 
31. de Parpart, constructed in the French Renaissance style. 

Interesting Excursions: Thieracheni ( ,! Lowe, pension 3>| 2 to 5 fr., 
beautiful view) 3 M. to the \V. ; 3 31. farther \V., Bad Blvmenstein and the 
Fallback; hence in 2'| 2 hrs. to the Gurnigel (5079'), on the X.W. slope of 
which, 3 |4 hr. below the summit, are the much frequented Baths (3789') of 
the same name (K. 1, B. 1 fr.). Burgislein (2690'), village and castle with 
lovely view, 931. X.W. of Thun. Amsotdingen, (Roman tombstones), 6 31. S.W., 
and the ancient tower of StraUUngen (p. 144), 3 3 |j 31. S. of Thun. The un- 
dulating district between the Stockenthal and Thun abounds with the most 
delightful walks and magnificent mountain landscapes. 

To Freiburg ('li 31.) a direct road leads through (9 31.) Kiggisherg 
(2GA4') (-Hirsch), beyond which a line view of the Stockhoru, the Niesen, 
and the snow-peaks of the Bernese Oberland is enjoyed ; then crossing the 
Srhtrarzwasser to (7'^ 31.) Schicarzenburg, and crossing the Sense, which 
here separates the cantons of Bern and Freiburg, to (lO'/a 31.) Freiburg. 

To Saanen through the valley of the Simmen, see R. 38. 

b. The Niesen. 

Comp. Map p. 98. 

Three good bridle-paths, which cannot be mistaken, lead to the summit : 
1st, on the X. side from Wimmis in 5 (down in 3) hrs. ; 2nd, on the E., from 
the Heitstrich-Bad, 3 \\ 31. from 3Iiihlenen (p. 145), in the same time ; 3rd, on 
the S., from Frutigen (p. 145) in 5— 6 hrs. 

From Thun to Wimmis by the road 7 1 (2 31. (one-horse carr. in l 1 ^ hr. 
7 fr. ; travellers may avail themselves of the Uessenay and Weissenburg 
diligences as far as Brothausi, see p. 153). Steamboat to Spiez (p. 103); 
thence by Spiezwyler to Wimmis 3 3 j4 31- — An omnibus runs from Thun 
to the Heustrich-Bad ; one-horse carr. in l 1 /^ hr., 7 fr. — Diligence from 
Thun to Frutigen once daily. 

Horse to the top of the Xiesen, and back on the same day, from 
Wimmis or Frutigen 15, from Heustrich 13 ; if a night be spent on the 
summit, 20 fr. From Frutigen to Wimmis or Heustrich over the Xiesen 
in one day 30, two days 35 fr. — Gruide (unnecessary) U, if kept till next 
day, 8 fr. Chair porters 10 fr. each ; if kept till next day, 12 fr. 

From the post-station Brothausi (p. 168) a footpath descends 
to the 1., to the deep and stony bed of the Simmen, crosses 
it by a wooden bridge (destroyed in 18(57 ) and ascends to Wim- 
mis. The carriage-road describes a circuit of 1 M. 

Wimmis (2342') (*Lowe) , is pleasantly situated in a fertile 
district at the E. base of the Burgfluh (5072'), and overlooked 
by a castle, now occupied by a school and the district-authori- 
ties. The church is said to have been founded by King Ru- 
dolph II. of Burgundy, in 933. 

The path hence to the Niesen ascends on the 8. side of the 
Burgfluh. At the village-fountain it proceeds in a straight direc- 
tion, after 25 min. it turns to the 1. by a gate; the (12min.) Stal- 
denbach is then crossed, after which the route no longer presents 

102 Route 29. MR SEN. Bernese 

any difficulties. The bridle-path ascends the N. slopes of the 
Bettfluh. Refreshments at the first inhabited chalet on the 'Bergli . 
About half-way, by the chalets of Vnterstalden, the path 
crosses to the r. bank of the Staldenbach, and by numerous 
•windings ascends the sunny slopes of the Niesen, passing the 
chalets of Oberstalden. The prospect first unfolds itself beyond 
the Staldenegg, a sharp ridge connecting the Bettfluh (7924', 
also called Fromberghorn or Hinter- Niesen?) with the Niesen, 
and the vast snow-fields of the Blumlisalp and Doldenhorn become 


From the Heust rich-Bad (p. 145) the bridle-path ascends in wind- 
ings for 1 hr. to the W., through beautiful beech plantations, then '|j hr. tn 
the S. to the 'Schlechtenwaldegg'' (superb view); finally 2>|j hrs. due X. 
to the summit of the Xiesen. The path is provided with benches, on 
which the distances and altitudes are inscribed. Numerous and diversified 
points of view on this route. (Drinking water scarce.) 

FromFrutigen (p. 145) the bridle-path diverges 1. near the end 
of the village, and crosses the meadows to Wintlen (i/ 2 hr.), whence the 
path ascends in windings through the wood for •/« hr. Then a gentle 
ascent across the meadows to the Senligraben (lifchr.), to the Meseiicgg 
(20 min.) and the Niesen-ChaUt (>U hr.). The path unites on the Staldenegg 
(1 hr.) with that from Wimmis. This route afTords a beautiful retrospective 
view of the Kanderthal and the Alps. ,,_.»« , 

Inn, 5 min. from the summit, B. from 2'| 2 , B. lfy, D. or S. 3M 4 , L.»| 4 , 
A. '!■> fr. ; 40 c. charged for fire in the dining-room. 

The *Niesen (7763', Rigi 5905', Faulhorn 8803'), the con- 
spicuous N. outpost of a ramification of the Wildstrubel , like 
Pilatus, considered an infallible barometer (see p. 54~), has the 
form of a gently sloping pyramid; the rocks at the base are 
composed of clay-slate, those of the upper portion are sand- 
stone-conglomerate. The summit consists of a narrow ridge, 
terminated by two small peaks , below one of which the inn is 
situated; the other, 300 paces from the inn, is somewhat 
higher, and commands an unbounded prospect. The Alps are 
seen to greater advantage than from the Rigi ; indeed, the view 
is scarcely inferior to that from the Faulhorn. As the group 
of the "Wetterhorner, etc. forms the foreground of the view from 
the latter so the Niesen commands an uninterrupted prospect of 
the broad snow-fields of the Blumlisalp , rising at the extremity 

of the Kienthal. 

View. The most prominent of the snow-mountains are the following : 
in the distance to the E. the Titlis ; nearer, the Wetterhiirner and Schreck- 
horner, the Eiger, Miinch, Jungfrau, Gletscherhorn, Ehnefluh, Mittaghorn, 
Grosshorn, Breithorn, and Tschingelhorn ; towards the S. the Fran or 
liliimlisalp, the Doldenhorn, Balmhorn, and Altcls; to the W. , the Wild- 
horn appearing between two black peaks; 1. of these the pinnacles of the 
Mont Blanc group; finally the two peaks of the Dent du Midi, forming the 
last snow -group towards the W. The entire lake of Thnn is visible, as 
well as a portion of that of Brienz. The thickly peopled valleys of the 
Simmen Engstligenbach, and Kander, and the Kienthal may be traced for 
a considerable distance. Towards the N. the course of the Aare, and the 
hillv country of Bern, as far as the Jura, complete the prospect (comp. the 
Panoramas at the inn). The most favourable light is towards sunset. During 
the day the plains alone arc seen to advantage. 

Oberland. ?<). Route. 103 

c. From Thun to Interlaken. Lake of Thun. 

Comp. Map p. 98. 

Steamboat 3 times daily in 1>| 4 hr. from Thun ( Sclierzligen : 
comp. p. 100) to Neuhaus, fare 2 fr. or 1 fr. ; to Gonten or Spiez 1 fr. 20, or 
60 c; for each box 50 c. Omnibus or other conveyance from Neuhaus 
to Interlaken in '[a nr 'i 1 fr. 

The Lake of Thun (1824') is 10 1/2 M. long, and 2»/ 4 M. 
broad. The banks are at first studded with picturesque villas 
and gardens, but further on, the N. bank becomes somewhat 

On the Northern Bank, 8 M. from Thun by the road, lies Merligen ; 
thence to Unterseen 7'J2 II. Part of this route may be performed by 
steamboat as far as Gonten; thence fin foot to Xeuhaus, or vice versa. A 
road leads from Thun to Hilterfingen (Pens. des Alpes), Oberhofen 
(Bar), where Count Pourtales possesses a picturesque chateau, once the 
residence of Walther von Eschenbach, and (3 M.) Gonten (Weisses Krevz ; 
Pension du Lac), skirting the bank of the lake the latter part of the way. 
From Gonten a paved bridle-path, several hundred feet above the level of 
the lake, passes the rustic sanitary estab. of 'Sigr is wyl (on the eminence 
to the 1.), and descends to the castle of Rail i gen and (5 MO Merligen 
( Lowe), where a few years ago a thunderstorm of great violence destroyed 
IT houses. Beyond the waterfall the path is narrow and precipitous. 
About 1 hr. beyond Merligen, near the end of the wood, a broad path di- 
verging to the r. must be avoided. — The cavern of St. Beatus. near this 
path, deserves a visit (see below and pp. 104, 107). 

The Southern Bank (18 M. by the carriage-road) scarcely repays the 
pedestrian, but affords a delightful drive. 

The Steamboat starts from the Freienhof hotel (comp. 
p. 100), and ascending the Aare, stops at the Bellevue (p. 100), 
then at Scherzligen, the railway-terminus (comp. p. 100). To the 
1. lies the picturesque Bachigut (p. 101); to the r., where the 
Aare emerges from the lake, Schloss Schadau (p. 101). The Stock- 
horn (7211'), with its rounded summit, and the pyramid of the 
Niesen (7763') rise on the r. and 1. of the entrance to the val- 
leys of the Kander and Simmen (p. 145). L. of the Niesen the 
three peaks of the Bltimlisalp; r. in the background of the Kan- 
derthal, the Freundhorn, Doldenhorn, Balmhorn with the Altels, 
and the Rinderhorn gradually become visible (from 1. to r.). 
In the direction of Interlaken appear successively (from r. to 1.) 
the Jungfrau, Monch, Eiger, Schreckhorn, and Wetterhorn. 

The boat skirts the N.E. bank, the lower portion of which 
is covered with vineyards, the upper with woods, and passes the 
pleasant village of Hilterfingen ; 1. the chateau of Hunegg (p. 101). 
It then halts at Oberhofen (see above) , with a castle of Count 
Pourtales and a hospital founded by him, and at Qonten, above 
which is the church of Sigriswyl on the height. The steamer 
now crosses the lake at the broadest part , and proceeds in a 
S. direction to Spiez (*Pens. Schonegg, 5 fr.), a small village on 
a promontory on the S. bank, with a picturesque old castle, for 
300 years the property of the von Erlach family (ascent of the 
Niesen, p. 102; diligence to Frutigen, p. 145). Near Spiez, 
towards the E., two black peaks (above the S. bank of the lake 

104 Route -29. INTERLAKEN. Bernese 

of Brienz) are visible for a short distance; that to the r. is the 
Faulhorn, the broader to the 1. the Nchwarzhorn. 

As the steamboat proceeds towards Neuhaus, the Raltigstiicke 
(4901') and the Sigriswyler llothhorn (_(>74'2') are conspicuous 
above the iN. bank. Beyond Merligen (see above) a rocky head- 
land called the Sase , stretches into the lake. A little further, 
on the N. side, rises the Beatenberg, with the Cavern of St. Bea- 
tus (Beatenhohle , '278'2'). The stream which tlows from it fre- 
quently increases rapidly, and filling the entire cavern, bursts forth 
from it with a roar like thunder. St. Beatus, the first promulgator 
of Christianity in this district, is said to have dwelt in this cave. 

The steamer stops at Neuhaus (Hotel Neuhaus , with restau- 
rant), where carriages are in readiness to convey travellers to 
Interlaken (1 fr.). A post-omnibus also runs to the starting-place 
of the steamers on the lake of Brienz (1 fr.). On the road from 
Neuhaus to (i 3 /t M.) Unterseen and Interlaken, views of the 
Jungfrau, Moiich, and Eiger are obtained. To the r. , on an 
island at the influx of the Aare , are the ruins of Weissenau. 

d. Interlaken and its Environs. 

Hotels and Pensions. At Interlaken itself, in the direction from the 
lake of Thun to that of Brienz: Hotel Kits chard, pension 8 fr. ; 

Victoria, comfortable, R. 2'|2, D. 4 fr. ; "Jungfrau, a new and spacious 
edifice, R. 2, L. and A. 1, B. V\ 2 fr. ; !! S ch weizerhof; Belvedere, 
liy the Cursaal; -Hotel des A I pes; Casino; "Hotel Interlaken; 
Elmer; Volz; "Hotel Beaurivage, handsomely fitted up, with 
river and shower baths , grounds, and fine view. These handsome hotels, 
situated on the so-called 'lliiheweg' tp. 105 1 and erected within the last 
30 — 40 years, were originally fitted up as 'Pensions' only, but now accom- 
modate travellers at the usual hotel prices. Near the steamboat-quay on 
the lake of Brienz is the "Hotel du Lac, R. 2 fr., L. 1J2 fr. , B. 1 fr. 
— Coming from the Lake of Thun the traveller first reaches the "Eiger, 
then (l'J 2 M.) Beau-Site (pens, from 5fr.), with beautiful view ol the 
.lungfrau, and "Hotel Unterseen. Near Unterseen on the Spielmatten, 
a small island in the Aare, -Hotel du Pont (pension from 5 fr.); then 
in the village of Aarmiihle, beyond the second bridge over the Aare, 

Bellevue; Rossli, adjoining the post-office ; Weisses Kreuz, un- 
pretending; opposite to it, "Oberland er Hof, a large hotel with a 
cafe, R. 2, 1). 3, A. >/a fr. — On the road from Aarmiihlc to Afatteit 
(C-steig, Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen , etc.): Wydcr; Deutsches Ha us, 
pension 5 fr. ; adjacent 'Hotel Reber, pension 5 fr. ; >|« M. farther, on 
the 1. side of the road, Ober, or the 'Schlcisschen' ; near it, Pension 
B ischof sb erger , new. Before the latter is reached, a road diverges to 
the r., leading to the J ungf raubl i ck (3| 4 31. from Unterseen), situated 
on a spur of the wooded Kleine Rugen (p. 105) and commanding an unbroken 
view, with pleasant grounds, and comfortably fitted up ; baths, whey, etc. ; 
pension before July 1st and after Sept. 15th only, 7'|a — 9 fr., R. 2'|.> — 4, B. 
i'| 2 , D. 4 or 4>| a , L. and A. li|jj fr. — Farther from Interlaken, beyond the 
bridge, which crosses the Aare near the Hotel du Lac, and on the road 
to Brienz, is situated (»J 4 JI.) -Campagne Felsenegg (pension 5>|2 fr. ; 
also a cafe-restaurant). — At Matteu (see above) Hotel and Pension Matten- 
hof. — At Bonigen on the S. bank of the Lake of Brienz, li|» 31. E. of 
Interlaken, recommended to those in search of retirement: '-Pension 

Vug el, Pension Bonigen, and Chalet du Lac. — (Jn the Abend- 
berg (p. l(IH) (2'|., hrs.), "Hotel Bellevue. - At Beatenberg (p. 109, car- 

riage road, in '2 hrs.; one-horse 15. two-horse '.'ofr.l, Hotel des Alpes, 

Oberland. INTERLAKEN. :>9. Route. 105 

commanding a fine view of the Alps from the Finstevaarhorn to the Niesen ; 
•|s II. higher up, "Bcllevue, also commanding a magnificent view, pension 
in both 4— 6 fr. 

The 'Cursaal d'lnterlaken' is situated on the Ildheweg, between 
the Schweizerhof and the Belvedere. It was opened in 1859, but since 
the government has prohibited gambling, it has been iitted up for reading, 
concert, and ball-rooms. The hotel-keepers, at whose expense this es- 
tablishment is kept up, make a charge in their bills for its use. — New 
Waterworks supply the town abundantly. — Wrestling Afutclies (fee charged 
for adm.) see Introd. XII; the tourist should witness one of these, if he 
has had no opportunity of being present at a genuine fete, in order to gain 
some idea of this national custom. 

Bankers: Ehersold A; Seiler. — Druggist: Seewer. 

Carriages, Horses, Guides, see p. 98. Donkeys, |i;_. fr. per hr. 

Post and Telegraph Office in Aarmiihle, by the Oberlunder Hof. 

English Church Service in the old Convent Church. 

The low land between the lakes of Than and Brienz, 'l ] / 4 M. 
in length, is termed the 'Bodeli.' Formerly these two lakes 
probably formed one sheet of water only , but were gradually 
separated by the deposits of the Liltschine (p. 110J flowing into 
the Lake of Brienz, and the Lombach into the Lake of Thun. These 
accumulations, first from the S., out of the valley of Lauter- 
brunnen, and then from the N. out of the Habkeren valley, 
together serve to account for the curve, which the Aare has been 
compelled to describe. On this piece of land , 'between the 
lakes', lies Interlaken with the adjacent villages of Aarmiihle 
and Unterseen, stretching in a connected line nearly as far as 
the Lake of Brienz. 

Coming from Neuhaus on the Lake of Thun (p. 104), the 
traveller first reaches the pensions Eiger and Beau-.Site (p. 104), 
then Unterseen (1837'), a small town with 1880 inhab. Most of 
the houses are of wood, and many bear traces of great age. 
There are large manufactories of parqueterie at Unterseen ami 

The road to the small island of Spielmatten (hotel, seep. 104) 
crosses the Aare by a bridge (Schaalbriicke) , which commands 
a picturesque view of the foaming river , its weirs, the precipi- 
tous rocks on the r. bank, various mills, bridges, old wooden 
houses, and dark pine woods ( Kleine Ragen, see below) , and 
towering above all the glistening snow-fields of the Jungfrau. 

By a modern iron bridge (H'uhebrueke), which crosses another 
arm of the Aare , the village of Aarmulde (hotels see p. 104) is 
reached, which, together with Interlaken, has a pop. of 1313. At 
its termination, the l Hoheweg' commences, an avenue of fine old 
walnut-trees, much injured however by a storm in 1861. The 
pensions and hotels mentioned at p. 104 , as well as a 
number of the attractive shops and stalls usually seen at 
watering-places, are situated here. Near the extremity of this 
venue is the former monastery and nunnery of Interlaken, 
founded in 1130, and suppressed in lf>'28. The E. wing of the 
monastery is used as a hospital for the poor; the remainder of 

106 Route 2». WTERIAKKN Bernese 

the building, to which the castle was added in 1750, serves as 
government-offices. The nunnery has been converted into a prison. 
The tower and chancel are the only remaining parts of the church, 
where English Divine Service is performed every Sunday during 
the season. The former English chapel is now a Rom. Cath. 
place of worship. 

Interlaken is deservedly a point of attraction to visitors from 
all parts of Europe; the whey-cure is an inducement to some, 
whilst many make it their head-quarters for excursions in the 
Oberland , or select it as a resting-place and for the enjoyment of 
the magnificent scenery by which it is surrounded. It is particu- 
larly recommended to travellers whose time and resources are 
ample , as it affords facilities for numerous excursions among 
the valleys and heights of the Oberland. in the intervals between 
which the strength may be recruited, and repose enjoyed. 

Walks. The immediate vicinity abounds in charming walks. 
To the Jungfraublick, see p. 104. — To the *Kleine Rugen (2483') 
'/•i hr. A broad path (from the Jungfraublick to the r. at a circular 
bench) , provided with benches, ascends gradually, affording ever 
varying views of the Bodeli and the lakes of Thun and Brienz, 
and leads to the Trinkhalle (Restaurant), a long covered building 
with a terrace. This point commands the finest prospect of the 
Jungfrau, Monch, and valley of Lauterbrunnen. The path then 
continues its circuit of the hill, and at a circular plateau turns 
to the r. The ascent towards the right affords the finest succes- 
sion of views. From this walk numerous shady and pleasant 
by-paths diverge, leading to different points of view and resting- 
places. The summit of the hill also affords a view, the trees 
by which it was formerly obstructed having been removed. — 
The prospect from the ruined castle of Unspunnen (2 M.), 
embraces the valley of Lauterbrunnen , the Jungfrau, and the 
Monch ; it may be reached by a path which diverges to the r. 
from the Lauterbrunnen road between Matten and Wilderswyl, 
beyond the Kleine Rugen ; or through the Wagneren ravine, which 
opens towards the road from Matten to Thun , a short distance 
beyond the Rugen path. — To the *Heimweh-Fluh % hr. In 
the Wagneren ravine, about 200 yds. from the entrance, a narrow 
path diverges to the r. , and ascends rapidly to the foot of the 
rock ('/ 4 hr.), whence a rugged flight of steps leads to the rocky 
terrace. The *View embraces the Bodeli, the lakes of Thun and 
Brienz , the Jungfrau, Monch, and Eiger (Restaurant below the 
terrace). — The ruined castle of Weissenau (2 M.), on an island 
formed by the Aare where it enters the lake of Thun (p. 104), 
is reached by the old road from Matten, as well as by the road 
from Unterseen to Thun. — In the opp. direction, on the r. bank 
of the Aare, the ascent of the Hohbuhl (2247', 1/2 hr.) is fre- 
quently made; the path ascends to the 1. by the first house 

Oberland. INTERLAKEN. 29. Route. 107 

beyond the Zollbriicke (p. 104), and to the r. traverses the 
woods to a pavilion commanding a beautiful view (the path to the 
I. leads to Vogtsruhe on the Aare, a resting-place and fountain"). 
The prospect is still more extensive from the grassy slopes of 
the Untere Bleieki , a few hundred paces higher. (The footpath 
leads to the r., crossing the brook after 10 min. walk.) From the 
Hohbiihl a path descends to the Vogtsruhe , and, following the r. 
bank and passing a shooting-ground, leads to the narrow and 
stony plain of Ooldei, between the Harder and the Aare, at the 
base of the Falkenfluh, the upper part of which (Hardermannli) 
seen from a good point of view, bears a resemblance to an old 
man's face. On a barren eminence below the Falkenfluh, and 
accessible by a path from the Goldei, a pavilion has been 
erected , termed the Lustbuhl , commanding a beautiful view of 
Interlaken and the Jungfrau. Further on, some caverns, called 
the Zvterglijcher , are seen in the walls of the Harder. From 
the Goldei the traveller may either return by Unterseen , or (by 
a footpath to the r.) ascend the hill l Jm Brand', where a court 
of judicature was anciently held; thence to the 1. in '/4 hr., 
crossing the Lombach , to the Eck. a hill at the base of the 
Beatenberg; all beautiful points of view. — The Thurmberg, 
ascended from Golzwyl (l'/o M.), beyond Felsenegg on the road 
to Brienz (p. 104) , also affords a beautiful panorama of the 
lakes of Thun and Brienz , the course of the Aare , and the 
small, gloomy lake of Golzwyl, or Faulensee. — Another walk 
may be taken by the same road to (3 M.) Ringgenberg , with 
picturesque church constructed among the ruins of the castle 
(beautiful view), and to the Schadenburg (l 1 /? M. farther), 
situated on a spur of the Harder, an unfinished castle of the 
ancient barons of Ringgenberg. 

A steamboat (pp. 103, 127) plies in summer at least 3 times 
daily to the *6iessbach on the Lake of Brienz. Footpath to the 
Giessbach, see p. 127. 

To the Beatenhbhle (p. 104), with its (in spring) beautiful 
waterfall , from Neuhaus by boat (5 fr. ; 2 his. going and re- 
turning), passing the picturesque villa of Leerau; or by a foot- 
path (to the r. before Neuhaus is reached), passing the Kiiblis- 
bad and the village of Sundlauenen (l'/'i '"*•)> an d in some places 
skirting the brink of the precipice above the lake, but not 

Bonigen (f/2 M.), Gsteig (p. 109), with a beautiful view 
from the churchyard (2 M.), and Gsteigwyler (3/ 4 M. farther) 
with the Hohe Steg (bridge) over the Liitschine , are likewise 
pleasant objects for a walk. 

Longer Excursions. The *Schynige Platte (6181') is 
one of the finest points of view in the Oberland. There is 
probably no other from which the valleys of Lauterbrunncn and 

108 Route 29. SCHYNIGE PLATTE. Bernese 

Grindelvvaltl are simultaneously visible in their entire length. 
(Horse, incl. carriage to Gsteig, It) frj. From Interlaken to (2 M.J 
Gsteig, see p. 109. Crossing the bridge at the church and turn- 
ing to the r., a good road leads to Gsteigwyler ( 3 / 4 M.J. In the 
middle of the village the path ascends to the 1. , and a little 
farther, to the 1. again. The way cannot now be mistaken. A 
shorter footpath from Gsteig (1. between the church and inn), 
avoiding Gsteigwyler, unites with the above path after 1 M. 
A wood is soon entered, beyond which the (l 1 /^ nr -J lower, and 
then the (!/■> hr. ) upper terrace C/4 hr. below it, 20 paces 
r. of the road , excellent spring-water) of the BreiUauenen-Alp 
( view of the lakes , refreshments at the chalet) are reached. 
Finally a zigzag path leads to the (40 min.J summit of the moun- 
tain ridge, and crosses its W. extremity (to the r. the 'Ameisen- 
haufen' or 'ants' hillock', a jagged rock). A few steps bring the 
traveller to a scene of striking magnificence : the Lauterbrunneii 
valley lies before him, to the 1. towers the majestic Jungfrau, at 
his feet are dizzy precipices, descending almost perpendicularly 
to the Liitschine. Following the S. slope of the ridge for •/$ hr., 
the traveller arrives at the * Hotel Alpenrose (II. 2'/.>, B. l'/.j, A. 
1 fr.). The Platte, a crumbling slate-rock, glistening in the sun's 
rays (whence its appellation), is about 60 paces from the hotel. 
The iiiiest view is obtained a few paces before the summit is 
attained , at a bend in the path. (The traveller should not 
omit to visit the Iselten Alp, '/ 4 hr. to the N.E. , a pasture 
which affords support to a herd of (500 cattle, the tinkling 
of whose bells produces pleasing harmony). To enjoy a 
complete panorama the traveller should skirt (to the 1.) the 
base of the Gumihorn (7493'), N. W. of the Platte, and ascend 
the somewhat lower Taubenhorn ('Tubihorn') (a walk of '/» ' ir - 
from the Platte), whence the prospect of both lakes, Interlaken, 
the Gumihorn, and other peaks is remarkably line. The height 
above the Schynige Platte (20 min.) commands a line panorama 
of the Alps, but the view into the valleys is inferior to that from 
the Platte. P>oys to show the way or carry luggage may be 
found in Gsteigwyler (1 — 2 fr.). A new path leads hence to the 
Faulhorn in 4 hrs. , see p. 121. Descent from the Platte by 
Gi'cndlischwand to Zwediitschlnen in 2 — 2>/.> hrs. 

The Harder (4(>2(>', 2 hrs.) should not be ascended without 
a guide, as accidents have occurred from the dangerous nature 
of the path. 

The Habkernthal, between the Harder and Beatenberg, may 
may also be explored. Carriage-road to the village of (6 M.) 
Habkern (3r»7(V; rustic inn), from which the pedestrian may 
visit the three following points of view: (1) the *Gemmenalp- 
horn (7035') or Giiggisgrat, by the Brnndllneyg, or following the 
course of the lliihlbucli . in 4 hrs. |better still from I iiterseen 

Oberland. SULECK. :>!>. Route. 109 

direct to Wuldeyy (3986', a hamlet in the parish of Beatenbery) 
in 2 hrs., and thence by the Oberbery to the summit in 3 hrs.]; 

(2) the Hohyant (7216'), by the Bohlegy (5167') and Hayletsch- 
alp, or by the Alp Bosalyau and through the Karrholen in 4 his. 
(a path ,S. from the Hohgant leads over the Oriinenbery , a pass 
between Habkern and Schunynau in the Emmenthal, in 6 hrs.); 

(3) the Auystmatthorn (Sugyithurm , 6929'), by the Bodenalp 
(2 hrs.), and thence to the summit in 1 1/. 2 hr. 

The Abendberg (6000') is also frequently ascended for the 
sake of the view , which is still more extensive from the Kothe 
Eck, the next peak of the range, the culminating point of which 
is the Moryenberyhom (7425') above Leissigen. The path is at 
first the same as that from the Lauterbrunnen road to Unspunnen ; 
before reaching the ruin , however , it enters the beech-wood to 
the r., and ascends. On the Abendberg, at a height of 3600' 
(2'/-> hrs. from Interlaken, bridle-path to this point), is situated 
the Pension Bellevue, beautifully situated. 

The Saxeten Valley lies between the Abendbery and Bellen- 
hiichst (6138'); to the village of Saxeten (3566') 2'/.> hrs. (ac- 
commodation at the schoolmaster's); '/■> h r - further are the falls 
of the Ourben and Weiisbach, and the valley is beautifully closed 
by the Schwalmem (8981'). — Between the latter and the 
Morgenberghorn is a rugged pass over the Alp lienyyli (5626') 
through the Suld-Thal to Milhlenen on the Kander, or to Aeschi, 
above the Lake of Thun. 

The *Suleck (7910'), affording one of the finest prospects 
of the Alps , may be ascended from Saxeten (see above) by the 
Alp Nessleren to Bellenkilchen (5889') l'/a hr. , thence to the 
summit in 3 hrs. The ascent is easier from Eisenfluli (see below): 
thence to the Alp Suls l'/o, to the summit l 1 /* hr. Eisenfluh 
('Isenfluh' ) itself merits a visit on account of the splendid view 
of the Jungfrau ; besides the path to it from Zweilutschinen ( see 
below), a second ascends the Sausbach opposite the Hunnenfluh. 
— Interlaken may also be made the head-quarters for most of 
the following excursions. 

e. From Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen. Staubbach. 

Comp. Map p. 98. 

7'j2 M. Carriage there and back, ime-horsc 9, two-horse 17 fr. , see 
p. 98; one-horse carr. from Interlaken to Zweilutschinen 7 fr. 

The high-road first traverses fertile orchards and rich 
meadows, and passes (1 M.) through Matten (llirsch), where it 
divides; that to the r. is the shorter ( 3 / 4 M.) to Wilderswyl and 
C/4 M.) Miilinen; that to the 1., the longer ('/ 4 M. more), leads 
to the Church of Osteiy (*Kreuz), the parish church of the entire 
valley on this side of the Aare, including Interlaken itself. Near 
C/2 M.) Miilinen, the two roads re-unite; the Saxetenbach is 
crossed , and a narrow gorge soon entered , through which the 

J 10 Route J9. LAUTERBRUNNEN. Bernese 

Liitschine flows. To the r. rises the precipitous Rothenfluh. A 
certain spot ('/'.> M.J in this defile, marked by an inscription 
on the rock , is named the Biisenstein , where according to 
tradition one of the barons of Rothenfluh slew his brother. 

Near ('2 l / 4 M J Zweilutschinen (2201 ') , a village on the 
r. bank of the Liitschine (*Bar, R. 1, B. 1 fr., pension 4 fr.), 
the valley divides. To the 1. it ascends the course of the Black 
Liitschine to Grindelwald (7'/2 M.) (view of the Wetterhorn in 
the background) ; in a straight direction the White Liitschine is 
followed to Lauterbrunnen (2'/ 4 M.). The valley of Lauterbrun- 
nen, which commences at the Hunnenfluh, a rock in the form 
of a gigantic tower, is remarkable for its walls of calcareous rock, 
rising precipitously on both sides, to a height of 1000 — 1500'. 
It derives its name (tauter Brunnen, i. e. 'nothing but springs'j 
from the numerous brooks and springs which descend from the 
surrounding rocks. 

An excursion may be made (guide unnecessary) from Zweilutschinen 
to (1 hr.) Eisenfluh (3862'); the first road turning to the r. from the 
Lauterbrunnen road rapidly ascends the \V. side of the mountain (after 
i p. m. shade). Refreshments at the house of the schoolmaster, near the 
upper fountain in the village. Eisenfluh commands a magnificent view of 
the Jungfrau, which is seen to still better advantage on the path from 
Eisenfluh to JIurren (3 hrs., p. 112). Near the end of the village, it turns 
to the 1. , leading to the Sausbach ( 3 ji hr.) , beyond which the only steep 
ascent in the walk is encountered (the traveller from JIurren should, ou 
emerging from the forest, as soon as he perceives the bridge which crosses 
the brook at the bottom of the valley, leave the direct path and descend 
towards it); for i| 2 hr. the path presents no difficulty, and the walk well 
repays the fatigue; the Jungfrau and its neighbours are seen to great ad- 
vantage, especially on emerging from the forest, 25 min. from the inn, as 
the Schwarze JIbnch no longer intercepts the view. The path, generally 
narrow, is, near the Sausbach, sometimes completely carried away by the 
rains, in which case the traveller should cross the meadow above the pre- 
cipice ; guide desirable. — Good walkers will accomplish the journey to 
Miirren in an afternoon, next day ascend the Schillhom , return to sleep 
at JIurren, visit on the third day the Falls of the Schmadri, and in the 
evening descend to Lauterbrunnen — a charming three days' tour. 

Lauterbrunnen (2750') {Steinbock , R. 2, B. 1 7 2 . s - 3 > A - 
3 / 4 ft. ; * Hotel Staubbach, unpretending), a picturesque, scattered 
village , is situated on both banks of the Liitschine , in a rocky 
valley 3 / 4 M. broad, where in July the sun does not make its 
appearance before 7 a. m., and in winter not before noon. The 
snowy mountain-group to the S.E. is the Jungfrau, to the S.the 
Breithorn. (Waterfall of the Triimlenbach , a beautiful evening 
walk, see p. 113). Wood-wares good and cheap here. 

Upwards of '20 brooks leap from the rocky heights in the 
vicinity. The most important of these is the *Staubbach ('dust- 
brook'), y 3 M.,S. of the hotel. The brook, never of great volume, 
and diminishing so much in summer as sometimes to disappoint 
the expectant traveller, descends in an unbroken fall of 980'; 
so .small a body of water falling from so great a height is con- 
verted, before it reaches the ground, into minute particles of 

Oberland. MURREN. ti9. Route. Ill 

spray, which the breeze scatters into fantastic and ever-varying 
forms. The morning is the most favourable time to visit the 
cascade, when the rays of the sun falling upon it create a suc- 
cession of beautiful rainbows, which appear to rise and fall, as 
the spray , like a transparent veil , is wafted to and fro by the 
breeze. Best point of view from the meadow immediately in 
front of the fall, to the 1. of a seat indicated by a flag. 

Streams from the high, I It veils the rock 

Steep, rocky wall In rainbow hues ; 

The purest fount; And dancing down 

In clouds of spray, With music soft, 

Like silver dust, Is lost in air. Goethe. 

f. Upper Valley of Lauterbrunnen. Miirren. Fall of the 

Comp. Map p. S8. 
From Lauterbrunnen to Miirren 'Pjt hrs. , Trachsellauinen 2 hrs. , to the 
Schmadribach and back 2 hrs., Lauterbrunnen 2'Ja hrs. Horses see p. 98. 

A day can hardly be more agreeably employed than in making an 
excursion to Miirren, and the Fall of the Schmadribach. It is a 
good day's walk, and, if extended as far as the Upper Steinberg, some- 
what fatiguing ; in the latter case a guide (5 fr.) may be engaged at Trach- 
sellauinen. If it is only intended to visit Miirren, which should be the 
principal object, the excursion from Lauterbrunnen, returning by Stechel- 
berg, is easily accomplished in 6 hrs. (guide unnecessary^. The route from 
Zweiliitschinen to Eisenfluh (p. 110), Miirren, and Lauterbrunnen, requires 
only 1 hr. more. To Miirren, Gimmelwald, and Stechelberg a bridle-path, 
thence to Lauterbrunnen (5 M.) carriage-road. 

The view from Miirren being seen to the best advantage by evening 
light, the traveller may prefer to proceed first to the Schmadribach, and 
thence to Miirren, where (or at Gimmelwald) the night should be passed. 
Between Gimmelwald and Trachsellauinen there is a shorter way than the 
road by Stechelberg (see p. 112). The ascent from Lauterbrunnen to 
Miirren may be performed on horseback, but the descent by Gimmelwald, 
especially the latter part, is excessively rugged and fatiguing. 

At Lauterbrunnen, a few paces S. of the hotel, the path to 
Miirren (2 3 / 4 hrs.) leaves the valley and ascends rapidly to the 
r. by the side of the brook for 20 min. , then turns to the r., 
and immediately afterwards to the 1. in the direction of the 
waterfall, below which it crosses to the r. bank. After having 
crossed two other brooks, it reaches the Pletschbuch or Staubbach 
(l'/4 hr. from Lauterbrunnen). Soon afterwards the ascent 
becomes easy ; two branches of the Spiessbach are crossed , and 
(1 hr. from the Staubbach) the wood is quitted. Here is suddenly 
disclosed a magnificent **view of an amphitheatre of mountains 
and glaciers , the Eiger and the Monch , the Jungfrau with its 
dazzling Silberhorn, the rugged precipices of the Schwarze Monch, 
rising precipitously from the valley, the wall of the Ebene-Fluh, 
its conical summit to the 1. and its mantle of spotless snow, the 
Mittagshorn, the Grosshorn, the Breithorn, from which the Schma- 
dribach flows , the Tschingelhorn , and nearer, the Tschingelgrat 
and the Gspaltenhorn ; 8 or 10 glaciers descend from these snowy 
heights to the valleys below. The prospect is far more imposing 

1 12 Itnute :"J. SCIJMADHIISACII FAIX. Bernese 

than from the Wengeru Alp, with the exception of the view of 
the Juugfrau, which from the Wengcrn Alp is unrivalled. 

From this point the path traverses green pastures, and ('25 min) 
reaches the Alpine village of Miirren (5347 'J {*Silberkom, R. 2, 
ft. 1 '/._>, D. 3, A. 3/ 4 f r .), whence the Wetterhom is still visible 
to the 1. , ami on the extreme r. the Furke (p. 113); a more 
extensive view is obtained from the Almendhubel (1 hr. farther). 

From the Schilthorn (0728') (ascent with guide in 4'i'j hrs. , partly 
over snow and slate-detritus, but free from danger), which rises tn the \V. 
(if Miirren, the Jungfrau, the queen of the Bernese Alps, may he surveyed 
in her entire magnificence. An extensive prospect is also obtained of the 
whole chain as far as the Bliimlisalp (or Frau) , the Altels, many of the 
mountains of the Valais, the Rigi, the X. of Switzerland, etc. The traveller 
is recommended to descend by the imposing Setinenthal, passing the 
'■Bfucke\ a charming point above Gimmelwald \ a route longer by l 1 ^ hr. 
than the direct path, but far more interesting. 

From Miirren the bridle-path descends to the 1.; 10 min. 
bridge over the Miirrenbach; in 20 min. to the 1. between two 
chalets; 5 min. the hamlet of Gimmelwald (4535') (*Zum Schilt- 
horn, also a pension); 25 min. a bridge over the Sefinliitschine. 
in the valley, then a slight ascent; 5 mill, precipitous path, 
difficult in rainy weather. The Sefinliitschine here forms a beautiful 
*cascade , whose spray is tinged with the hues of the rainbow in 
the morning sun. 

Some min. farther on, the path divides: to the 1. it descends 
to Stechelberg (l 1 /-2 nr - from Miirren, and 5 M. from Lauter- 
brunnen) ; to the r. (direction-post to the inn) to Trarhsul- 
lauinen and the falls of the Schmadribach (see below). In one 
hour more the chalets of Trac/iseMuuenen (41 44 ft.) (Hotel Schmadri- 
fall, R. 2, B. iy 2 , A. and L. 3 / 4 fr., well spoken of) are attained. 
The path, now more difficult to trace, continues on the r. bank. 
In 10 min. it passes a deserted silver-foundry, then skirts a 
projecting mass of rocks to the r. , and ascends the Nadla; it 
next passes the chalets (V2 l |r ) of the Lower Steinberg, and 
crosses the impetuous glacier-fed Schmadribach and Thalbach; 
ascending the pasture on the r. bank, it leads by a waterfall; the 
rugged Holdri is next mounted, and in '/i hr. the chalet of 
Legger is reached (l'/ 4 hr. from Trachsellauinon), and the Tall 
of the Schmadribach is in full view. The water, emerging from 
the glacier in a considerable volume, is hurled to a depth of 
200', and, ascending in vapour, forms a magnificent arch. The 
stream must be crossed higher up by the traveller who desires 
to inspect the waterfall more closely, but this will hardly com- 
pensate for the sacrifice of time. The loneliness of the surround- 
ing scene, the imposing character of the cascade, and the magnili- 
cent panorama of mountains and glaciers, combine to produce a 
profound impression. The azure ire of the T selling el Glacier 
rises perpendicularly in the immediate vicinity; beyond it the 
grotesque T selling elhdrner (11,749'). 

Oberland. FURKE. 29. Route. 113 

The prospect is still mote extensive from the chalet of the 
Upper Steinberg (5794'), which is seen high up to the r. on 
the pastures (ascent of l l / 2 hr. from Trachsellauinen). Coffee 
and milk, and if necessary a bed of hay, may be had; charges 
sometimes exorbitant. 

From Steinberg to Gastern and Kandersteg by the 
Tschingel Glacier, a most interesting glacier-excursion, see p. 146. 

From Trachsellauinen to Lauterbrunnen is a walk of 2i/ 2 hrs. 
In 25 min. a bridge over the Liitschine is reached, which here 
dashes wildly down its rocky bed; ^4 hr. the bridge of Stechel- 
berg (3002'; path from Miirren see above), and the bottom 
of the valley is attained. Near Matten ( l / 4 hr.) is seen to the 
1. the Murrenbach, trickling down the face of the cliff . From the 
(l 1 ^ hr.) Domige Briicke a stony road leads to Lauterbrunnen, 
which the pedestrian may avoid by taking the path to the r., 
pursuing the same direction , and traversing green pastures ; 
10 min. the waterfall of the Rosenbach, issuing from a fissure in 
the rock; 5 min. from the path the *Cascade of the Trumlenbach, 
fed by the glaciers of the Jungfrau (p. 115), rushing impetuously 
from a narrow chasm , and forming a cascade of great volume, 
but inconsiderable fall (3 M. from Lauterbrunnen). The best 
point of view is the bridge (!/ 2 fr.), which is reached by a path 
on the r. bank. A few hours' leisure at Lauterbrunnen cannot 
be better spent than in taking this walk. 

From Lauterbrunnen by the Furke to Reichenbach in the 
Ki en thai, or again leaving the Kienthal, ascending by the Diinden- 
grat to Kandersteg, by a path across the Sefinenthal , mentioned at 
p. 146 : from Lauterbrunnen to the Furke 5 l |a hrs., down to the valley 2 hrs., 
to the Diindengrat 3'|z hrs., to the Oeschinenthal 2 hrs., Kandersteg li|s hr. ; 
altogether a rugged walk of 15 — 16 hrs., the most fatiguing portion being 
the passage from the valley over the Diindengrat to Kandersteg, only 
practicable for experienced climbers. If need be, the night can be passed 
in one of the chalets of the Kienthal. Good guide necessary ; the three 
brothers Lauener, Ulrich Under, and Peter van Almen are recommended. 
The whole route presents a series of the grandest views, especially at the 
beginning, near Miirren. The Furke (8566') is a profound cleft between 
the Great-Htmdshorn (9607') and the Biittlassen (10,463'); in ascending, the 
pedestrian must keep to the 1. in order to arrive at the opening in the 
rock. In descending from the Furke to the Kienthal (the dangerous path 
to the 1., which leads to the Diindengrat over the Gamchi Glacier, must be 
avoided) the Bliimlisalp (or Fran) appears in all its brilliant whiteness. 
The traveller, if fatigued, may now proceed to lieichenbach in 3 hrs. (p. 145) ; 
or, after reposing in the chalets of the Diirrenberg, may proceed on his 
route to Kandersteg. Descending into the valley of the Kienbacli as far 
;ts the Gamchi Glacier, where the brook has its source, and crossing the 
brook, the route ascends a steep grassy slope, at the termination of which 
fields of snow and ice must be traversed. The summit of the Diindengrat 
(Diindenhorn, Wittwc , Oeschinengrat, 9410'), opposite the snow-line of the 
Bliimlisalp, commands a superb view of the latter mountain with its 
rounded form of the purest white, and its imposing glacier; to the r. are 
the Doldenhorn and numerous other peaks ; in the plain is the Lake of 
Thun. The descent is now made to the glacier and the chalets of the 
Oeschinen-Alp (6420'), and next, bv a path cut in the rock, to the Oeschinen- 
See (52100, and to Kandersteg (3839', see p. 146). 

B&deker, Switzerland. 5th Edition. ^ 

1 14 Route :>9. WKNGERNALP. Berntse 

From Lauterbrunnen by the Wetterliicke and the Peters- 
grat to the Lo t sch en t hal , see p. 251. 

From Lauterbrunnen by theLauinenthor to theEggisch- 
Uorn, a difficult and dangerous expedition (19 lira.), accomplished in I860 
by Prof. Tyndall and Jlr. Hawkins. The wild and desolate Ro t hth al is 
traversed, and I lie vast ridge (1 '2,4 15), connecting the Jungfrau with the 
Olelsc/iei/iorn, crossed to the Oieal Aletsclijirii and the Eggwchhoin (p. 111). 

g. From Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald. Wengerualp. 

Comp. Map. p. 98. 

Bridle-path over the Wengernalp 6*|4 hrs. ■. from Lauterbrunnen to the 
Wengernalp 3 (descent 2), Little Scheideck 3 \t (descent 'jj), Grindel- 
wald VJ'/a hrs. (ascent 3'JaJ. Diligence from Inlerlaken to Grindelwald once 
daily. Horses and carriages, see p. 98. The ascent may be made on 
horseback, either from Lauterbrunnen or Grindelwald, but in descending 
it is advisable to dismount at the rugged and stony declivity near Grindel- 
wald, as well as at the last precipitous portion of the descent into the 
valley of Lauterbrunnen. — Guide unnecessary. Chaise-a-porteurs at 
Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. 

Two routes lead to Grindelwald. The first, a road which 
follows the valley of the White Liitschfne as far as Zweiliit- 
schinen , thence ascending the valley of the Black Liitschine 
(distance about 12 M., by carriage in 2'/o hrs., see p. i)8j, will 
be chosen by travellers who prefer the luxury of a carriage , to 
the proximity of the Jungfrau and the bracing mountain air. 
A good walker will, if time permits, prefer the other route by 
a footpath over the Wengernalp and the Little Scheideck. It is 
at first somewhat laborious, from the rapidity of the ascent, but 
well repays the fatigue , and is one of the most attractive and 
frequented paths in Switzerland. 

Near the church of Lauterbrunnen, the Liitschine is crossed, 
and the first wide path ascending to the r. followed (3 miii. from 
the bridge). After a somewhat steep ascent of 1 hr. a hamlet 
belonging to the village of Wenyen (rustic inn) is reached ; 
beautiful view of the Gspalthorn, the Tschingelhorn, the Breithorn, 
the Schwarze Mcinch, the Jungfrau, and the glacier and waterfall 
of Schmadri, as well as the valley of Lauterbrunnen. About 
J /4 hr. beyond the inn, the path to the r. must be selected; 
it now becomes more level , ascending a gently sloping pasture, 
to which the name ""Wengernalp properly belongs (Uefreshm.). 
Wrestling match, see Introd. XV. From this point is seen the 
valley of Lauterbrunnen far below , the Staubbach , reduced by 
distance to a silver thread , its upper fall , and the windings 
which it makes preparatory to its final leap. 

The path now enters (1 hr. from the inn of Wengen) a flr- 
wood , in which it continues for about '/ 4 hr. On emerging 
from the wood by a gate, the broad track must be left, and a 
steep path to the 1. ascended, again occasionally leading through 
forest; in lif) niin. ^froin the broad track) a second gate is seen, 
where the path leads to the r., and in 10 niin: more the *Hutel 

Oberland. JUNGFRAU. 29. Route. 115 

de la Jungfrau (6175') is reached. (The pedestrian coming in 
the opposite direction must take care to go through the gate, and 
on no account descend by the enclosure.) Travellers coming 
from Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald meet here, or at the Scheideck 
(p. 116), and a halt is generally made between 10 and 12 o'clock. 
Tourists of every tongue , guides, porters, and horses are often 
mingled together in the utmost confusion , and severely tax the 
energy of those who have to supply their many requirements. 
The Qemshiigel ('hill of the chamois') affords a line survey of the 
valley of Lauterbrunnen. 

The *Jungfrau (13,(>71'), covered with an eternal shroud 
of snow, now appears in all her majesty. The two peaks, the 
Silberhorn (12,10(3') to the r., and the Schneehom (11,204') to the 
1., tower above its immense fields of snow. Its proportions are 
so gigantic, that the traveller is bewildered in his vain attempts 
to estimate them; distance is annihilated by their vastness. The 
summits and higher peaks are covered with snow of dazzling 
whiteness ; the lower and less precipitous slopes also present a 
boundless expanse of snow and glacier. The loftiest summit, which 
is farther S., is not visible from this spot, or from Lauterbrunnen. 
The base of the mountain, as far as it is seen, is precipitous. 

Avalanches. These terrible and yet magnificent phenomena are occa- 
sioned by the accumulation of immense masses of ice or snow on the 
upper parts of the mountains, whence, as the warmer season advances, 
they slide oil' by their own weight with amazing velocity. The traveller 
has now an opportunity of beholding the ice aralanche, or portions of 
glacier becoming detached unter the influence of the summer's sun. Seen 
from a distance these enormous masses of ice, breaking into fragments as 
they fall, resemble rushing cataracts , and are accompanied by a noise 
like thunder. They are most numerous shortly after noon, when the sun 
exercises its greatest power. Except that the awful stillness which gene- 
rally pervades these desolate regions is interrupted by the echoing thunders 
of the falling masses, there is nothing absolutely imposing in the spec- 
tacle; and after t lie imagination has been wrought up in anticipation 
of the scene , something akin to disappointment is experienced when 
it is fully realised. The traveller must, however, be reminded that 
the apparently insignificant white cascade often consists of hundreds of 
tons of ice, capable of sweeping away forests and whole villages, should 
any unfortunately be encountered in their course ; happily, however, they 
fall in uninhabited districts, and are rarely fatal in their effects. Two 
other descriptions of avalanche are of a much more dangerous character 
— the snow and the drift avalanche. Whole villages have been over- 
whelmed by the instantaneous fall of the former; such a calamity befel 
the village of Bueras in the Orisons in 174 l J. The drift avalanche only 
takes place in winter afler an unusually heavy fall of snow, large masses 
of which become detached by the wind from heights where they have ac- 
cumulated ; these increase in their progress to an enormous extent, and 
are precipitated with overwhelming force into the valleys beneath. The 
impetuous current of air which accompanies these snow torrents, as 
they may be aptly called, is said to be of such violence as capable of 
uprooting forest trees. 

Since Aug., 1811, the Jungfrau has been frequently ascended (.in 1863 
even by a lady). The Silberhorn, once deemed inaccessible, was as- 
cended for the first time, Aug. 4th, 1863, by Ed. v. Fellenbery and the 
Editor, accompanied by the guides P. Michel, H. Haumann, and P. Inabuit 
of Urindelwald. The party started from the beUeyu,e a.( 4 a. iu., traversed, 

116 Route :>!>. LITTLE SCHEinKCK. Bernese 

the entire Ei-cr ;.n.l Monch Glaciers, ascended the Schiicehorn to the r. 
Vnd crossing "the X. slope of the Jungfrau, attained the summit of the 
Silhcrhorn at 4. 30 p. m. The following night was passed on the preci- 
pitous E icv slope of the Schnechorn , not one of the party daring tn 
close m eve ' fComn. Jahrbuch des Hthmeher AlpencUibs, 1864). 

' The Lauherhorn iSt'l/), a cone rising from the ridge which extends 
to the "M of the Scheideek, mav he reached thence in 1 hr. ; from the 
Wen»ernalp in l^hr. (descent 1 hr.). This ascent is strongly recommended 
to those who have not visited the Faulhorn. View extensive and imposing. 
Comin" from Grindelwald, it is only a digression of U\ t hr. to proceed 
from the Scheideek to the Hotel Jungfrau over the Lauherhorn. Guide 
not ahsohitely necessary. — The Tschugrjen (8410"), which rises to the N. 
of the Lauherhorn, commands a more extensive, hut less picturesque view. 
Ascent more fatiguing. — If the traveller he disposed to extend his walk, 
lie may proceed from the Lauherhorn along the E. slope of the Tschuggen 
to the' Maimlielieii, the X. summit of this ridge (comp. p. 118). In this 
ease the walk from Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald (hy the Wengernalp, 
Lauherhorn, and Mannlichen) will occupy 10 — 10'| 2 hrs. 

The Little-Scheideck (Lauterbrunnen-Scheideck, or Wengem- 

Sc.heiderk, 6788'; Hotel Bellevue, R. 2l/ 2 , B. ll/ 2 , S. 2, A. 3/ 4 

t'r.; wood -carver Jean Zurfluti), the culminating point of the 

pass , is attained after a moderate ascent of 3 / 4 hr. from the 

Hotel Jungfrau. A striking view is obtained from the top 

of this abrupt ridge over the entire valley of Grindelwald 

from the Lake of Brienz (to the extreme 1. is the flattened 

cone of the Faulhorn with its inn), and on the S. the giant- 

of the Oberland, the Monch (13,438'), Eiger (13,045'), and 

farther off the Schreckhorn (13,394'). Mr. Harrington, a youiis 

Irishman, was the first to scale the EigeT , in 1858, and the 

hazardous ascent of the Monch was accomplished for the first 

time by Dr. Porges of Vienna in 1861. The first ascent of 

the highest, (central) point of the Schreckhorn (Gross-Schreck- 

horn'i was made by Mr. Leslie Stephen, Aug. 16th, 1861; 

its S. peak ( Gross - Lauteraarhom ) , lower by 120' than the N„ 

in 1842 by three Swiss gentlemen. The Finster-Aarhorn (14,0261, 

the highest mountain of the Bernese Alps, is not visible. In the 

extreme distance, to the E., rise the Sustenhorner. The glaciers 

which surround these mountains and fill all the hollows, extend 

without interruption from the Jungfrau to the Grimsel, and from 

Grindelwald to Brieg in the Valais. They cover an area of 360 

sq. M. (the sixth part of all the glaciers of the Alps), and form the 

grandest uninterrupted chain which exists in these mountains. 

This 'Central Finster-Aarhorn Mass', as it is termed by geologists, 

i s the most important in Switzerland, and is the most prominent 

feature on the relief maps. 

The path to Grindelwald is bleak, but not uninteresting: 
fragments of rocks piled one on another afford grim evidence of 
former disasters and avalanches ; pasture-land is rare. At the 
chalets of ( '/ 4 hr.) Bustigeln (6216') refreshments may be pro- 
cured. Then (1 hr.) Alpigeln (5170'), with the new Hdtcl A 
Pension des Alpes (whey cure). As the traveller advances, m- 
™«u* are jnade upon his purse in rapid succession; echoes «re 

Oberland. GRINDEWALD. -29. Route. 117 

awakened by cannons and Alpine horns, and 'Trinkgeld' is de- 
manded by individuals pretending to repair the path. — A forest 
is then traversed for a short distance. About half-way between 
the chalet of Alpigeln and Orindelwald [1 hr. from the formerj, 
the bridle-path, which pursues a straight direction and enters a 
hollow, should be quitted, and the path to the 1. taken, leading 
(in 20 min. J by enclosed pastures and scattered cottages to the 
bridge over the Lutschlne; the road then gradually ascends to 
Orindelwald in 1/2 l' r - more. (Travellers proceeding from Orin- 
delwald to the Wengernalp should ascend to the r. at the bridge.) 
The Footpath from the Little Wcheideck to (Orindelwald is pleasanter 
than the bridle-path just described. It skirts the 1. bank of the Wermis- 
thalbuch, commanding a series of picturesque views; 1 hr. through pine- 
i'oi i est. Guide desirable. 

Grindelwald (3773'). Adicr (R. 3, A. 1 fr.); Hotel Eiger, 

opposite the lower glacier, D. or S. 4 fr. ; Bar; Hotel du Glacier, 
at the W. end of the village, H. 2, B. l'| 2 , A. 1 fr. ; Pension Schcinegg, 
small, with baths. — The Guides of Grindelwald enjoy a high repu- 
tation. The Editor can recommend from personal experience : Clir. Aimer, 
Pet. and Christen Michel, Pet. Iiiiibtiit, Joh. Baumaiiit, and Pet. Bohren. — 
Pet. Egger, Ulrich Kaufmann, Pet. Rubi, Pet. Baumann, and C/ir. Deutsch- 
maini, are also well spoken of. Any of these may safely be engaged for the 
most difficult glacier-expeditions. — Guide to the glacier (unnecessary I '2 fr. ; 
chair 6 fr. — Carriages and Horses, see p. 98. 

The village (3l3f) inhab.J, with its scattered houses of wood, 
occupying a considerable space in the valley, affords excellent 
head-quarters to mountaineers. The proximity of the two glaciers 
tends to render the climate bleak ; but cherries , from which 
excellent Kirschwasser is produced, and other kinds of fruit, 
thrive. The inhabitants are chiefly herdsmen, and GOO head of 
cattle subsist on the pastures of the valley, which is 12 M. long 
and 4 M. wide. 

, The chief attractions of Grindelwald are its two Glaciers 
(see Introd. XIV), which descend far into the valley, and are 
.extremely easy of access; they are, however, inferior in grandeur 
to the glacier of the Khone and many others in Switzerland, 
"especially as they have considerably decreased of late years. 
Three gigantic mountains bound the valley on the S.E., the Eiyer 
''13,04:')'), the Mettenberg (Mittelberg, 10,443') which forms the 
)ase of the Sohreckhorn, and the Wetterhorn (12,149') at the 
ipper end of the valley. The two glaciers lie between these 
( hree mountains and form the source of the Black Lutschlne. The 
, raveller whose time is limited had better visit the upper glacier 
|inly (nearer than the other to the bridle-path to Meiringen), the 
s, > - evasses of which are the most beautiful. 

The Upper Glacier (3852' at the base), 1 hr. S.E. from Grin- 

.slwald, 10 min. to the r. of the lower bridle-path to the Great 

* /.heideck (which is quitted at the fourth bridge, but not by the 

tall footpath immediately above it) , is the more remarkable ; 

e ice is purer than that of the lower glacier, and the openings 

its base more considerable, especially on the K. side ('/.J fr. 

IIS Rnute l".K (iKINDKI.WAUn. Bernese 

exacted for the repair of the path: small restaurant). The 
beautiful clearness of the ice is best seen in the grotto artifi- 
cially hewn in the glacier. 

The Lower Glacier (3317'. at the base"), 40 mill. S. of Grindel- 
wald. sometimes termed the Little Glacier, is four times larger 
than the Upper; the higher part is known as the Grindelwalder 
Yiescher Glacier (not to be confounded with the Glacier of Yiesch 
in the Valais). On account of the moraines thrust before the 
glacier (comp. Introd. XIV), the traveller sees but little from 
this point; he. is therefore recommended to visit the Mer de 
Glace (Eistneer. 'sea of ice'), a name given, as at Chamouny 
(p. '219), to the large upper basin in which the glacier is formed 
before it descends into the valley. The footpath on the left 
slope is well kept, and presents neither difficulty nor danger. 
In 2 hrs. (l'/s °f which may be accomplished on horseback) the 
chalet on the Barenega is attained (refreshments, and mattresses), 
whence a flight of steps descends to the glacier P/2 fr.). A re- 
markable view is here obtained of the minarets, or Ice-needles, 
of the most fantastic forms. 

A Glacier Expedition, unattended with difficulty, is strongly 
recommended to the traveller who desires to hecome more familiar with 
these icy regions. He should cross (1 hr.) the Mer de Glace to the chalet 
of Zfisenberg, surrounded hy pasture, and rudely constructed of stone, the 
last human habitation met with amongst the giants of the Bernese Alps. All 
traces of verdure soon entirely disappear: on every side tower huge masses 
of ice of the wildest and grandest character, and the imposing summits 
of the Eiger, Schreckhorn, Viescherhorn, etc. enclose the view, forming a 
panorama rivalling that of the Montanvert in the valley of Chamouny. A 
guide is necessary here, although the passage of the margin alone is at- 
tended with any difficulty. The return from the chalet to Grindelwald 
occupies 3 hrs. If the excursion is not extended beyond the middle of 
the Mer de Glace (sufficiently far), the whole may easily he accomplished 
in 5 hrs. — The ascent of the Zatenbtrghorn f1'|i hr. from the Za'sen- 
herg) is recommended to experienced climbers; magnificent view of the 
glacier-world from the summit. — From this point an interesting, though 
somewhat fatiguing expedition may he made to the Eigerhohle, a grotto 
visible from the Zasenberg. It serves as a resting-place for those who 
cross the Monchsjoch to the Eggischhorn (see below), or are about to as- 
cend the .lungfrau. From the Zasenherg to the grotto 2 hrs., descent to 
the Mer de Glace in 2 hrs. more. This excursion is unattended with 
danger, hut requires a good guide. 

The ,: Mettenberg (10.4-13') is recommended to the notice of mountaineers 
(ascent laborious. 6 hrs.; guide 10 fr.). The view of the Schreckhorn, 
which rises in the immediate vicinity, is peculiarly imposing; from K. to 
W. lower the Wetterhorner, Schreckhorn. Finsteraarhorn, Monch, and 
Kiger: striking prospect of the Mer de Glace and the Valley of Grindel- 

The Mftnnlichen (760i'l. the extreme X. spur of the Wengernalp. is 
ascended without great fatigue in 4 — 5 his. (horse 15 fr.). After the Liit- 
sehinc is crossed, the path diverges to the r. of the path to the Scheideck, 
and gradually ascends through the district of Itraittcn. Owing to its iso- 
lated position, an admirable panorama is enjoyed from the summit. It may 
also he attained from the Scln-ideck in 3, or from Wengen (p. 114) in 
2'i? hrs. (guide desirable, path very steep and not easily traced). 20 min, 
below the summit, on the ridge hetween the Miinnlichen and Tschuggen. is 
a small inn with a few beds. Guide from Grindelwald unnecessary for the 
usual route, but agreeable if for the descent to Grindelwald the picturesque 

Oberland. KAULHOKN. 29. Route. 119 

path through the wood on the 1. bank of the Wengisthalbach be selected 
(comp. p. 1161. 

To the Grimsel Hospice (p. 134) a grand and most interesting 
pass leads in 15 hrs. (10 hrs. on snow and ice, verv fatiguing; guide 
30 fr.), past the Schreckhorn, over the "Strahlegg (11,060 ; ), the ridge which 
extends from the Gross-Lauteraarhorn (p. 116) to the Finsteraarhorn ; then 
a descent over the Strahlegg, Finsteraar, and Unter-Aar glaciers. The 
night is passed at the Barenegg (see above). Two guides desirable. 

The Lauteraarjoch (10,338') is another magnificent, but still more 
difficult pass. The night must be passed in the Oleckstein (p. 122); 
then an ascent of 6 hrs. on ice to the culminating point; descent pre- 
cipitous and difficult; finally across the Lauteraar-Glacier to the (5 hrs.) 
Dollfuss- Pavilion, and (3 hrs.) Grimsel. Two good guides indispensable 
(comp. p. 117). 

Passes from Grindelwald to the Eggischhorn (p. 141), all 
for thoroughly experienced mountaineers only, accompanied by trustworthy 
guides. The Jungfrau-Joch (11,680'), between the .Tungfrau and Monch, 
traversed for the first time in 1862, from the Wengernalp to the Eggisch- 
horn in 16'|2 hrs., a difficult but extremely interesting expedition. — 
The Mbnchs-Joch (12,096'), between the Monch and Vieschergrat, com- 
paratively the easiest and shortest of these passes, 15 hrs. from Grindel- 
wald to the inn. The route is across the Lower Grindelwald Glacier and 
the Grindelwalder Viescher Glacier to the culminating point, then a de- 
scent between the Monch and Trugberg to the Aletsch Glacier and Eggisch- 
horn. The night is spent in the Zasenberg Chalet or the FAgerhShle (see 
p. 118). Those who come from the Eggischhorn sleep at the Faulberg, or 
in very favourable weather at the Trugberg. — The Eigerjoch (11,873'), 
between the Eiger and Monch, 22 hrs. from the Wengernalp to the Eg- 
gischhorn, extremely difficult and ha/.ardous. — The Viescherjoch 01,700'), 
between the Kleine Viescherhorn and Agassizhorn, 22 hrs. from Grindel- 
wald to the Eggischhorn, is very rarely traversed, being difficult and 
deficient in interest. 

h. The Faulhorn. 

Comp. Map, p. 98. 
From Grindelwald to the Fail 1 h orn 4'|.| (descent 3) hrs. ; from (he Faul- 
horn to the Scheideck 3 (ascent 4) hrs.; from the Scheideck to the Baths 
of Rosenlaui l'| 4 (ascent V\-z) Ins.; from the Scheideck to Grindelwald 
2 (ascent 3) hrs. — Guide unnecessary for pedestrians accustomed to 
the mountains; at Grindelwald as much as 8 fr. is demanded, but 5 fr. 
is an ample remuneration. Ch ai r- carriers 6 fr. each; if they pass the 
night on the top, 12 fr. Three are generally sufficient. Horses see 
p. 98. Inn on the summit, Bed 3—4 fr., D. or S. 4, B. 2, A. 1, L. 1 fr. 
If ladies are of the party, beds should be ordered previously. A single 
traveller is often required to share his room with another. 

The *Faulhorn (8803'; Rigi5905'; Nlesen 7763'), rising between 
the Lake of Brienz and the valley of Grindelwald , composed of 
black, friable, calcareous schist (faul = 'rotten', whence probably 
its name), is a very favourite point of view, as it commands a 
tine survey of the giants of the Bernese Oberland (see pano- 
rama). The Lake of Brienz , with its surrounding mountains, 
from the Augstmatthorn to the Rothhorn , lies fully revealed ; a 
portion of the Lake of Thun , with the Niesen and Stockhorn, 
is also visible; farther off, parts of the lakes of Lucerne and 
Zug, with Pilatus and the Rigi ; the lakes of Morat and Neu- 
chatel may also be distinguished. On the other hand the pro- 
spect does not, like that from the Rigi, comprise the lower moun- 
tains of N. Switzerland, which add so much grace and beauty 

120 Route 29. FAULHORN. Bernese 

to the scene. The atmospheric phenomenon mentioned at p. 65 
is sometimes witnessed here also. 

The Path from Orindelwald to the Faulhorn traverses for % 
hr. enclosed meadows, over which detached houses are scattered. 
The ascent commences at the Bear Hotel (p. 117): after 5 min., 
to the r. ; 10 min., at a cross-way, straight on; f> min., to the r. ; 
2 min., to the 1. past a cottage, after which the path generally 
pursues an E. direction. The footpath soon unites with the 
bridle-path; '/.j hr. a gate, and then the forest is entered; on 
emerging (10 min.), a steep ascent, at the top of which the 
footpath turns to the 1. (the bridle-path to the r.J; i j l hr., the 
Ertschfeld meadow , a large enclosed pasture with some chalets, 
near the middle of which the path enters the wood to the 1. ; 
l ll hr., straight on, and not to the 1. ; 20 min., the path divides 
(those who are descending here diverge to the 1.); soon after, 
a gate ; '/4 nr - Rossalp (Inn Alpenrose, new), magnificent view ; 
this point is almost half-way, the other half is less fatiguing. In 
20 min. a waterfall of the Miihlibach is reached, and near it, the 
chalets of the Bachalp (5649'), where cheeses weighing 150 lbs. 
are manufactured. The only good drinking-water to be met with 
during the ascent issues abundantly from the rock, 10 min. 
further. Then 3 / 4 hr. of moderate ascent as far as the Lake of 
Bachalp, situated in a rocky basin, bounded on the 1. by the 
Rbthihorn (9052'), in front by the Simelihorn (9029% to the r. 
by the Ritzligratli. (Near the stone hut the path diverges to 
the 1. for travellers descending to the Scheideck , see below.) 
The Faulhorn is now in view; and the path ascends rapidly for 
nearly 1 hr. over slate and friable calcareous rock (the path 
is indicated by posts, which are useful in foggy or snowy weather) ; 
another stone hut is then passed , the grassy slopes at the foot 
of the Faulhorn traversed, and in l / t hr. more the summit is 
attained; the inn (p. 119) is situated on the S. side, about 30' 
below the highest ridge. 

Another path leads from Grindelwald to the Faulhorn by the Bussalp, 
recommended to those intending to return to Grindelwald. Guide necessary, 
as the route is less frequented. Admirable view from the 'Burg', which 
of itself merits a visit from Grindelwald ('2<|s hrs.J. 

The Path from the Faulhorn to the Scheideck quits the Grin- 
delwald path, and turns to the 1. near the above-mentioned hut 
( :i /4 hr.) by the lake of Bachalp , winds along the stony slopes 
of the Ritzligratli , where the shrill cry of the marmot is some- 
times heard , and keeps the same elevation for some distance ; 
'/■_> hr. , a gate separating the Bachalp from the Widderfeldalp ; 
5 min. farther, to the 1., not by the bed of the rivulet, which 
resembles a path; 10 min. a ridge, commanding a magnificent 
view of the Wetterhorn, Schreckhorn, Finsteraarhorn, Viescher- 
horner, with their glacier, the Kiger, and the valley of Grindelwald ; 
8 min., to the 1. and across the brook ; 7 min., a descent to the 

TOteertf Oadmtnfluh Sufter4iorn 

4890 9,590 10,850 

Coblenz, Tiei K.Baedeker. 



"200 Tinsteraarhorn 

BerSlistock llpOO Obtr Schrekhom Simehhorn 15,250 

Orindehraldelctschfr 12,570 7760 

Viescherliorner 12,500 

Jinivr?Ei$eri>d.Gr.Mimch. Jungfrau 

"(2^03 12827 Satohorn 


Aletschhom U5S9 

12,951 Sehneehorn 

Breithorn. Xaioerlirunnenei^pr Dbldfnhom, .Amertenhom 

11,690 n.228 8,004 Sclmalmern 

Grosshorn Tschuigelhorn Gspahcnlwrn Bliimlisab Schildhorn IVildsrrubel IHaHfreU 852-1 

11385 11,022. 10.565 11298 9,187 9,658 11090' 


" ©67 

I)as"Wirthsha\tseel>au<le;auf dcmTauHiorn. 


LaiaerbnawpnScheide^ Klem Gross 

6260 luiuWhorn 

jf arUKL^HTVOL it-ortv Xfyes J^O^llA^O^tA\y. 


D armstadt, Ed ."Wagner. 

Oberland. WETTERHORN. 2.9. Route. 121 

1. over black, crumbling slate ; then a gate, where the Grindelalp 
commences. The path ceases in many places, but is shortly re- 
gained; the direction of the Wetterhom must be kept; >/ 4 hr., 
a small brook is crossed, and the path is again clearly denned; 
5 miu., a brook; 10 min., a natural bridge over the Beryelbach ; 
5 min., the Chalets of Grindeln with fountain; i/ 4 hr., a gate; 
then to the r. by the enclosure, without crossing it, through the 
next gate (12 min.) and towards the top of a hill; 8 miu., 
Scheideck Inn. — (Those who ascend hence must, at the bridge 
over the Bergelbach , be careful to avoid the turning to the 1. ; 
further on, over the pastures where the pathway is lost, the 1. 
must again be avoided, and a direction parallel with a long en- 
closure to the 1. pursued, in the direction of the rising ground 
at the foot of which the path is regained.) 

The Path from Interlaken to the Faulhorn (comp. p. 108) leads 
by the (4 hrs.) Schynige Platte (p. 107); thence by a new bridle- 
path across the Iselten Alp , and along the S. slopes of the 
Laucherhom to the (1 hr.) ridge which bounds the Sagisthal on 
the S. ; admirable view of the Oberland. Then a slight descent 
to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) Sagisthal- See, with its chalet. The traveller skirts 
the N. andN.E. sides of the lake, and ascends the barren slope of 
the Schwabhorn, the ridge of which separates the lake from the 
Faulhorn. The summit of the latter is reached in 2 hrs. from 
the Sagisthal-See, and is 2670 ft. above it. 

Path from the Giessbach to the Faulhorn, 7 — S hrs. (p. 128); 
descent (5 — 6 hrs.) disagreeable and not recommended. 

The view from the Faulhorn over the chain of the High Alps, the 
green meadows of the valley of Grindelwald, and the two glaciers, is par- 
tially intercepted by the neighbouring group of the Simelihorn (8928') and 
the RBthihorn (9052'), which, rising between the Finsteraarhorn and the 
Schreckhorn, contribute at the same time considerably to enhance the effect; 
The Rothihorn, on account of its isolated position, commands a much 
finer view of the mountains of Grindelwald than the Faulhorn ; the ascent 
is most conveniently undertaken on the return-route from the Faulhorn 
to Grindelwald, by diverging to the r. at the Bachalpsee (p. 120) and after- 
wards descending to the Bachalp. 

The view is still grander and more extensive from the top of the 
Schwarzhorn (95U7'), which, with the Wildgerst (9475'), intercepts the view 
from the Faulhorn on the E. side (the lakes of Lungern, Sarnen, Alpnach, 
Kiisnacht, and Zug are visible hence, all situated in the same line). The 
ascent of the Schwarzhorn is best made from the Great Scheideck hy the 
Grindelalp (see above) in 3 hrs. (from Grindelwald G hrs., from Kosenlaui 
5'J'2 hrs.) guide necessary. Active mountaineers may descend to the little 
blue glacier ( L Blaue Gletscher"), and by the Breitenboden Alp (2 hrs. | to the 
Baths of Rosenlaui (li| 2 hr.) (p. 123). 

i. From Grindelwald to Meiringen. The Kosenlaui Glacier. 
Falls of the Reichenbach. 

Comp. Map, p. SS. 

&lt hrs.: from Grindelwald ti> the Scheideck 3 (descent -') hrs., from 

the Scheideck to Rosenlaui 13| 4 (ascent 2'| 2 ) hrs., from liosenlaui to 

Meiringen 2 (ascent 3) hrs., a good day's walk if i| 2 hr. be spent at the 

Upper Grindelwald Glacier, 1 hr at the liosenlaui Glacier, and *| 2 hr. at 

122 Route -".). GHEAT SCHKIDKCK. Rernese 

the Kails of the Reiclienbacli. Horses, see p. fIS : the entire route may 
he performed on horseback, but the Keichenhaih Falls must be visited 
on foot. 

The path ascends gradually, traversing rich pastures, and 
passing the I'pper Glacier of Grindelwald (p. 117). In the fore- 
ground towers the magnificent *Wetterhorn (12,149'), or Hasli- 
Jung frau . as it is termed by the natives, rising precipitously 
from the Scheideck. 

The W. peak of the Wetterhorn was ascended for the first time in 
1844, the E. peak (Rosenliorn) in the same year, the ilitlelhorn m the fol- 
lowing year. The ascent has since been frequently made (in 1863 by the 
Editor). The night before the ascent is spent in the Gleckslcin, a grotto 
at the W. base of the Wetterhorn. 

In spring , avalanches descend from the Wetterhorn in four 
different directions; the snow frequently extends to the path, 
and does not entirely melt during the whole summer. The. Al- 
pine horn (an instrument 6 — 8 feet in length, of bark or wood) 
is generally sounded from the opposite slope as travellers are 
passing. Its simple notes, re-echoed a few seconds later from 
the precipices of the Wetterhorn, produce a not unpleasing effect. 

The Great or Hash - Scheideck (6910'), also termed the 
Etelsriicken or Am'.* Back, a ridge of rock, 3 M. long and only 
a few paces wide, commands a striking view towards the W. 
The inn (R. 2, S. 3 fr. ; horse to the Faulhorn 8 fr., an ascent 
of -I hrs.) is indifferent. The lovely valley of Grindelwald, 
bounded to the S. W. by the pastures and woods of the Little 
Scheideck, forms a picturesque contrast to the bleak and barren 
precipices of the Wetterhorn, which tower above the spectator 
to a giddy height. The eye next rests on the rounded summit 
of the Little Schreckhorn , the Mettenberg , the sharp ridge of 
the Eiger, and finally the S.E. snowy precipice of the Munch. 
To the N.W. the Mannlichen (p. 118). High up on the r. appears 
the Schicarzwald-Gtiicier, between the Wetterhorn and Wellhorn. 

Travellers from Rosenlaui who do not wish to ascend the Faulhorn 
are recommended here to make a short digression (1 hr.), by following 
the path to the Faulhorn (p. 120), at least as far as ( 3 |4 hr.) the Grhidel- 
nip (p. 121), an almost level walk; from this point a tine view of the 
mountains is obtained, especially of the Schreckhorn, the Upper Grindel- 
wald Glacier, and the Yieschergrat. From the Grindelalp the direct de- 
scent (beyond the fountain the Faulhom-path is followed for 5 min. more, 
then to 1.) to Grindelwald is not longer than from the Scheideck. 

Immediately below the Scheideck the path turns to the I. 
A wood is soon entered, the path skirting the base of the rocky 
precipices. This part of the route is attractive and varied, pass- 
ing several groups of chalets (near those of Schwarzwald is a 
new inn), and frequently crossing the Gemnhnch and Reiclienbacli, 
the latter finally by a broad bridge in a pine-clad valley, 1 l li hr. 
from the Scheideck. The track divides here. One path (the 
preferable one , affording pleasant views of the upper Rosenlaui 
Glacier and the mountains surrounding it) continues to follow 
the I. bank of the Reichenbach, and leads in 1 hr. to the saw- 

Oberland. KOSKNLAUI. '29. Route. V23 

mill (see below); the other (^4 lir. longer) enters the forest to the r. 
(on the r. bank of the Reichenbach , which forms a picturesque 
fall near Rosenlaui , best seen from the new bridge behind the 
baths) and leads in 25 min. to the Baths of Rosenlaui (4397') 
(*Jrm, R. 2, L. 1, B. It/.,, D. 21/,, A. 3/ 4 fr. Portfolios of Alpine 
plants 4 — 30 fr. ; wood-carvings of Jean Zurfliili). 

Before the Baths are reached, where the road emerges from the 
forest, a footpath to the r. leads to the Rosenlaui Glacier (5029'), 
imbedded between the 'Wellhorn (10,486') and the Engelhorner, 
so much of which , however , has melted of late years , that it 
does not now merit a visit. The ice of this glacier is remark- 
able for its purity , owing to the indestructible nature of the 
surrounding rock (black limestone). The dirty aspect of the 
Grindelwald and other glaciers is due to the detritus of brittle 
and friable formations. 

The path to Meiringen now follows the course of the Reichen- 
bach, which rises on the E. slope of the Faulhorn chain. It runs 
at first through underwood , and then traverses an expanse of 
fresh green pasture-land (the first bridge should not be crossed), 
enclosed by forest, and enlivened by chalets and herds of cattle, 
a favourite resort of painters. The bold peaks of the Engel- 
horner, in front the Wellhorn, with the snow-clad pyramid of the 
Wetterhorn towering above it, together form a background of 
mountain grandeur, which, combined with the lovely scenery at 
its base , presents a picture unsurpassed in any part of Switzer- 
land. These beauties strike the traveller most when proceeding 
from Meiringen to Rosenlaui. 

The Reichenbach is crossed for the last time by a bridge, at 
the end of the above mentioned pastures. 25 min. from the Baths, 
and the path now remains on the r. bank C/4 hr. a saw-mill 
and small inn). The descent becomes steep. A distant view is 
soon obtained of the valley of Hasli or Meiringen , bounded by 
the mountains which surround the Briinig and Susten. At a gate, 
V/ 4 hr. from Rosenlaui. the traveller is generally met by a troop 
of urchins who invite him to visit the celebrated * Falls of the 
Reichenbach. The path diverges to the 1. across a meadow, in 
which steps have been cut, leading to a hut, the best point for 
seeing the Upper Fall; on all other sides the view is shut out 
by wooden partitions. The hut (refreshments) affords shelter 
from the spray of the fall ('/o fr.). A trifle must also be paid 
for permission to use the above-mentioned path. Below the. 
upper fall a footpath diverges to the 1. from the bridle-path, 
leading to the Middle Fall (Kesselfall) , over which another hut 
(25 c.) keeps guard. The conversion of this beautiful work of 
nature into a peep-show is somewhat trying to the temper of the 
traveller. At the foot of the mountain are the Hotel Reichenbach 
(high charges) and the Hotel des Alpes, whence a good path leads 

124 Route 29. MEIRINGEN. Bernese 

(Y4 hr.) to a bridge , from which a view is obtained of the 
* Lower Falls (illumination daily from July 1st). 

[The falls are seen to the best advantage when this route is 
undertaken in the reverse direction (from Meiringen to the 
upper fall % hr.J ; as Kosenlaui is approached, the Wetterhorn 
and the Wellhorn form a - strikingly beautiful background. The 
path which crosses the bridge near the second fall to the 1. bank 
should be avoided, although it has the appearance of being more 
frequented; the r. bank of the Reichenbach should not be quitted. 
The great reputation which these falls enjoy may sometimes 
occasion disappointment, when the expectation has been pitched 
too high.] 

Travellers to the Grimsel, who do not intend to visit the Falls of 
the Reichenbach and Jleiringen, save nearly an hour by keeping to the 
bridle-path instead of taking the footpath to the falls through the gate 
above-mentioned, 10 min. beyond whieh a rugged footpath diverges from 
the bridle-path to the r., leading to the village of Geis/iolz (25 min.) hidden 
among fruit-trees ; here the pastures are ascended, and the Kirchet (p. 132) 
traversed to OJ2 nr ) Irn-Grnnd, or Hasli-Grund, and (10 min.) lrn-Bof 
(p. 132), which with the other hamlets of the vicinity are collectively 
termed Innertkirchen. 

Meiringen (2224') (Krone [Post], R. 2, B. li| 2 , D. or S. excl. 
W. 3, A. '|2 l'r. ; 'Sauvage, similar charges; Bar near the church, 
unpretending ; Hotel et Pension du Reichenbach. — English 
Church, liuides : Melchior and Jac. Anderegg, Kasp. and Jac. Blatttr, 
Joh. Tcinnler, etc. — Horses, etc. see p. B!3), with 2(87 inhab. 
(25 Rom. Cath.), the chief village of the Hasli-Thal, is situated on 
the r. bank of the Aare, in a valley 3 M. in width, surrounded 
by wooded mountains , and overshadowed by snowy peaks. Three 
brooks (Alpbach) descend from the Haslibery into the valley in 
the rear of the village, forming considerable waterfalls. They often 
overflow their banks, and cover the whole district with fragments 
of rock, mud, and other deposit, brought down from the Hasli- 
berg , the slopes of which are composed of loose , calcareous 
stones. An event of this kind destroyed the greater part of the 
village in 1762 ; in the church , stones and mud were heaped 
up to a height of 18' , as is indicated by a black line on the 
wall. The construction of a broad canal, descending to the Aare, 
now renders the recurrence of such a catastrophe improbable. 

The Hasli- Thai (also called Hasli im Weissland) is divided by the Kirchtl 
(p. 132) into the Unter- and Ober-Hasli. The inhabitants usually possess 
a slight, but strong and active frame (Wrestling-matches see Introd. XV), 
and are remarkable for their picturesque costume and pure dialect. 
According to tradition they descend from the inhabitants of Sweden or 
Friesland, an idea supported by the opinions of modern Swedish savants, 
recorded in a book kept at Meiringen. 

Six different Alpine routes converge at Meiringen : the carriage- 
road to Brienz (see below); the high-road to Lucerne by the 
Briinig (R. 2o); to Engelberg by the Jochpass (R. 30); by the 
Susten to Wasen on the St. Gotthard route (R. 31); to the 
Grimsel (R. 32); over the Great Scheideck to Urindelwald (p. 117). 

Oberland. BRIENZ. ■>!). Route. 125 

The magnificent fall of the Aare at, the Handeck (p. 133") is 
5'/2 nrs - walk from Meiringen. 

k. From Meiringen to Interlaken. Rothhorn. Lake of Brienz. 

Comp. Map. p. 98. 

From Meiringen to Brienz 9 31.:, diligence twice daily in li| 4 hi-., 
tare I fr. 80 c. ; one-horse carr. 7 fr. ; to Interlaken .16 (by "the carriage- 
mart on the X. hank of the lake, see p. 127), two -horse 30 fr. From 
Brienz to (the Giessbach and) Interlaken Steamboat (seep. 103) 3 times 
daily in 1 hr., 1st cl. 2 fr., 2nd cl. 1 fr. Luggage additional, 50 c. for 
each box. On the arrival of the steamboat at Interlaken, a difficulty 
sometimes occurs in obtaining a conveyance to Neuhaus (fare 1 fr.), 
as the drivers prefer to wait at Neuhaus for the steamer which arrives 
from Thun at the same hour, and usually brings a larger number of 

Beyond Meiringen the road crosses to the 1. bank of the Aare, 
traversing meadow-land; several cascades leap from the precipice 
on the 1. , among others the beautiful fall of the OUschibach. 
Below (5'/4 M.) Brienzwyler (p. 91] the road regains the r. bank 
of the Aare by a new iron bridge , at the junction of the new 
Briinig road. 

Along the banks of the Lake of Brienz, which now becomes 
visible to the W., are deposited large accumulations of marl and 
detritus, which cover the once fertile soil. In 1797 a mud- 
stream (comp. p. 62) destroyed a considerable portion of the 
villages of Schwanden and Hofstetten, and in 1824 a landslip 
devastated an area of 30 acres. The ^Pension Bellevue (with 
pleasant grounds ; lake-baths) now stands on the spot (near the 
influx of the Aare i l j t M. from Brienz) formerly occupied by 
the village of Kienholz, destroyed by a similar catastrophe in 1499. 

Tracht (*Weisses Kreuz, at the steamboat-quay, and point of 
departure of the Briinig diligence , Dependence of the Giess- 
bach Hotel , and recommended when accommodation cannot be 
procured at the Giessbach), now almost a continuation of Brienz, is 
celebrated for its wood- carvings, which are carried to a high 
state of perfection, and employ 600 persons. From the Kanzli, 
V4 hr. above the hotel, the view of the lake, the Faulhom chain, 
the Sustenhorn, the Triftenhorn, etc., is very striking. 

Brienz (1982') (Bar, It. 2, B. l'/ 2 , D. incl. W. 3, A. 1 fr.), 
a considerable village (2284 inhab.), consisting principally of 
wooden houses, charmingly situated at the foot of the Brienzer 
drat (7336'), a mountain-ridge separating the Lake of Brienz 
from the Entlebuch. From the churchyard a fine view is obtained 
of the lake, and part of the Giessbach, the Faulhom in the back- 
ground, the fall of the OUschibach (see above) to the 1., and the 
fall of the Muhlibach (1600', in summer often dry) in the rear. 
Brienz is also celebrated for its wood-carving, the chief repository 
of which merits a visit. The cheese manufactured on the neigh- 
bouring Alps is of superior quality. Steamboat see p. 98 and 
above; rowing-boat p. 127. 

126 Route :>9. LAKK OK BRIKN'Z. Remise 

From Brienz to Schupfheim (guide necessary) in S hours, 
see p. 91. 

From Brienz over the Brunig, new post-road, see 11. 2j; one- 
horse carr. to Alpnach-Gestad 21 fr. 

The highest peak of the Brienzer Grat is the Rothhorn (7917'), cele- 
brated for tlie extensive view it commands. A good bridle-path leads to 
the summit in 4'|j hrs. (guide, a fr.. unnecessary; horse 10 fr.). Inn 
|J4 hr. below the summit, erected 1867 (li. 3 1 )-.', B. 2, A. 1 fr.). The first 
third of the route only is fatiguing, as far as the Planalp Chalets (5397') ; 
the ascent of the Planalp (Restaurant Fluek, also a few beds), watered 
by the Mil/dibaeli, and of the last slopes of the mountain is gradual. At the 
tup stands the boundary-stone of the Cantons of Bern, Lucerne, and 
L'nterwaldeu. The old path leads by Srhwanden, the pastures of Eck and 
Iitscheleii, and the small Eijsee (which is left on the r.). The view from 
the summit embraces the chain of the Bernese Oberland (p. 120), the 
Lake of Brienz in the foreground; a glimpse of the Lake of Thun between 
the mountains to the r. above Interlaken ; the entire Haslithal from Mei- 
ringen to the vicinity of the Grimsel; on the other side the little Lake of 
Ey, the Lake of Sarnen, a considerable portion of the Lake of Lucerne 
with the Rigi, part of the Lake of Zug, a long strip of the Lake of 
Neuchatel, and even the Lake of Constance. The prospect vies with the 
view from the Xiesen (p. 1U2). The High Alps of Bern are not entirely 
visible, being hidden by the Faulhorn chain, but the chain of the Titlis, 
(and particularly the Titlis itself), stands out in its entire extent; to the 
y. of it are the Sustenhorn, the Trifthorn, the snow peaks to the E. uf 
Oberhasli, etc. ; the Glarnisch and the Sentis are also distinctly visible. 

The Lake of Brienz (18oO'J , 7i/ 2 M. long, 2'/ 4 M. wide, 
near the Oiessbach 500' deep, near Oberried 2100' deep, is 26' 
higher than the Lake of Thun, with which it is supposed to have 
been formerly united (p. lOf)). Its banks are surrounded by 
lofty wooded mountains and rocks; to the r. the Triftenhorn. 
Only the lowest and least striking fall of the Oiessbach (see 
below) is visible from the lake. Beyond the Oiessbach , on the 
S. bank, stands the village of Iseltwald, with an ancient chateau 
of the Countess d'Ericourt; in the lake is a small wooded islet. 
The ruins of the castle of Ringgenbery (2024 'J, on a promontory 
at the \V . extremity of the lake, with the church of that name, 
surrounded by woods and orchards , and the old tower of the 
Church of Oolzwyl, standing on an isolated eminence, are extremely 
picturesque objects in the landscape. On the opposite bank the 
Lutschlne, descending from the valleys of Grindelwald and Lauter- 
brumieii, discharges itself into the lake, which gradually contracts, 
and at length joins the lake of Thun (comp. p. 104J under the 
name of the Aare. As the steamer approaches its destination, 
the snow-fields of the Kbnefluh suddenly become visible through 
a ravine to the S. 

The Carriage -road f rn in B r i e n z tol n terlak en(12 M. ; one-horse 
carr. 7—8 fr.), on the N. bank of the lake, passes through (1 M.) Ebligen, 
|2'|Z M.) oberried, (3 11 I Xieilerried, then, at a considerable elevation above 
the lake, between the rocks, to (2'jii M.) Ringgenbevg, past the little LaU 
uf liohuiil (p. 107), at the base of the hill crowned with the ancient church- 
tower, through liol'.irul (beautiful viewsi to the bridge (Zollbriicke) at 
Interlaken tJ M.). 

Oberland. GIESSBACH. 29. Route. 127 

1. The Giessbach. 

"Hotel at the Giessbach, E. from 3 fr., B. li| 2 , D. or S. 4, illumination 
of the Falls 1 (always charged for the first night), A. 1, pension 6 to 12 fr. 
Whey-cure estab. English, French, and German newspapers in the reading- 
room. The hotel belongs to the Steamboat Co. ; Restaurant and Post Offict 
connected with the hotel. The Weissrs Kreuz at Tracht (p. 125) is a De- 
pendance of the hotel. 

'Illumination of the Falls by means of Bengal lights, before the middle 
of June on Mondays and Saturdays, from that time till the end of Sep- 
tember every evening (1 fr., see above, non-customers I'j-z fr.). The effect 
of this illumination is certainly striking, although perhaps of questionable 
taste. On the ringing of a bell visitors betake themselves to the terrace 
opposite the falls ; the signal being given by the discharge of a rocket, the 
whole of the falls are suddenly bathed in a flood of light, changing from 
white to red, and afterwards to green. — In the height of the season it 
is a wise precaution to order rooms at the hotel a few days before hand; 
travellers may, if they prefer it, return to Brienz and Tracht at the con- 
clusion of the illumination. 

Steamboat to or from Interlaken in 50, to or from Brienz in 10 min., 
see pp. 103, 125. The new saloon-steamers which ply on the lake do not 
both belong to the same company. Travellers with return-tickets should 
therefore observe the names of the vessels. 

Rowing-boat from Brienz to the Giessbach in '| 2 hr., each rower I fr. 
The boatmen of Brienz usually demand 3 fr. for a boat with two rowers. 
From Interlaken to the (iiessbach in 2 hrs., 6 to 8 fr. 

Footpath from the bridge of Brienzwyler (pp. 91, 125: to the Giess 
bach 6 M.), for some distance along the r. bank of the Aare, through 
meadows, then by a narrow bridge to the 1. bank, and thence through 
shady woods to the Giessbach hotel in 3 |j hr. From the Giessbach to 
Brienz (6 M.) by the same path till the last-mentioned bridge is crossed. 
From the Giessbach to Interlaken , see p. 128. 

The *Giessbach, formerly inaccessible, became known in 1818, 
when the schoolmaster Kehrli (d. 1804) constructed a path, 
for the use of which he exacted a small toll from visitors. 
His heirs sold their right in 1854 , and it is now the property 
of the Steamboat Co. of the Lakes of Brienz and Thun. Since 
the construction of the hotel, the Giessbach has become one of 
the most delightful and popular resorts in Switzerland. The 
adjuncts harmonise so well with the character of the scenery as 
even to enhance its attractions. 

A well-kept footpath ascends from the landing-place to the 
hotel in '/4 hr. (Near the first curve is a bridge spanning tlte 
lower fall. J On reaching the sixth curve a charming glimpse of 
the upper fall is obtained. Farther up stands the lianzel, com- 
manding a view of the lake. In the wooden house adjoining, 
the descendants of Kehrli , the first explorer of the falls , keep 
a repository of carved wood -work at fixed and not exorbitant 
prices. On the opposite side of the path is a white marble 
tablet in memory of Kehrli. 

The adjoining * Terrace is the most remarkable point. It 
commands a full *view of the Giessbach, a series of cascades 
(seven in number) falling from rock to rock from a great height 
(highest point 1148' above the lake). The falls are inferior to 
those of the Reichenbach (p. 1'23) in height, but the richness 

128 Route 29. GIESSBACH. 

of the foliage and the brilliant green of the herbage invest them 
with an exquisite charm , and give a park - like aspect to the 
scene. In hot weather it is delightful to rest under the shade 
of the lofty trees , enjoying the coolness of the breeze produced 
by the falls. 

Good paths lead from the hotel and terrace to the precipice 
over which the cataract falls , skirting both sides of the stream 
as far as the second bridge C/4 hr.); but thence to the upper 
fall ( l /. 2 hr.) there is a path on the r. bank only. There is no 
bridge over the Second Fall, but the visitor can pass behind it 
by means of a grotto which connects the banks of the stream. 
The landscape , seen through this veil of falling water , has a 
most curious appearance. If time permit, the visitor should not 
fail to ascend to the ( 3 /4 hr.) Upper Fall , where the Giessbach, 
issuing from a gloomy ravine in the rocks (490' high), is preci- 
pitated under the bridge into an abyss , 190' in depth. This 
fall is best seen from a projecting rock on the r. of the bridge, 
to reach which the stream must be crossed. About noon rainbows 
are formed in the falls. 

From the *Rauft, a group of wooded rocks on the N.E. side 
of the valley, opposite to the falls, about 400' above the hotel 
and 800' (almost perpendicular) above the lake , the view em- 
braces the entire Lake of Brienz , the mouth of the Aare and 
the environs of Brienzwyler, the mountains of Brienz (opp. to 
the spectator above Brienz) , the long Brienzer Grat and the 
Brienzer Rothhom (p. 126); then beyond Interlaken, a portion 
of the Lake of Thun, commanded by the pyramid of the Niesen 
(p. 102). The 'Rauft' is furnished with seats, and the path to 
it from the hotel is indicated by a direction-post. In returning, 
the path which overhangs the lake, opposite the falls, and descends 
to the terrace, should be selected. 

From the Giessbach to the Faulhorn (p. 121), a fatiguing, un- 
pleasant walk of 7 — 8 hrs., guide (6 fr.) necessary. 

From the Giessbach to Interlaken (4 hrs.), path somewhat 
difficult at first, afterwards easier, by Iselltcald 2 hrs., Sengg >fe hr., Ehrteh- 
wand ife hr., Bonigen (p. 104) !fe hr., Interlaken ife hr. About midway 
between the hotel and the lake the path crosses the brook (at the direction- 
post) by an old stone bridge, and skirts the lake at a considerable elevation, 
until a short distance before Bonigen. 

30. From Meiringen to Engelberg. Jochpass. 

Comp. Map, p. 76. 
10'fehrs. : Im-Hof li| 4 , Engstlenalp &\ t (descent 4), Joch life (descent 1), 
Trubsee 'fe (ascent 1), Engelberg life (ascent 2'fe) hrs. Carriage - road to 
Iinhof, after that a bridle-path. Horse 30, guide 10 fr. Guide only necessary 
from the point (1 hr. above Im-Hof, near an old iron-foundry) where the 
path diverges from the Susten route, to the entrance of the valley of Genteri, 
an ascent of l'fe hr. Hence to the Joch the way cannot be mistaken; the de- 
scent of the pass is easily found, especially if the direction be known. If ne- 
cessary, a guide may be taken from the Engstlenalp (5 fr.). If the traveller 
is unwilling to undertake so long a walk (10'fehrs.) in one day, he will 

EXGSTLEN-ALP. 30. Route. 1 29 

find comfortable quarters at the Engstlenalp. Those who commence this 
route at Engelberg should not fail to take a guide to the summit of the 
pass (to the Engstlenalp 5 fr.). 

From Meiringen to lm-Hof (2097') over the Kirchet in 1 '/ 4 hr. , 
see p. 132. Then folio-wing the Susten route for 1 hr. , as far 
as an old iron-foundry, at the confluence of the Genthelbach 
(which descends from the Susten and drives a saw-mill) and the 
Gadmenbach. The rough and stony bridle-path now ascends 
rapidly through forest in a N.E. direction for nearly 2'/2 hrs., 
as far as the Genthelalp , where it crosses to the 1. bank of the 
brook. It remains on this side for nearly 2 hrs., passing several 
chalets, the ascent being very gradual all the way. (To the W. the 
three peaks of the "Wetterhorn and the Hangend-Gletscherhorn 
continue to be visible as far as the extremity of the Urbachthal, 
see p. 132). In the Genthelthal and the Engstlenthal the Pinus 
cembra, or 'cedar of the Alps' occasionally occurs. (Another 
route, shorter, but not easily found without a guide, leads from 
Meiringen on the r. bank of the Aare, leaving Imhof on the r., 
and affording a fine view of the valleys which unite at Imhof.) 

At the N.E. extremity of the Genthelalp the path crosses by 
a bridge to the Engstlenalp on the 1. bank. From the middle 
of the steep, smooth precipice (Gadmenfluh) , from 8 to 15 (ac- 
cording to the time of year) abundant streamlets bubble forth, 
forming a series of picturesque waterfalls (Jungholzbache, Jiingis- 
brunnen, Schwarzbrunnen , or Achtelsaasbache). (Rustic Inn). 
The Engstlenbach , as the brook is named after this point, also 
boasts of some considerable falls. The rough path, passing masses 
of rock , in the crevices of which groups of firs have inserted 
their roots, ascends hence in 2 hrs. to the *Engstlen-Alp (6092 r ), 
at nearly the same elevation as the Grimsel-Hospice (p. 134). 
This is one of the most beautiful of the pastures of the Alps, 
with its flower-carpeted meadows, Alpine roses, venerable pines, 
brooks, and waterfalls. (Excellent drinking-water, temperature 
40 — 42° Fahr.). The view to the S."W- embraces the Finster- 
Aarhorn, Schreckhorn, "Wetterhorn, and Breithorn ; to the E. the 
"Wendenstocke and Titlis, all snow-peaks. The small Inn affords 
tolerable accommodation (R. 2, pension 4 fr.). 

The Wunderbrunuen ('miraculous weir), about 300 paces N.E. of the 
inn, is an intermittent spring which flows copiously in fine weather (when 
swollen by the melting snow), especially about 3 p.m.; at 5 a. m. it is 
quite dry." When the weather is cloudy (and the snow consequently does 
not melt), it almost entirely ceases. The name it bears is hardly justified 
bv such simple natural causes. 

The Titlis (p. 86) is ascended from the Engstlen-Alp in about the same 
time as from Engelberg ; from the Engstlen-Alp to the Joch li/jj hr. ; then 
4 or 5 hrs. more over loose stones and glacier; return in 4 hrs. Guide 
(one of the servants at the inn) 10 fr. (charged in the bill) and a gratuity. 
In order not to reach the Titlis too late, travellers generally leave the 
Engstlen-Alp at 2 a. m. with lanterns. 

The Siltteli, a pass to the Gadmenthal (p. 131), 2 hrs. S. of the Engstlen- 
Alp, commands a beautiful view, embracing the Gftdmenthal and the Bernese 

Bjepeker, Switzerland. 5th Edition, 9 

130 Route 30. JOCH-PASS 

Alps. The route from the Gadinenthal to the Siittcli (6 hrs. from the inn 
'am Stein', p. 131, to the lingstlen-Alp) is very steep and requires a guide, 
there being no beaten track. 

From the lingstlen-Alp to the M etc h alp. About '[4 hr. below 
the inn, near the waterfall, a steep path ascends to (20 min.) the Melchaln, 
a nearly level pasture with numerous cattle; view of the Wetterhorn, the 
mountains of Burn, the Titlis, etc. From the Melchalp to the Melchsee (642i'| 
(p. 89) a gradual descent of 1 hr. The Melchthal, see p. 89. 

The path to Engelberg skirts the Engstlensee (l'/a M. long), 
enclosed on the S. by the Wendenstbcke (9806') -with their numer- 
ous glaciers, and on the N. by the Grauhorn (8910'), and then 
ascends (1 hr.) to the Joch-Pass (7359'), whence the Wenden- 
stocke and the Titlis present a most imposing appearance, and a 
striking view is obtained of the mountains of Unterwalden. The 
snow here does not melt until the height of summer. 

In descending, the footpath becomes rugged and may be 
easily mistaken; 20 min. Upper Triibsee-Alp ; 25 min. Lower 
Triibsee-Alp ; here on the 1. is the little Triibsee (6184') with a 
chalet, on the r. a considerable waterfall (Staubi). 

The bridle-path (2^2 hrs. to Engelberg) turns to the 1. The 
more agreeable footpath (I72 nr - t0 Engelberg) crosses the brook 
(no bridge) between the waterfall and the lake , which remains 
on the 1. ; then a descent of s /^ hr. . skirting the precipitous 
Pfaffenwand (somewhat slippery in rainy weather). The path 
next traverses the Gerschene Alp, in the direction of a clump of 
pines, and then enters the forest; the Engelberger Aa is crossed 
at the foot of the mountain. Engelberg (3291') see p. 85. 

31. From Meiringen to Wasen. Susten Pass. 

Comp. Map, p. 76. 

10>| 2 hrs. : Im-Hof l'| 4 , Gadmen 3 (descent 2), Am Stein 2>| 2 (descent li|»), 
Susten-Scheideck i*\\ (descent l'|»), Mayen 2 (ascent 3 3 )4>, Wasen 1 (ascent 
1 ' /a > hr. Horse 35, guide 10 fr. , unnecessary in fine weather. There is 
one good inn only on this long route, that of Im-Hof; those at Gadmen, 
the Stein Glacier, and Mayen are poor. Horses and guides are often found 
on this route returning from Meiringen to Andcrmatt or liospcnthal, on 
their return from the Furea or Grimsel route. 

After Napoleon had annexed the little republic of the Valais (founded 
by him in 1801) to France in 1811 (p. 254), and had established a taril)' of 
customs on the Simplon route, the produce of the canton of Bern was 
sent to Italy by the Susten and the St. Gotthard. The pass was then con- 
verted into a kind of military road from 10 to 12' wide, but two years 
later, circumstances having changed, it was abandoned. It may still be 
traced up to the summit of the pass on both sides, and, though no longer 
practicable for carriages, is the most frequented bridle-path in this part 
of the Alps. 

From Meiringen in l>/ 4 hr. to Im-Hof (2143'), see p. 132. 
The Susten route (Sust = 'custom-house') here diverges towards 
the E. from the Aare route. It traverses pleasant meadows and 
wooded slopes, and repeatedly crosses the Gadmenbach, which 
here winds considerably. To the W. at one time the Wetter- 
horn, the Wellhorn, and the Kngelhorner, at another the Schwarz- 
horn group form the background. 

SUSTEN-PASS. 31. Route. 131 

The lower part of the valley is termed the Miihlenthal, above 
which are the Nesselthal and the beautiful Oadmenthal with the 
village (3 hrs.) of Gadmen (3996') (tolerable inn) , which con- 
sists of the three hamlets of Eck, Ambiihl, and Obermatt. (Path 
over the Satteli to the Engstlen-Alp , see p. 129.) The green 
valley with its magnificent old maple-trees contrasts singularly 
with the rugged and precipitous sides of the Oadmenfluh (10,220'), 
(see p. 129). On the slope of the Urathshorner (10,817') to the 
E., the glacier of Wenden is visible. 

The road ascends gradually to the (2 l /> hrs.) Inn Am Stein 
(R. 2, B. 11/.,, A. 7 2 fr.), at the foot of the "stein Glacier (6335') 
and in close proximity to it, surrounded by ice, moraines, and 
fragments of rock. This glacier is unquestionably one of the 
most extensive and remarkable in Switzerland. Thirty years ago 
it was l 1 ^ M. distant from the old road, but now extends con- 
siderably beyond it, and it is not improbable that it may some 
day descend still farther, and fill up the entire upper portion of 
the valley. Its lower extremity is hollowed out in the form of 
a lofty arch. 

From the summit of the pass (l l / 4 hr.), the Susten-Scheideck 
(7440') , the view is limited but grand : it embraces the entire 
chain of precipices and mountains which bound the Mayenthal 
on the N. , the mighty peaks of the Sustenhorner (11,529'), 
and Thierberge (11, 486'), from which the glacier of Stein de- 
scends in three arms, and the long jagged ridge of the Gadmen- 
fluh; to the W. some of the peaks of the Bernese Oberland are 
visible through a narrow gap. 

The path , now uninteresting , winds down the slopes of the 
Urathshorner (see above). The Mayenbach, which it follows and 
crosses repeatedly, emerges from a rugged gorge on the r., into 
which avalanches are frequently precipitated from the Spitzliberg 
(11,214') and the majestic Sustenhorner. Near the (1 hr.) first 
bridge the path enters the Hundsalp. It then crosses the 
Gurezmettlerbach , which foams along at a great depth below. 
Several small rivulets on the r. issue from the Biti Glacier above. 
Fernigen (4863') is the first group of houses , and the next 
is the (2 hrs.) village of Mayen (4400') (Inn near the chapel), 
consisting of several hamlets (Riti, Hausen, &c). Here and there 
stone walls and palisades are erected to afford protection against 
avalanches. The village owes its appellation (Mayen, May) to 
the contrast which its green meadows present to the desolation 
and sterility of the valley of the Reuss. 

Above Wasen the road passes the Mayenschanz (3606') , an 
intrenchment commanding the entrance of the Mayenthal, erected 
in -1712 during the Religious War (p. 291), fortified anew by 
the Austrians in 1799, and taken and destroyed by the French 
under Loison after several attacks, Aug. 14th, 1799. 


132 Route 32. IM-HOF. 

The path thou descends rapidly to (1 hr.) Wasen ("3010') on 
the St. Gotthard route (p. 77"). 

32. From Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier. Grimsel. 

Comp. Map, p. 7b\ 

lO'lzhrs. : Guttanen 3'|j, Handeck 2, Grimsel Hospice 2 3 |«, summit of 
the Grimsel 1, Rhone Glacier Ujt , return in 8'|2 hrs. Good hridle-path, 
guide unnecessary. Horse from Meiringen to the Handeck (and hack in 
1 day) 15. Grimsel 20, Rhone Glacier 30, Hospenthal or Andermatt 40 fr. 
(comp. p. 98). 

The carriage-road , completed for some distance beyond Im- 
Hof, crosses to the 1. bank of the Aare near Meiringen, and 
ascends the Kirchet (2782', 840' above the Aare), a wooded 
ridge sprinkled with erratic blocks of granite, probably the mo- 
raine of a glacier which once descended thus far. It here 
divides the valley into the Lower and Upper Haslithal. At the 
summit, ifa hr. from Meiringen, a direction-post indicates the 
road 'Zur finstem Aarschlucht' . 

Passing between huge rocks, the traveller reaches in lOmin. the ' Finatere 
Scblauche, where the river Aare runs through a gorge 300' below the road, 
between perpendicular precipices (especially interesting tn geologists). On 
arriving at the little 'Lamm' Inn, a toll of >|2 fr., or 1 fr. for a party of 
3 or more, is levied for the construction of the path. 

The road descends the Kirchet by long windings (which the 
pedestrian may avoid), traverses the fertile meadows at the bot- 
tom of the valley, and crosses to the r. bank of the Aare near 
(1/4 hr.) Im-Hof (*H6tel Im-Hof, R. li/ 2 , B. iy 2 , A. 3/ 4 fr.), 
where the two routes of the Susten (p. 130) and the Jochpass 
(p. 129) diverge to the E. 

A visit to the Urbachthal , which opens here towards the S.W. , as 
far as the huge Ganli Glacier at the head of the valley . may be accom- 
plished in 10 to 12 hrs. ; it is advisable to take a guide, who assists the 
traveller in ascending the glacier, whence a view of the head of the valley 
and an imposing picture of the Bernese Alpine world is obtained. The 
sides of the valley consist of several terraces, the lowest of which is 
cultivated, (lose to the Gauli Glacier is the last chalet. A path over the 
glacier to the r. leads from this point to the Rosenlaui Glacier (p. 123); 
another to the 1. to the T'nter-Aar Glacier (p. 134). For these routes ex- 
perienced guides are of course necessary (Job. Tcijinler and J/. Xafjeli of 
Tmhof recommended). 

The carriage-road in the valley of the Aare terminates above 
Tm-Hof, and is continued by a well-kept bridle-path, which pene- 
trates into the narrow ravine of the Aare. At many of the 
chalets which lie scattered about like mushrooms in this district, 
refreshments are offered for sale, but frequently at exorbitant 
prices. At the (1 hr.) end of the first considerable ascent, deli- 
cious drinking-water bubbles up near a waterfall. The path then 
descends and crosses to the 1. bank of the Aare, where (25 min.) 
the rocks have been blown up to make room for it. It next 
crosses several mountain streams , which are covered with ava- 
lanche-snow during the early part of summer. Im-Boden 
C/2 hr.), a small hamlet on a terrace of the valley. Near a 

PALLS OF THE HANDECK. 32. Route. 133 

house, 5 min. farther, a shorter and more agreeable path tra- 
verses the meadows for ^4 hr. Then (25 min.) Guttanen (35o0') 
(Bar, poor), the largest and poorest village in the Oberhaslithal, 
situated in a second basin of considerable extent. The meadows 
in all directions are covered with heaps of stones , which have 
been brought down from the mountains by avalanches, and are 
then collected in order to prevent injury to the grass. 

Beyond Guttanen C/2 lir a bridge spans the wild and foam- 
ing Aare. The valley contracts , and barren black rocks rise on 
the r. Vast masses of loose stones , which have been arrested 
in their fall on the less precipitous slopes of the mountain, 
testify to the power of avalanche and torrent. On the r. the 
Weiss-Glacier discharges its waters into the valley. On the 
mountain-summits small snow-fields are here and there visible. 
lu l /-> hr. bridge across the Aare; 10 min. beyond, where the 
ascent begins, a well of pure water on the r. The Aare becomes 
more rapid , and here forms a small waterfall. A ridge of rock 
covered with fir-trees forms the boundary of the valley. The 
paved road leads over granite rocks , rounded and polished by 
glacier-friction (comp. Introd. XIV). 

At a bend in the path ( 3 / 4 hr. from the last bridge, 8 min. 
before the inn is reached) a short side-path leads (1.) to the 
**Falls of the Handeck, the spray of which plentifully besprin- 
kles the traveller, as it precipitates itself headlong into an abyss, 
250' in depth. Grand as the spectacle is from this point, it is 
undoubtedly finer from the chalet min. lower down, as the cas- 
cade is then seen from below. Next to the falls of the Tosa 
(p. 143) and the Rhine (p. 24), this is the most imposing of all 
the Alpine falls, owing to its height, its great volume of water, 
and the wild character of the adjuncts. So great is the rapidity 
of the stream that it falls unbroken half way to the bottom ; 
it is then met by the projecting points of rock, and forms a vast 
circle of spray and vapour, in which rainbows are formed by the 
reflection of the sun's rays between 10 and 1 clock. The silvery 
water of the Aerlenbach, which descends from the glacier of that 
name, and, mingling with the turbid Aare, is precipitated into the 
same gulf, serves to enhance the effect. The approach to the fall 
is grandest from the new bridge (attendant '/'2 lr 0- The chalet 
of the Handeck has been converted into an Inn (4659'), mu<h 
frequented by artists. Carved wood may be purchased here at 
moderate prices. 

From the Handeck the traveller (with an experienced guide) may cross 
the Erlen Glacier to the Urbachtlial (p. 132), and follow the latter to Innert- 
kirchen (p. 124), a walk of about 12 hrs. 

The dark pine-forest becomes more open , the trees rarer, 
until they disappear altogether a little above Handeck. The stony 
soil produces only stunted grass and moss , and occasionally the 

134 Route 3-2. GRIMSEL HOSPICE. 

Alpine rose (rhododendron). On the opposite side of the valley, 
V2 » r - from Handeck , the Oelmerbach forms a picturesque cas- 
cade, which issues from the Oelmersee, situated on the mountain 
to the 1. , between the Oelmerhorn and Schaubhorn, and which 
may be visited from Handeck. Path steep. 

The valley becomes narrower and more sombre. The path 
frequently crosses the Aare, now a mere brook. Vegetation dis- 
appears almost entirely. Between the Handeck and Grimsel the 
only two human habitations (i s /i hr. from the former , 1 hr. 
from the latter) are two chalets in the Raterichsboden (561 G^, 
the last basin below the Grimsel , once probably the bed of a 
lake, and still marshy and sterile. 

The path , here in good condition , ascends for a short dis- 
tance through a wild and narrow defile, and then becomes com- 
paratively level. It at length quits the bank of the Aare. turns 
to the r. , and in 1 / 4 hr. reaches the Grimsel Hospice (61990 
fB. 2'/,, R. I72, S. 4, A. 1 fr.), formerly a place of refuge for 
poor travellers crossing the Grimsel , and the property of the 
Oberhasli district. It is always thronged with tourists in the 
height of summer. 

This barren mountain-basin , termed the Grimselgrund , lies 
974' below the summit of the pass (p. 136). Bald rocks, whose 
crevices are filled with perpetual snow, with an occasional patch 
of scanty herbage or moss, form the surrounding scenery. A 
small and gloomy lake, fed by glacier-streams, lies near the hos- 
pice. Beyond it is a meagre pasturage, the Seemattli, which 
during one or two months affords precarious sustenance for the 
cows of the Hospice. 

The jagged ridge which rises towards the W. above the ravine through 
which the Aare flows is named the Agassizhom (12,960'), and forms the 
N. pedestal of the Finster - Aarhorn , connected with which on the "W. is 
the ridge (if the Viescherhorner. The Finster-Aarhorn (14,026'), the highest 
of the Bernese mountains, is not visible from the Hospice itself, hut from 
the Xollan, a rocky eminence a few paces distant. This giant of the Oher- 
land was ascended for the first time in 1829, twice in 1S42, and fre- 
ijuently within the last few years by members of the English and Swiss 
Alpine Clubs. The usual route is by the obtraarjoch to the Rotliloch, a 
species of grolto at the base of the Walliser Rothhorn (Ifugihorn), where 
the night is usually spent. Then round the W. side of the Finsteraarhorn 
across the Walliser Viescherfirn in 5 hrs. to the base of the peak, the ascent 
of which is a fatiguing scramhle of 2 hrs. more. The entire expedition 
from the Kothhornsattcl to the summit and hack occupies It hrs. In 
18(15 the Editor attempted the ascent from the E. side, but found it im- 

The Aart> (lows from two mighty glaciers (6158'), the Vorder-Aar or 
TJnter-Aar Glacier, and the Ober-Aar Glacier, to the \V. of the Hospice. 
The latter (5 hrs. from the Hospice), an ice-field with numerous crevasses. 
is separated from the Unter-Aar Ularier hy the Zinkcnstocke. A bridle- 
path, of easy access, leads in 2 hrs. to the foot of the former. The ascent 
of the glacier itself is neither dangerous nor fatiguing. It forms a con- 
tinuation or oll'shoot of the Finstef-Aar and kantcr Aarflfariers. At the point 

GLACIERS OF THE AARE. 32. Route. 135 

where the two glaciers meet, a medial moraine, in some places 80' high, 
is formed (see Introd. XIV). The valley, now termed the Aareboden, ex- 
tending from the Hospice far above the Unter-Aar Glacier, formerly bore 
the appellation of the Bliimlisalp (flowery Alp), and consisted of rich 
pasture-land. The steady advance of the glacier, and the detritus which 
has descended from the mountain, have, however, now destroyed all traces 
of fertility. 

The two glaciers of the Aare present many attractions to those who 
are interested in the investigation of the theory of glaciers. The eminent 
Swiss naturalist Hugi caused a hut, now in ruins, to be constructed in 1827 
on the lower glacier, at the foot of the rock named 'im Abschwung', the 
last point of solid earth in the midst of ice-fields, separating the two 
glaciers, 3 hrs. from the Hospice. This hut, moving with the glacier on 
which it stood, was in 1840 at a distance of 5900' from the rock at the foot 
of which it had been originally built. On this same glacier the celebrated 
Aaassiz, then professor at Neuchatel, took up his temporary residence in 
1841 (the expense of the undertaking being defrayed by the King of Prussia) 
with Desor, Vogt, Wild, etc. as his companions. These savants published 
several very interesting accounts of the results of their observations, dating 
them from the 'Hotel des Neuchdtelois\ with which name they dignified 
the stone hut, erected under a projecting mass of mica-slate, to afford 
protection against wind and storm. The latest observations on this interest- 
ing subject have been made by M. Dollfvss-Ausset of Miilhausen in Alsace. 
He has erected a ' pavilion n on the summit of the point where the two 
arms of the lower glacier unite, and passes some weeks there every year. 
According to his calculations the glacier advances 250' per annum, that is 
nearly 8 in. per diem. The right arm of the glacier abounds in crevasses, 
the left is quite level. 

The -Little Sidelhorn (9074'), to the S.W., is often ascended in 3 hrs. 
from the Hospice (guide necessary; a boy will suffice, 4 fr.). [The Great 
Sidelhorn (9449') is more than double the distance from the Hospice, to 
the S.W.] The path, although steep, is for the most part easy; the last 
'^hr. alone presents any difficulty, on account of the loose fragments of 
granite with which the entire summit is covered. The view is grand, but 
deficient in foreground and vegetation. Gigantic peaks surround the 
spectator on every side, to the W. the Schreckhorn, the Finster-Aarhom, 
and the Viescherhom ; to the N. E. the rounded peak of the Galenstock, 
from which the glacier of the Rhone descends; to the S. the Upper Valais 
chain with its numerous ice-streams, particularly the Gries glacier; to the 
S.W., in the distance, the chain of Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn, etc. The 
view of the two glaciers of the Aare with their grand medial moraine 
(comp. Dill's Panorama) is particularly interesting. Those who intend to 
cross the Grimsel need not return to the Hospice, but may descend at once 
to the Glacier of the Rhone (keeping the Todtensee on the r.), or to 
Obergestelen in the valley of the Rhone (p. 139) (keeping the Todtensee 
on the 1., see below) in 3>|2hrs. 

The ascent of the Ewig-Schneehorn (10,928') presents no great difficulty 
to experienced climbers. From the Grimsel to the Dollfuss Pavilion 3 hrs., 
passage of the Lauter-Aar Glacier to the foot of the mountain l 1 ^ hr., to the 
Gauligrat 2 hrs., thence to the Ewig-Schneehorn 1 hr. The summit affords a 
magnificent panorama : the Lauteraarjoch, Schreckhorn, Wetterhorn, Finster- 
and Oberaarhorn, Studerhorn, etc.; to the E. the Titlis and Todi; S. the 
Alps of the Valais. — Descent to the Gauli Glacier (p. 132) and Gauli Alp, 
where if necessary the night may be spent, in 3 — 4 hrs. ; to Innerikirchen- 
(p. 124) in 3 hrs. more. This excursion is unattended with danger, but 
requires a good guide. 

From the Grimsel over the Oberaarjoch (10,624') and Viesch 
Glarier to Viesch (p. 140) should be undertaken by none but the most ex- 
perienced mountaineers; an expedition of 14 — 15 hrs., two guides necessary. 
This pass, although less imposing than many others, is nevertheless interest- 
ing. An easier route (but 2 — 3 hrs. longer) is from the Oberaarjoch across 
the Viesch Glacier to the Griinhornliirle (10,843'), the ridge between the 

136 Route 33. UR1M.SEL. 

Grilnhdrner and Walliser ViescherhSrner , thence descending by the Great 
Aletsch Glacier to the Faulberg (p. 119) and Eggischhorn. 

From the Grimsel by the Strahlegg to Grindelwald, see 
p. 119 i by the Lauteraarjoch, see p. 119. 

A steep bridle-path , partly paved with flat stones , and in- 
dicated by stakes , winds up the mountain-pass of the Grimsel 
(J 103'), which connects the valley of Oberhasli on one side 
with the St. Gotthard route , and on the other with the Upper 
Valais. At [1 hr.) the summit of the pass (Hauseck), the boundary 
between the cantons of Bern and Valais, the snow seldom entirely 
melts. The small Todtensee ('Lake of the Dead) lies on the S. 
side of the ridge. 

In the summer of 1799 this lake was used by the Austrians and French 
as a burial-place. The former, with the Valaisians, had entrenched them- 
selves on the Grimsel, having extended their advanced-posts as far as the 
bridge of the Aare. All the attempts of the French under Lecourbe (stationed 
at Guttanen) to drive the Austrians from this position were inetl'ectual. A 
peasant of Guttanen, however, named Fahner, at length conducted a small 
detachment under General Gudin over the Gelmer, bulti, and Gersthorn, 
by paths hitherto untrodden except by goats and herdsmen. Being thus 
brought close to the Grimsel they attacked the Austrians, and after an 
obstinate conflict compelled them to retire into the Valais and in the di- 
rection of the Hospice. Many of those who sought to escape by the valley 
of the Aare perished in the abysses of the mountains and glaciers, while 
others fell by the bullets of the French. The French presented their guide, 
at his request , with the Raterichsboden (p. liU) , as a reward for his ser- 
vices, but the government of Bern annulled the gift some months later. The 
ridge from which the French poured down upon the Grimsel, on the M. of 
the Pass, is termed Nagelfs Qratli (9180'). 

Before the summit of the Pass is attained, the direct path to 
Obergestelen in the Valais (p. 139) diverges to the r. fiom the 
l-'urca route, and proceeds in a S. direction, passing on the \Y. 
bank of the Todtensee. The route now described pursues an li. 
direction, skirting the X. side of the lake. It descends (to the 1.) 
to the Maienwand, a precipitous declivity of 1000', carpeted 
with a profusion of Alpine plants (especially rhododendrons) and 
fresh green herbage, and commanding a view of the Rhone Glacier. 
In l 1 /*. hr. the hotel (see below) on the Furca road is attained. 

33. From the Rhone Glacier to Andermatt. 
The Furca. 

Comp. Map, p. 76'. 

21 JI. Diligence daily (about noon) in 4'|a his., coupe' 7 fr. 4j c. 
interieur 6 fr. 50 c. ; booking-office for those proceeding to the 1! hone Glacier, 
at Hospenthal, not at Andermatt. — Distances : from the Rhone Glacier 
lo the Furca 2'| s (descent i'J 2 J, Realp J'jj (ascent 3'|j|, Hospenthal l'|a, 
Andermatt '|.j hr. 

The new Furca Road, constructed principally for strategical rea- 
sons, is traversed by a diligence during the summer (once daily from 
Andermatt to Brieg , and vice versa, in 12 hrs. , halting for dinner at the 
Rhone G lacier; coupe 20 fr., interieur 17 fr. in c). Striking views of the 
Khoue Glacier, the Galenstock, Spitzliberg, etc. are commanded by the new 
route, must of which are not visible froui the old bridle-path. The latter, 
however, is considerably shorter. 

GLACIER Of THE RHONE. 33. Route. 1 37 

The *Glacier of the Rhone, imbedded between the Gelmer- 
horn and Gersthom (10,450') on the \V., and the Galenstock 
(11,956') on the E. , is 9 M. long, and rises in a terrace-like 
form, resembling a gigantic waterfall suddenly arrested in its 
career by the icy hand of some Alpine enchanter. Above it 
towers the Galenstock. At its base is the "Hotel da Glacier du 
Rhone, a substantially built house, where travellers from the 
Grimsel , the Furca , and the Rhone Valley frequently halt for 
dinner (o fr. ; R. 2, L. and A. 1, B. 2'/ 2 fr-)- (T° tne Eggisch- 
horn and Vispaoh see p. 139.) 

During some seasons a grey torrent of snow-water issues from 
an ice-cavern in the Rhone Glacier. This is the Rhone (5742'), 
the Rhodanus of the ancients, which was said to issue 'from the 
gates of eternal night, at the foot of the pillar of the sun' ^the 
Galenstock), the infant stream which gradually becomes a mighty 
river, and eventually discharges itself into the Mediterranean after 
a course of rive hundred miles. The inhabitants of the valley 
point out three warm springs which rise a few min. walk from 
the hotel, the Rotten or Rhodan, as the true source of the river. 
These streams bubble up in a circular stone basin, and mingle 
with the glacier-stream a short distance from their source. — 
A visit to the Ice Grotto artificially hewn in the glacier , near 
the hotel, is recommended (admission '/o fr- i umbrella desirable). 

The new Post-Road (see above) to the Furca crosses the 
infant Rhone a short distance below the hotel, and then ascends 
by long windings on the E. side of the valley. Pedestrians 
should follow the old bridle-path which ascends to the 1. , on 
the S.E. side of the Rhone Glacier, skirting its moraine for a 
short distance. Rhododendrons abound here, remaining in flower 
until autumn. 

After a walk of nearly 1 hr. (on the old path), the glacier 
is quitted , and the course of the Muttbach ascended to the r. ; 
in 10 min. the road is rejoined at the point where it crosses 
the brook. The old path, destitute of view, ascends to the r. 
by the Muttbachthal to the pass; while the *road pursues a 
straight direction, scaling the mountain in vast curves, and dis- 
closing striking views of the towering ice-masses of the Rhone 
Glacier , especially from the second angle , whence the prospect 
also embraces the Weissmies , Mischabel, and Weisshorn to 
the >S. Between the last bend of the road and the culminating 
point another beautiful retrospect of the pinnacles of the Finster- 
aarhorn and Schreckhbrner is enjoyed. 

After 2 3 / 4 hrs. of moderate walking (from the hotel ; the dili- 
gence takes 2 hrs.) the summit of the Furca (7992') is attained 
{Hotel de la Furca, R. 2, B. l'/ 2 , u - or S. a fr-)- Tne P as =- 
seldom entirely free from snow, descends abruptly on both sides, 
and lies between two peaks , bearing a fancied resemblance to 

138 Route 3:i. FURCA. 

the prongs of a fork (furca). View (not so tine as might be 
expected from the height) of the Bernese Alps , of which the 
Finsteraarhorn is the most prominent. 

The Footpath which leads from the hotel in 20 min. to the upper 
part of the Rhone Glacier (p. 137), crosses the glacier, and reaches the 
Grimsel in 3<|j hrs., is recommended to pedestrians proceeding from the 
St. Gotthard route to the Grimsel. 

The Furcahorner are occasionally ascended for the sake of the view, 
especially the more remote summit ( 10,469' ), which may he attained from 
the hotel in 2i|j — 3»|2 hrs., with guide (5 fr. and fee); descent in 2 hrs. 
For the nearer and lower summit (8753'), 1 hr. from the hotel, no guide 
is necessary. 

The 'Galenstock (11,956') is a magnificent point of view, recommended 
to practised climbers with trustworthy guides (ascent 6, descent 4 hrs.). 
N. of the Galenstock are the Rhonesioch (11,821') and the Dammaslock 
(11,919'), both of which have lately been ascended several times, especially 
from Guttanen (p. 133). On the N.W. between the Galenstock and the 
aietschhorn descends the Tiefengleischer, where some magnificent crystals 
were found in Sept., 1868. The grotto which once concealed these treasures, 
at. the base of the Gletschhorn, is by no means easy of access; guide desir- 
able. The entire weight of the crystals found here (clouded topaz) amounted 
to 12 — 15 tons. Some of the most beautiful specimens are now in the 
Museum at Bern (p. 95). 

The Old Path now descends rapidly into the Garschenthal, 
and traverses monotonous, treeless pastures, interesting to botanists 
only. Here, especially on the Siedelnalp and Wasseralp, numerous 
species of Alpine plants are found. The New Road skirts the 
lofty S.E. slope of the Galenstock. To the 1. the Siedeln Glacier 
is visible, which discharges itself near the road in a picturesque 
fall ; adjacent to it rise the pointed peaks of the Biihlenstock ; 
farther to the 1. is the Tiefen Glacier. Then the Refuge (good 
Ital. wine) is reached, the only human habitation between the 
Furca Hotel and Realp. On the (4 M.) Elmeten Alp (6827') 
commence the long windings by which the road descends into 
the Urseren Valley (see below); the pedestrian may avoid these 
by taking the old path , from which , however , the view is in- 
ferior. To the N.E. near Andermatt, the Oberalp route is visible 
(R. 78). In descending , the road is quitted a few hundred 
paces beyond the 50th kilom. -stone by several steps on the 1. ; 
in ascending, it is left 50 paces beyond the first bridge, 3 /< M. 
from Realp. 

Realp (5034') is a village consisting of a few poor houses. 
Father Hugo, a successor of the hospitable Capuchins, now pre- 
sides over a modest establishment at his * Ho.ipiz Realp (ex- 
cellent wine; bed 1 , B. 1 fr.). Adjacent is the Hotel den 
Alpes (R. 1, B. 1. D. li/ 2 — 2 1/2 fr.). 

The sequestered Valley of Urseren, or Urner-Thal , watered 
by the Reus*, 9 M. long, 8/4 M. wide, enclosed between moun- 
tains partially covered with snow , possesses excellent pastures. 
Beyond Realp the new road crosses the Dorfbach, the E. discharge 
of the Tiefen Glacier (N. rises the Lochberti , 10,125'), reaches 
(l 1 /4 M.) the Alp Steinberg, and then in a direct line traverses 

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OBERGESTELEN. 34. Route. 139 

the bottom of the valley, overgrown with brushwood, as far as 
fl3/ 4 M.) Zum Dorf. To the 1. in the foreground, on the N. 
side of the valley, tower the jagged peaks of the Spitzliberg 
fl0,049'). From this point to (2i/ 4 M.) Hospenthal (4787') 
(see p. 79), where the St. Gotthard route is entered, the road 
remains on the r. bank of the Reuss. Thence by the St. Gott- 
hard road to (li/ 2 M.) Andermatt (4642'), see p. 79. 

34. From the Rhone Glacier to Vispach. Eggischhorn. 

35>|'2M. Diligence to Brieg (31 M.) once daily (in the afternoon) in 
5 hrs. (to Miinster li| 2 , Viesch I 3 )*, Brieg 13| 4 hr.)-, coupe 9 fr. 55 c, intericnr 
7 fr. 85 c. (in the reverse direction the diligence takes 7 hrs.). From Brieg 
to Vispach (4»| 2 M.) diligence twice daily in 3 | 4 hr. 

The new Carriage-road (Furca route, comp. p. 136) was traversed 
in 1867 for the first time by a diligence, of which conveyance the traveller 
should avail himself, in preference to walking. 

Those who are acquainted with the Rhone Glacier may proceed from 
the Grimsel direct to Obergestelen, by the path which on the summit of 
the pass turns to the r. (leaving the Todtensee on the 1.) and descends the 
wooded slopes to the village in 2i| 4 hrs. 

A short distance from the Rhone Glacier Hotel the road 
crosses the Rhone, which far below careers through its rocky 
ravine, and descends, commanding a more open view than the 
old route, to (3'/ 2 M.) Oberwald (4426') (Hotel de la Furca, 
new) , where it reaches the bottom of the valley. This is the 
Upper Valais, a broad expanse of pasture-land, studded with 
houses and hamlets, enclosed by monotonous chains of mountains, 
and watered by the Rhone, which is, however, seldom visible. 
In front rises the Weisshorn, with its dazzling snow-pyramid; 
behind the traveller the white Galenstock, and to the r. of it the 
Mutthorn. The valley may be divided into three sections, the 
upper extending to Viesch , the second as far as the bridge of 
Grengiols, and the third below this bridge. The inhabitants 
(Rom. Cath.) speak German; the French language commences 
in the neighbourhood of Sion (p. 254). 

At (2 M.) Obergestelen (4450'), Fr. Haut-Chatillon , the 
routes from the Grimsel, Furca, Nufenen (see below), and Gries 
(p. 142) unite. The village was entirely burned down in Sept., 
1868, with the exception of three houses. 

From Obergestelen to Airolo by the Nufenen Pass (9 hrs.), 
rough, uninteresting bridle-path, guide necessary. Commencement of the 
route, see p. 142. Before reaching the Gries Glacier the path leads t.0 the 
1. and crosses the (3>| 2 hrs.) Nufenen-Pass (Nufenen, Novena) (8009'), the 
boundary hetween the cantons of Valais and Tessin, into the Val Bedrelto, 
where Italian is first heard. Immediately below the pass rises an arm of 
the Ticino, the 1. bank of which the path follows as far as the (l 31 * hr.) 
Hospice all' Acqua (5266') (Inn poor, and not moderate), whence another 
path crosses the Pass of S. Giacomo to the Formazza valley and the Tosa 
Falls, see p. 143. The lofty situation of the Bedretto valley renders it 
barren and unfruitful. The winter lasts at least six months, and even in 
summer it. occasionally freezes at night. The slopes of the mountains are 
clothed with wood and pasture, and their summits crowned with glaciers 

140 Route 34. VIESCH. 

and perpetual snow. Avalanches are frequent in spring and winter, the 
snow of which often lies on both banks of the Ticino as late as September. 
(I'Jk hr.) Bedretto (4610'), the principal place jut the valley. On Jan. 7th, 
1863, the W. portion of the village was totally destroyed by an avalanche, 
and 28 of the inhabitants perished. The next place is Villa. Near Ottatco 
(4367') the road crosses to the r. bank of the Ticino. Fontana (II.) is 
next reached, and (3 M.) Airolo (p. 81), 7 31. from Bedretto. 

1^2 M. Ulrichen or UrUchen (4368') (Au Glacier de Gries), 
with its pointed spire , is the next village ; opposite is the 
mouth of the Valley of Eginen (p. 142); then Geschenen (4391'), 
and farther on (4 M. from Obergestelen), Munster (4o97'J (*Got- 
denes Kreuz; one-horse carr. to Brieg 18, to Vispach 20 fr. and 
gratuity), the principal village in the valley. Beautiful view 
from the elevated chapel. 

The 'Loffelhorn (10,138') is occasionally ascended from Munster, ascent 
(6 hrs.) across snow and granite-rocks, view similar to that from the Eggisch- 
horn, with the addition of the Finster-Aarhorn in the foreground. 

The next villages , Recking en , with the handsomest church 
in the valley , Ritzingen (Post) , Biel, Selkingen , and Blitzing en 
are almost contiguous. Before Selkingen is reached, a short-cut 
diverges to the 1., leaving the village to the r. , but the saving 
effected is trifling. 

At (4i/ 2 M.) Niederwald (4052') (Zum Quten Freund) deli- 
cious water bubbles up abundantly under a covering by the side 
of the road. Beyond Niederwald the Rhone forces its way down 
to a lower portion of the valley. The road skirts the slope of 
the hill , through a lonely mountain-valley , and descends at 
first gradually, and then rapidly to 

41/2 M. Viesch, or Fiesch (3816') (Hdtel du Glacier de Vietek; 
Hotel des Alpes, new; in both R. 2, B. l 1 ^, 1). or S. 3 fr.; Soleil; 
one-horse carr. to Brieg 10, Vispach 14, Obergestelen 14,- Ober- 
wald 15, Rhone Glacier 20 fr.), a thriving village in a grand si- 
tuation , over-shadowed by the Viescher Horner (the loftiest of 
which is the Grosse Wannehorn, 13,016'). The Viescher Glacier 
(not to be confounded with that of the same name at Grindel- 
wald, p. 118) extends its two arms towards the valley at this 

From Viesch or Lax by the Albrun-Pass to Andermatteh 
in the Val Formazza (p. 143). Those who, after the ascent of the Eggiscb- 
horn, wish to visit the falls of the Tosa in the Val Formazza , may either 
ascend the Valais and cross the Ories Pass, or proceed to Anflermatten over 
the Albrun-Pass in 1 day (13 hrs.), as follows : From Lax a good new bridle 
path leads by C 3 I* hr-) Autserbinn (3468') to (l'J 4 hr.) Binn (4784'), a village 
in the Binnen-Thal , interesting to mineralogists , where the bridle path' 
ends; »j 4 hr. Imfeld (5075'), '|< hr. pine-forest, 3| 4 hr. chalets, i»|« hr. last 
chalet, 1 hr. summit of the Pass (8005'), the latter portion ot the way 
stony. Then a descent to the Forno Alp, the highest in the Val Devera; 
again an ascent to the Colle de Vanin (fine retrospect of the Val Devera 
and the lake of Codelago), past the Lebendun Lake and down the valley of 
that name to Andermatten (p. 143), 4'/a hrs. from the summit of the pass. 
— The Tosa Falls may be reached from the Lebendun Lake by the direct 
route to the 1. across the Nilfelyiu Fast, and through the Nilftlgiu Valley 
to Moras! and Auf der Fruth (p. 143), a walk of 13 hrs. from Lax. 


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EGGISCHHORV 34. Route. 141 

J! ron " Viesch to Isellc by the Passn del Boccareccio 
(Ritter Pass), a fatiguing, but highly interesting expedition (12— 13 hrs.); 
experienced guide necessary. The route is first through the Binn-Thal 
(see above), whence i| 4 hr. before Binn is reached, it diverges to the r. 
and ascends through the Lang-Thai in 7»| 2 hrs. to the pass (8858') between 
the (r.) Hullehorn (9628') and the (1.) Helsenhorn (10,443') (the latter may be 
scaled without difficulty; magnificent panorama); then a fatiguing descent 
of I" U hr. to the Alp Diveglia (quarters for the night, if necessarv) in the 
Val Cherasca, and through the latter by Trasqvera to Iselle (p. 260). 

From Viesch to Premia b v the Kriegalp Pass, verv fatiguing, 
but picturesque (12—13 hrs.) ; trustworthy guide indispensable. " The route 
ascends the Kriegalp- Thai, a lateral valley of the Lang-Thai, in 7 hrs. to 
the summit of the pass on the N. side of the Kriegalpstock (fine view of 
the Helsenhorn, the ascent of which is more difficult from this point than 
from the Ritter Pass, above mentioned). Descent by the Val Devera to 
Premia in the Val Antigorio (p. 144). 

Very interesting excursion from Viesch to the 


The "Eggischhom (9649') (from Viesch 4>| 2 , descent 3'/a, or by the 
'sliding-route' 2 1 | 2 hrs. ; bridle-path nearly to the summit, horse 10 fr.), is 
a lofty isolated peak, commanding a magnificent prospect (3 hrs. &s far as 
the inn, guide superfluous). 

The path crosses the stream which flows from the Viesch Glacier, 
ascending to the r. past several houses, and then through forest; when the 
latter is quitted, the inn is visible above to the r. Then to the 1., through 
the enclosure of some chalets ; after 5 min., to the 1. , then to the r. past 
two huts. The "HStel et Pension Jungfrau (7150') (R. and B. 3'| 2 , table d'hote 
4 fr.), two-thirds of the way up, is well adapted for a lengthened sojourn ; 
beautiful flora, especially violets and gentians. The bridle-path extends to 
within 'J4 hr. from the summit, to which the pedestrian then scrambles over 
loose rocks (for inexperienced walkers a guide is desirable, 4 fr. from the 
hotel). The summit is pyramidal , covered with large masses of rock , and 
surmounted by a wooden cross. Immediately below the spectator lies the 
little Marjeleii-See (7710'), of a dark green colour, in which huge blocks of 
ice frequently float. In 1870, however, it was dried up. The entire ice-plain 
of the Aletsch Glacier is visible (15 31. long, probably the longest in the 
Alps), as well as the Viesch Glacier. Of the innumerable mountain peaks, 
the most prominent, are : to the r., the Galenstock, Ober-Aarhorn, Finster- 
Aarhorn; in front, the Eiger, Monch, and Jungfrau ; to the 1., the Aletsch- 
horn (13,803'), which next to the Finster-Aarhorn is the highest peak X. 
of the Rhone ; more to the S. the Weisshorn, the conspicuous Matterhorn, 
Mischabel , and Dom (Monte Rosa is concealed by the Mischabel). A still 
more distant snow-peak is said to be the Bosse de Dromadaire of Mont 
Blanc. The view embraces a great part of the Simplon route with the 
Hospice, and of the Valley of St. Nicolaus (p. 268). Consult the panorama. 

If the traveller wishes to reach the valley of the Rhone at a point 
farther down, he should follow the path to Lax, see below, to the r. near 
the chalet below the hotel. The following route is, however, perhaps pre- 
ferable : from the Jungfrau Hotel a direction should be pursued parallel to 
the Rhone hv an almost level path (most beautiful view) over the Bellen 
Alp, with its' small lake (6729', abounding in fish) in 2*\ t hrs. to the Rieder 
Alp, where there is a small, but. comfortable inn (Sepibus), and by Ried 
(3940') down to Morel (see below; in the reverse direction, from Morel to 
the Rieder Alp, 2i( 2 hrs.). — A path from the Rieder Alp, affording varied 
and magnificent views, first ascends the mountain towards the W. for 3/ 4 hr., 
then descends precipitously to the (1>| 2 hr.) Aletsch Glacier, crosses this at 
a perfectly safe place, traversed even by horses, in >J2 hr. , and in 1 hr. 
more reaches the Inn on the Belle Alpe (pension 6 fr.); thence to Brieg, 
(4 hrs. somewhat steep and stony), see p. 257. 

From the Eggischhom to Grindelwald by the Viescherjoch, 
Eigerjoeh, Mbnehsjorh, Jungfraujoch, see p. 119. — From the Eggisch. 

142 Route 34. I. AX. 

horn to t h o O r i m s c 1 by the Oberaarjoch, see p. 135. — From I. a u f. e r 
brunnen to the Eggischhorn by the Lauinenthor, see p. 114. 

From the Eggischhorn to Kippel in the Lotschenthal 
(p. 251) by the Lotschenliicke (10,512') in 12 Ins., with experienced guides, 
down to the Marjelen-See, across the Great Aletsch Glacier to the Liitschen- 
liicke, then a descent over the deeply furrowed Lotschen-Glacier to the 
Lotschenthal. — Another interesting pass to the Lotschenthal is by the 
Beichgrat; from the inn on the Belle Alpe by the Ober Aletsch Glacier 
and Beirhfrni to the culminating point of the Beichgrat (11,762'), between 
the Schienhorn and Lotschthal Breithorn ; then a precipitous descent (in 
all 10 hrs.). 

The carriage-road from Viesch traverses the fertile valley for 
about 2'/2M., passes through Lax (*Kreuz) with its conspicuous 
new church , whence the Eggischhorn may also be ascended in 
4'/ 2 hrs., and then descends by numerous windings (r. Inn 'zum 
Engel') to the bridge of Orengiols (Orangenbriicke), commanding 
a fine view the whole way, with the Weisshorn in the background. 
This bridge spans the Rhone, which here Hows through a rocky 
ravine far beneath. The road then follows the course of the 
river (at first on its 1. bank, afterwards crossing to the r. by 
the h'astenbaum bridge) as far as (5 M. ) Morel (Hotel Eggischhorn). 

The valley widens a little , the road skirting the river which 
here rolls impetuously over sharp fragments of slate rock. Below 
Morel , the Hochfluh Church stands picturesquely on an abrupt 
eminence which almost blocks up the road. In its vicinity, on 
the Matt, stands a solitary inn by the road-side. Farther on. 
the road crosses the Massa, which drains the Great Aletsch 
Glacier. Naters (2543') , a considerable village , surrounded by 
fruit-trees , is commanded by the ruined castles of Weingarten 
and Supersax (auf der Fluh). 

The road now crosses the broad, stony channel of the Rhone, 
and reaches (5 M.) Brieg on the (Simplon route Brieg and 
(4V_>M.) Vispach, see p. 257. 

35. From Obergestelen to Domo d'Ossola. 

The dries Pass. Falls of the Tosa. Val Formazza. 

Comp. Map, p. 138. 
48 M. Two days' 1 journey, quarters for the night at Andermatten. 
From L'lrichen, or Obergestelen, to the Falls of the Tosa and back 12 hrs., 
a fatiguing day's walk. Bridle-path. Guide to Frutwald (10, horse 18 fr.) 
desirable. The new road through the Val Formazza is now finished to a 
point N. of Premia. 

A bridge crosses the Rhone at Obergestelen (p. 139). At 
(10 min.) Im-Loch the path diverges to the 1., into the Eginen- 
Thal (interesting to the geologist), crosses the Eginenbach above 
a picturesque waterfall; next through larch woods, then across a 
barren, stony tract, where the stillness is only broken by the 
whistle of the marmot or the murmur of an occasional waterfall, 
and finally over some green pastures, with scattered chalets (Im- 
Lad or AlMnfftl). where the ascent commences. A short distance 

TOSA FALLS. 35. Route. 143 

beyond the bridge, which is crossed before the chalets are reached, 
the path across the Niifenen Pass (p. 139) to Airolo diverges 
to the 1. The level Ories Glacier is next reached, and is tra- 
versed in about 20 min. The path is here indicated by posts. 
The Gries Pass (80rfl'), the boundary between Switzerland and 
Italy, 4 hrs. from Obergestelen, is surrounded by barren heights. 
The *view of the Bernese Alps in clear weather is unparalleled. 
(From the Gries Glacier a little frequented path leads N.K. 
through the Val Corno to the Hospice all' Acqua in the Val 
Bedretto, p. 139.) 

The descent on the S. side of the pass is , as is often the 
case among the Alps, steeper and more fatiguing than on the N. 
A narrow path to the 1., skirting a precipice, is first followed. 
The Griesbach, which here rises, unites at Kehrbachi (see below) 
with the Tosa (Toce), descending from the Valle Toggia. In 
the upper part of the Formazza valley, 4 distinct regions may be 
distinguished, each with its rude summer habitations for the herds- 
men : Bettelmatt, a single chalet on the upper slope ; Morast on the 
second (the slope between Bettelmatt and Morast is named Wallis- 
bachlen) ; Kehrbachi (a Rialt) and Auf der Fruth (Sulla Frua), on 
the third, with a small chapel, and adjacent to it an inn. The 
latter is situated on the margin of the fourth precipitous slope 
(*H6tel de la Cascade), over which the Tosa, 85' in width, falls 
in 3 cascades , widening as it descends. The *Falls of the 
Tosa are unquestionably among the grandest in the Alps. The 
river precipitates itself majestically over rounded granite walls 
to a depth of about 1000', forming a lofty, unbroken cloud 
of white foam. The environs are rich in Alpine plants. The 
waterfall, which when approached from above is scarcely audible 
until the brink of the precipice is reached, is seen to the best 
advantage from the valley below. 

From the Tosa-Falls to Airolo on the St. Gotthard-road 8 hrs. 
A bridle-path, frequently difficult to trace (guide therefore desirable), but 
presenting no other difficulty, leads from the Val Formazza to the Val 
Bedretto, diverging to the r., by the chapel above the falls, from the path 
to the Gries Glacier; it then ascends the Valle Toggia, at first steep, then 
1 hr. through a grassy valley, enclosed by huge cliffs, where the whistle 
of the marmot is constantly heard. The Fisch-Hee, abounding in trout, lies 
to the r. The traveller next reaches the S. Giacomo Pass (7572'), the 
boundary between Switzerland (Canton of Ticino) and Italy, 3 l /a hrs. from 
the Falls of the Tosa. Below the pass on the N. side, stands the Chapel of 
S. Oiacomo (7369'), where the inhabitants of the valleys annually assemble 
for worship on July 25th. The path descends through a luxuriant growth 
of rhododendrons ; the Val Bedretto and the (1 hr.) Hospice alV Acqua are 
next reached. Hence to Airolo see p. 139. 

Below the Tosa Falls , the Val Formazza , or Pommat , com- 
mences, with the villages (t/ 2 hr.) Fruthwald (in Camscha), Gurf 
(in Grovello) , Zumsteg (al Pont) , with the town-hall and ar- 
chives of the valley , (1 hr.) Andermatten (4078') (*Rossel), Ital. 
alia Chiesa , with the church of the valley, then Staffelwald ($. 

144 Route 35. PREMIA. 

Mirhele). and finally Unterntnlil (Foppiano), 3'/i M. from Ander- 
matten , where German is still spoken; farther on Itali-in only. 
Most of the villages have German , as well as Italian names. 

From the Val Forma z 7. a by the Albrun Pass to Lax or 
Viesch in the Valais, see p. 140. 

The passage from theValFormazza to theValMaggia (p. 370) 
is very fatiguing, with hardly commensurate attraction (from Andermatten 
to Cevin 8 hrs., not without guide): from Stajfelwald a steep ascent of 
3 hrs. to the Criner Furca (7631', beautiful view), descent in t 1 !; hr. to 
Bosco (4931'), also called Crin or Gurin (Inn), the only German village in 
the Canton of Tessin. From Rnseo to Cevio 3>|2 hrs. — Bignasco ('Post), 
lies 1 hr. to the N. of Cevio in a magnificent situation. Diligence from 
Bignasco to Locarno once daily in 3 1 /* hrs., fare 2 fr. 90 c. 

The Defile of Foppiano is imposing. The influence of the 
Italian air now gradually becomes perceptible. The soil is richly 
cultivated, and the vegetation betokens the genial climate of the 
south. Chestnuts, figs, and vines flourish luxuriantly. Near 
Premia is an open chapel with old frescoes. The mica-slate rocks 
between S. Mirhele and Premia (2621'") (*Agnello, R. 1, B. 1, D. 
incl. W. 4 fr. ; carr. to Doma d'Ossola 10, to Vogogna 20 fr.), 
10'/2 M. from Andermatten. (i M. from Crodo, are interspersed with 
red garnets. Below this point the valley of the Tosa is termed 
Val Antigorio, one of the most beautiful among the S. Alps, and 
graced by numerous waterfalls. Road good. (From Premia to 
Viesch by the Kriegalp Pass, see p. 141.) 

The Italian custom-house is at Crodo (Leone d'Oro). The neigh- 
bouring baths are of little importance. The road rejoins the Sim- 
plon route 4'/o M. below Crodo. by the lofty bridge of Crerola, 
at the mouth of the Val di Vedro, near the union of the Diveria 
with the Tosa. (3M.) Domo d'Ossola, see p. 261. 

36. From Thun to Leuk and Susten over the Gemmi. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 66, 146. 

51 31. Diligence every morning 3 hrs. from Thun to (15 31. ) Frutigen, 
returning from Frutigen in 2^2 hrs. One-horse carr. from Thun to YVimmis 
or Spiez 7 fr. — Bv water to Spiez, see p. 103; from Spiez to Frutigen 
10i|-2 31. 

The Gemmi is one of the most remarkable of the Alpine passes , less 
from its picturesqueness than its imposing grandeur. There is a good 
carriage-road as far as Kandersteg f-^ 1 ;? 31.); thence over the Gemmi to 
the Baths of Leuk (6 hrs.) a good bridle-path (guide unnecessary); from 
the Baths of Leuk a good road (7>| 2 M.) descends to the Rhone vallev. 

The first part of the road skirts the Lake of Thun (1824'); 
by the slender tower of (33/ 4 M.) Strattlingen (2218'), before 
which the road to the Simmenthal (p. 152) diverges to the r., 
the Kander is crossed by a lofty bridge. The Kander formerly 
flowed past the \V. side of Strattlingen, joining the Aare below 
Thun , where its deposits of detritus and rubble soon converted 
the once fruitful land into a swamp. A canal (3100' long, 288' 
broad), intersecting the hill of Strattlingen, and now resembling 
a natural channel, was therefore constructed in 1712- — 14. ill 

FRUTIGEN. 36. Route. 145 

order to conduct the water direct to the lake. The detritus, how- 
ever, continues to be deposited as formerly at the mouth of, the 
river, and has formed a delta which annually increases. 

To the 1. , on the lake, rises the castle of Spiez (p. 103). 
Opposite Spiezwyler, through which the road leads, on a height 
near the entrance of the Simmenthal, the castle of Wimmis is 
seen at the N. base of the Niesen (p. 102). The conical Stock- 
horn (p. 103) stands forth prominently from among the opposite 
mountains on the 1. bank of the Simmen. 

Near Muhlenen (2218'), or Mulinen (*Bar, R. li/ 2 , B. 1% 
>S. 2^2 fr- i Z um Niesen; several Pensions), the road crosses the 
Suldbach, whence the Niesen is visible from the base to the 
summit. At the E. base of the mountain lies the Heustrich-Bad 
(omnibus to Thun) , the waters of which resemble those of 
Weissenburg (p. 153). Good bridle-path hence to the Niesen 
(p. 102). 

F r o m 31 ii h 1 e n e n to Interlaken, 13 M., a charming walk. Beyond 
Miihlenen the road ascends to the r. , traversing the hilly district which 
separates the valley of the Kander from the Lake of Thun. 2'|4 51. 
Aeschi (2877') ("Bdi\ carriages to be had), a village on the height, 
commanding an extensive view of the lake ; the road then gradually de- 
scends to (5 31.) Leissigen ( Steinbork), situated on the lake, and then 
skirts the lake as far as (2 31.) Darligen (Hirsch), l'ji M. beyond which 
a finger-post indicates the road fl.) to Unterseen and Interlaken (2 31.), whilst 
that in a straight direction leads to Lauterbrunnen. The latter passes the 
Kleine Rugen (p. 106), the Pension Jungfraublick , and (2 M.) Matten 
(p. 104), where the Jungfrau suddenly appears in all its beauty and grandeur. 
Here the road unites with the Interlaken and Lauterbrunnen road. 

The Gemmi route leaves the picturesque village of Reichen- 
bach at the entrance of the Kienthal (p. 113) to the 1. (magni- 
ficent view of the Bliimlisalp to the 1.), crosses the Kander, and, 
i'/o M. from MiihlSnen, reaches 

"15 M. Frutigen (2267') (Adler; Hotel de VHelvetie; in 
both R. IV2 — 2, B. l'/2> A., '/o fr. ; Pension Bellevue, similar 
charges) , a market-town situated in a fertile district , on the 
Kngstligenbach, which below the village unites with the Kander. 
Beautiful view, especially from the church, of the Kanderthal, 
the Balmhorn , Bliimlisalp, and Altels . and of the Ralligstocke 
(p. 104) in the opposite direction. — Bridle-path to the Niesen, 

see p. 102. 

The valley here divides; the S. arm, through which the Kander flows, 
leads to the Gemmi, the S.W. into the narrow mountain valley of Adel- 
boden, the road to which at first follows the road to Kandersteg, crosses 
the Engstligenbach , and then ('/a 3L) turns to the r. After a steep ascent 
on the r. bank of the brook, Adelboden (4452') (rustic inn by the church) 
is reached in 4>|2 his. In the background of the valley is a beautiful fall 
of the Engstligen. above it the Wildstrubel , to the 1. the Lohner. From 
Adelboden an occasionally marshy path leads over the Hahnenmoos (near 
• the highest point, 6221', a chalet) in 3'| 2 hrs. to Lenk (p. 151). During 
the descent a beautiful view is obtained of the valley of Lenk , the Wild- 
strubel, and Razli Glacier. 

From Adelboden an interesting pass leads E. over the Almengrat, or 
Bonder Chrinne, in 5 — 6 hrs. to Kandersteg. Guide desirable. 

B«dekeb, Switzerland. 5th Edition, 10 

146 Route 3fi. KANDERSTECi. From Thim 

Ovi-r Hie Strubelerkjoch to Sicrre (p. '!')'>) 12 — 13 hrs., a dillieult glacier- 
pass, tor experienced mountaineers (inly, with good guides. 

At Frutigen the road crosses the Engstligeiibach , then the 
Kander, near the picturesque Tellenburg (now a poor-housej, and 
ascends on the r. bank; a / 4 hr., to the r. (on the 1. bank of the 
Kander) the pleasant-looking church and parsonage of Knnder- 
yrund; '/ 4 hr. farther Bunderbach (new Inn). Walk of '20 min. 
hence to the *'Biue Luke , remarkable for its deep blue colour 
and picturesque situation , surrounded by pines and beeches. 
(Afternoon light most favourable; not worth visiting on dull days. J 
Near Mittelholz (Hotel Altels, new) the square tower of the 
Felsenburg is passed. 

7'/o M. Kandersteg (3839*). Hotel V ictoria, at the N. end of 
the village; Bar, '|a M. farther, R. 2'|a, L- 1 jz, B. li,.., A. 1 fr. ; Hotel 
Gemmi, new, well spoken of, R. and A. 2'|-j fr. — Guide (unnecessary) 
to Schwarenbach (3, descent 2 hrs.) 3 fr. ; to the Daube (summit of the pass, 
1, descent 3| 4 h r .) 3'|ii fr. ; to the Baths of Leuk (1, ascent 2'ja hrs.) 6 fr. ; 
horse to Schwarenbach 8, to the Daube 10, to the Baths of Leuk 15 IV., if the 
departure is before 10 o'clock; if at a later hour, 20 fr. A horse should 
be taken to Schwarenbach only, or, at farthest, to the Daube, beyond 
which the abruptness of the descent renders riding unpleasant. Carriage 
to Frutigen, one-horse 7, two-horse 14 fr. ; Tlmn, one-horse 17, two-horse 
34 fr. ; Interlaken, one-horse 25, two-horse 45 fr. ; for the ascent from Fru- 
tigen to Kandersteg 2 fr. more are demanded. 

A magnificent panorama of mountain-scenery is here enjoyed : 
to the N.E. the jagged Birrenhorn; to the E. the glistening 
snow-mantle of the Bliimlisalp or Weisse Frau, the magnificent 
Doldenhom, and the barren Fisistocke; to the S.W., between the 
Leschinenthal and Gasternthal, the lofty Gellihorn. Opposite the 
Victoria Hotel, on the \V. side of the valley, is an ancient mo- 
raine, probably formed by the Bliimlisalp Glacier, now about 
3 M. distant, but which once entirely filled the upper portion 
of the valley. 

To the E. is the Oeschinen-Thal , a valley well worthy of a visit, 
about l'|2 hr. walk (guide l»J a fr. , unnecessary; the traveller follows the 
road on the r. bank of the Oeschinenbach ; horse 6 fr). It is terminated 
by the Oeschinen-See (5210'), 1 JI. in length, 'j a M. in breadth;, and 
enclosed by precipitous rocks, over which waterfalls are precipitated into 
the lake. Lofty mountains tower above the lake , the Weisse Frau , or 
Bliimlisalp (12,041'), and the Freundhorn and Doldenhom (11,965'), both 
ascended for the lirst time in 1862 by Dr. Roth and M. v. Fellenberg (see 
Dr. Roth's interesting description of the expedition : 'Doldenhom and 
Weisse Frau'). A footpath leads hence over the Diindengrat into the A'ien- 
thal, over the Furgge into the Sefinenthal , and to Lauterbrunnen (p. 110). 

From Kandersteg by the Lot sell en pass to Tourtemague 
(in the Valais), see II. 62. 

From Kandersteg over the Tschingel (Kander) Glacier to 
Lauterbrunnen, a most interesting expedition of 15 hrs. incl. halts 
(7 his. on the ice), for practised mountaineers only; experienced guides 
necessary (at Selden the brothers Kuemi, at Lauterbrunnen Chr. and Ulrich 
Laueuer). The previous night may , if necessary , he spent at Seidell (bed 
of hay), or at Trachsellauincn (p. I12|. From (2 hrs.) Selden in 3 -i hr. to 
the Alpelli Glacier, the W. arm ol the Kander Glacier. Then a fatiguing 
walk of 2 hrs. over the lateral moraine on the S. margin of the glacier; 
Dually an ascent, skirting precipitous slopes, to the Kander lilucier, properly 
so called, an interminable expanse of snow and ice, from which on the 1, 


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to Leak. 36. Route. 147 

the abrupt rocky walls of the Blttmlisalp (12,041'j rise. Then a gentle 
ascent of li| 2 hr. to the base of the Multhoni (9958'), and between the latter 
(r.) and the Qamchiliieke (1.1 in 2 hrs. more to the T selling eltritt, a precipice 
2000" high, skirting which the route descends across the Lower Tschingel 
Glacier (i| 2 hr.) to the Cj 2 hr.) Steinberg Alp (p. 113). Thence a direct 
footpath to Miirrei) (2>|a hrs.), uniting near the fall of the Sefine (p. 112) 
with the broader path from Stechelberg and Gimmelwald to Miirren. 

The road beyond Kandersteg continues as broad as before 
till it arrives at the (l»/ 2 M.) bridge, beyond which it contracts, 
but still cannot be mistaken. At the base of the mountain is 
the Bar inn (see above). The ascent soon begins ; to the r. is 
the brook which issues from the Ueschinenthal, with some incon- 
siderable falls; 10 min., a sign-post 'to Wallis', where the path 
to the 1. , not that in a straight direction, must be taken; V^hr., 
a pure spring on the 1. The path winds upwards beneath the 
Gellikorn , by a mountain slope which apparently terminates the 
valley. The path, here lately reconstructed, now ascends to the 1., 
quitting the old track, which winds upwards in a straight direction, 
at the fir-wood beyond a clearing; it leads through a pine-forest 
at a great elevation, commanding a fine view of the Oasternthal 
(p. 252) to the 1., and the mountains which enclose it. When 
the path reaches the level pastures, it re-unites with the old track, 
and traverses the Winteregmatt (6397'). Then, 27a hrs. from 
Kandersteg, the chalets of Spitalmatt (6230'), or Spittelmatt, are 
seen to the r. To the E., between the snowy Altels (11,923') 
and the black, rocky peak of the Kleine Rinderhom (9876') 
(to the S. is the snowy cone of the Orosse Rinderhom, 11,372'), 
lies embedded the Schwarze or Sagi Olacier. commanded on the 
E. by the Balmhorn (see below). The glacier is drained by »he 
Schwarzbuch, or the Spittelmatt Data. Then over a stony wil- 
derness, the scene of a landslip. 

The -Balmhorn (12,100'), the loftiest peak of the Altels group, may 
be ascended hence without danger in 5—6 hrs. (guide necessary). The 
magnificent panorama from the summit comprises the entire range of the 
Alps of Bern and the Valais, and extends to N. Switzerland. 

The inn of Schwarenbach (6778') is next reached (Irom 
Kandersteg 3, hence to the Baths of Leuk 27 4 hrs.). 

After i/> hr. the path skirts the muddy Daubensee ((23o') 
(1 M. in length, 10 to 20' deep), formed by the waters of the 
Lammeren Glacier (see below), with no visible outlet, and 
generally frozen for seven months in the year. 

The new and well-constructed path leads on the E. bank of 
the lake, at a considerable height above it, to (10 min.) the 
summit of the pass, termed the Daube (7553') or Gemmi, 
situated immediately beneath the Daubenhorn (9449 ), the 
barren limestone -rocks of which rise abruptly to the r. A 
magnificent *view of part of the Rhone Valley and the Alps of 
the Valais is obtained from a slight eminence a few minutes 
walk from the pass, to the 1. of the path. The lofty group of 
mountains to the extreme 1. are the Mischabelhorner ; farther to 


148 Route 36. BATHS OF LEUK. From Thun 

the r. rises the mighty Weisshorn , then the Bruneckhom , the 
pyramid of the Matterhorn , and still more to the r. the Dent 
Blanche. At a giddy depth below , the traveller perceives the 
Baths of Leuk, and beyond them Inden (p. 149). To the W. 
rise the moraines of the Lammeren Glacier, extending nearly to 
the pass ; above the glacier a glistening snow-peak , and near it 
the huge rocks of the Wildstrubel (10,715'). Rare flora. 

About 5 min. below the pass is a stone hut for the protec- 
tion of the sheep in bad weather, on the brink of an abrupt 
abyss. On the face of an almost perpendicular rock, 1800' in 
height, the Cantons of Bern and Valais constructed this path, in 
1736—41, one of the most remarkable of Alpine routes, from 
this point to Leuk 10,784' in length. The windings are skilfully 
hewn in the rock , and occasionally resemble a spiral staircase, 
the upper parts in some places actually projecting beyond the 
lower. The most precipitous portions are protected by parapets. 
Although the path appears so unprotected when seen from 
below, the ascent is really unattended with danger; even those 
unaccustomed to such giddy heights may safely ascend (2 hrs.) 
and even descend (^/^ hr. to the base of the precipice. */ 4 hr. 
more to the Baths), but it is prudent to be accompanied by a 
guide. The descent on horseback should be avoided. In 1861 
a Comtesse d'Herlincourt fell from her saddle over the precipice 
and was killed on the spot. Invalids who come from the N. to 
visit the Baths, and are desirous of avoiding the long circuit by 
Freiburg, Yevay, and Martigny , may be conveyed over the 
Gemmi in a litter. The regulations require 4 bearers to attend each 
litter; for a person of more than usual weight, 6; and for a 
'poids extraordinaire', 8. The openings in the enclosures of the 
meadows at the S. base of the Gemmi are employed to facilitate 
the counting of the sheep. 

The Baths of Leuk (4642'), or Lo'eche-les-Bains. 'Hotel 

des Alpes, commanding a beautiful view, is also the post-office (the 
diligence, also stops at the Hotel de France); Belle vue; opposite tn 
it, Grand Bain; "Hotel de France; all very similar, pension in each 
6 fr. ; for casual visitors K. l'|j to 2. B. l']j, table d'hote at 11 and 
6 o'clock 4, A. '|j fr. ; Union, pension 5 fr. ; "H o t e 1 B runner (comfor- 
table) , similar charges; Croix Fe'derale, unpretending; Maiaon 
Blanche. — Telegraph Office open during the season. — Horse to Kan- 
dersteg 15, Schwarenbach 6, Daube 5 fr. ; Porter to Kandersteg G, 
Schwarenbach 4, Daube 3, foot of the Oenimi 2 fr. — Post Omnibus 
from July to Sept. 15th (twice daily) from the Baths to Leuk, Susten 
(5 fr. , coupe" 6'|2 fr), and Sierre (8 fr. , coupe' 10 fr.) , descending in 5 l |a, 
ascending in 7 hrs. (8fr. , coupe" 10 fr.). Also private omnibuses of the 
Hotels des Alpes and Brunner. — One-horse carriage to Susten 10, Sierre 
16, Sion 25, Vispach 22, Brieg 30 fr. ; two horse carr. about one-third more. 
Loeche-les-Bains, a small village consisting chiefly of wooden 
houses, with 550 (Rom. Catli.) inhab. , situated amidst green 
pastures in a mountain valley only open to the S., and watered 
by the Dala. lies 2910' below the Daube (Gemmi), and 2590' 

to Leuk. TORRENTHORN. 36. Route. 149 

above the Rhone. In July and August the Baths are much fre- 
quented, especially by French, Swiss and Italians. Many of the 
hotels, and even some of the houses, are open only from the 
beginning of June to the end of Sept. ; the Hotel de France and 
Brunner, however, remain open till December. The strong em- 
bankment to the E. serves as a protection against avalanches. 
Even in the height of summer the sun is not visible after 5 p. m. 
By moonlight the huge , perpendicular wall of the Gemmi pre- 
sents a weird aspect. 

The Springs, 22 in number, rise in and near the village, and are so 
abundant that nine-thenths of the water flow unused into the Data. They vary 
in strength and temperature (93 — 123°), the Lorenz Spring being the most 
powerful. In order to avoid the tedium of a long and solitary immersion, 
the patients sit up to their necks in water in a common bath, clothed in 
long flannel dresses, and thus remain for several hours together. Every 
bather has a small floating table before him, from which his book, 
newspaper, or coifee is enjoyed ; reading and conversation go on as in an 
ordinary room, and as the patients come from all parts of Europe, the 
Babel of tongues can be more easily imagined than described. The utmost 
order and decorum are preserved. Travellers are admitted to view this 
singular and somewhat uninviting spectacle. The suffering frame will 
undergo much in the pursuit of health, otherwise the Baths of Leuk would 
soon be deserted. — The old bath-house, opposite to the new, contains 
baths only 2'jt ft. in depth, now used by the poorer classes. All the 
baths are open from 4 to 10 a. m., and from 2 to 5 p. m. 

Excursions. A walk, partially shaded, leads from the promenade 
(beautiful view of the r. bank of the Dala) to the foot of a lofty precipice 
(l'|j hr.) on the 1. bank of the Dala. The traveller then ascends by 8 
rude Ladders (echelles), attached to the perpendicular face of the rock, 
to the path at the summit, which conducts him in 1 hr. to the village of 
Albinen, or Arbignon (4252')- Those whose heads are to be mistrusted 
should forego this undertaking ; the more adventurous will be sufficiently 
repaid by the beautiful view from the second ladder. The descent is 
more difficult than the ascent. 

Other excursions are: to the Fall of the Dala, l W hr., Dala Glacier 
(with guide), 2>| 2 hrs., Torrent- Alp, l'| a hr. The 'Torrenthorn (9679') 
commands a magnificent prospect of the snow-mountains and glaciers of 
the Bernese Oberland, and of the entire chain of the Pennine Alps from 
Jlonte Rosa to Mont Blanc ; the ascent may be accomplished in 3—4 hrs. ; 
the traveller can ride to the summit (horse 8 fr. ; fee 1 fr.). Guide not 
necessary, but agreeable (boy from the village 3 — 4 fr.). Travellers 
desirous of avoiding the same route for the descent , may cross the 
Maing - Glacier (guide indispensable). Those who come from the Rhone 
Valley, and wish to visit Albinen and the Torrenthorn, effect a consi- 
derable saving by proceeding direct from the village of Leuk (see below) 
to Albinen ; thence with guide by Chermignon to the Torrenthorn, descend- 
ing to the Baths of Leuk. The Galmhorn (8081'), near Chermignon, is 
also frequently ascended. 

The carriage-road to Leuk and the Rhone valley, one of the 
most interesting amongst the Alps, crosses the Dala immediately 
below the Baths, and, skirting the r. bank at a great elevation, 
descends to (4 M.) Inden (3858') (*Inn); after a short distance 
it recrosses to the 1. bank of the Dala, and commands a series 
of magnificent views of the Dala ravine, the opposite mountains, 
and the little village of Albinen. The traveller may avail him- 
self of the old bridle-path from Inden to the vicinity of the 
Dala-bridge, which is y 2 hr. shorter. 

150 Route 36. LEUK. 

The Bridle-path to Sicrro, for pedestrians proceeding to .Sinn 
and Martigny, quits the road to the r., tiy a slate quarry, 8 min. before 
reaching the last-mentioned bridge, and skirts the brink of a precipice on 
the r. bank of the Dala. In 12 min. a small tunnel is reached, and in 2 
min. more a second. Above the dirty, but picturesquely situated ( 3 [« hr.) 
village of Varen (2388), at the extreme brink of the ravine, where it 
forms a right angle with the valley of the Rhone, a, striking view is ob- 
tained of this valley, 45 SI. in length, from Vispach to Martigny; also of 
the singular-looking Forest of Pfyn, and the huge yellow crater of the 111- 
graben on the opposite mountains. Then , in >|< hr. more, to Salgeiclt 
(2016'). 3 \t hr. and Sierre, see p. 255; from Inden (see above) to Sierre 2i| 2 
hrs. (Driving is, however, preferable to walking, especially in the reverse 

The carriage - road to Leuk at the mouth of the Dala ravine 
still remains high above the Rhone Valley. A beautiful view of 
the Rhone Valley as far as Martigny is here disclosed. The de- 
scent is highly attractive. The old bridle-path to the 1. of the 
custom-house at Inden, which rejoins the high-road near the 
bridge, and, beyond the bridge, a path descending to the r. to Leuk, 
are short-cuts. Distance from the Baths to the Rhone-bridge 8 M. 

Leuk, or Loeche-Ville (26080 (Couronne), is a maTket-town 
(pop. 1220), situated on a height, and commanded by a pictu- 
resque old castle. Here, IV4 M. from the Rhone, the wine-dis- 
trict commences. The high-road (p. 255) leads through the little 
village of Susten (*Hotel de la Souste), situated on the opposite 
bank of the Rhone (2051'). 

The dusty high-Toad in the Rhone Valley (p. 255), which 
averages 3 M. in breadth, and is frequently rendered marshy by 
inundations, forms, an unpleasing contrast to the magnificent 
route over the Gemmi and through the valley of the Dala, and 
is of course unsuitable for pedestrians. Diligence twice a day in 
the Rhone Valley between Sierre and Brieg (R. 63). Onehorse 
carr. from Susten to Vispach 8, to the Baths of Leuk 15 fr. 

37. From Than to Sion. Grimmi. Eawyl. 

Comp. Map, p. 146. 

63 M. From Lenk to Sion (lO'fe hrs.) a new bridle-path, tolerably 
good on the Bern side, but somewhat rugged on the side of the Valais. 
A very interesting route. Guide not absolutely necessary. 

The best means of reaching Lenk is by the Thun and Ges- 
scney diligence as far as Zweisimmen (in 5'/o hrs., fare 5 fr. 55 c.) 
(see p. 152), whence a good road (diligence once daily in l 3 / 4 , 
returning in l 1 /* hr.) ascending the Upper Simmenthal leads by 
(3 M.) St. Stephan (Falke), (3 M.) Matten to (3 M.) Lenk, the 
starting-point for the passage of the Rawyl. 

Another route, a foot-path, now little frequented, leaves the post- 
road near Latterbach (p. 153), crosses the Simmen, then the C/iirel, which 
flows through the valley of Diemtigen, and leads to (^4 hr.)Diemtigen(.ffiVsi7/). 
On rise the ruinsof the castle of Grimwenxteiii, or Hasenbvrg. Near 
(2 hrs.) Narrenbach (3829') the smiling valley of Mannigrund opens to 
the r. ; (3| 4 hr.) Thiermatten (3829' ), with a village inn, laces liieSchurtenfluli, 
or Schorrifluh; '|j hr. farther the valley divides; the E. part is called the 

RAWYL. 37. Route. 151 

Si-liuwudenllial; the W., which is now followed, is a continual ascent as 
tar as the (2 hrs.) Grimmi (7156'), a rugged pass, seldom traversed, and 
almost entirely destitute of view ; the path then descends through the 
fertile valley of Fennel to (2 hrs.) Matten, a village in the Upper Simmen- 
thal, on the Zweisimmen road to (3 3 \t M.) Lenk. 

Lenk (3527') (Krone, pension 372 to 5 fr. ; Bar; Stern) is 
completely surrounded by lofty mountains and glaciers. About 
'/» M. from the village, at the base of the Hohliebe, is situ- 
ated the *Lenk Sanitary Estab. (R. 2, A. '/ 2 > L. i/ 2 , B - * fr -)> 
sulphur -baths, recently fitted up. The majestic Wildstrubel 
(10,272'), the snows and glaciers of which cover a long ridge 
of grey rocks , and are the source of numerous brooks , presents 
a very imposing aspect. 

From Lenk to Gsteig 6'|i hrs.: in 4'|« hrs. W. by the TriUUis- 
berg to Lauenen (4134') ("Bar, rustic inn, pension 3 l |2 fr.); thence by 
the Chrinnen (5430') in 2'|j hrs. to Gsteig (p. 155); some parts of the route 
very attractive, see R. 39. 

From Lenk to Gesseney (p. 154) 4'|s hrs., foot-path, crossing the 
Reulisenberg or the Zwiizer Egg, afterwards through the Turbach Valley. 

The Simmen takes its rise 6 31. to the S. of Lenk, near the glacier of 
Itiizli. An excursion (4 hrs. there and back) to its source, termed the 
'Siebeii Brunnen' (Seven Fountains, 4770'; guide unnecessary), will 
well repay the pedestrian. He may in 2 hrs. reach the chalet (milk, 
coffee, etc.) to the rear of the Riizlibery (6138'), which here intercepts 
the view of the valley. To the S. is seen the precipitous Razli-Glacier, 
at the foot of which, almost at the bottom of the valley, 10 min. from the 
chalet, are situated the so-called Seven Fountains, which in point of fact 
are only one, springing from the rock; more to the 1. is the upper Fall of 
the Sitnmen. To the r. of the glacier rise the Lavfbodenhorn (8901') and 
the Gletscherhorn (9629') ; above the Seven Fountains, the sharp peak of 
the Seehorn; to the 1. above the upper fall, the Ammerten/iorn (87:27') (the 
Wildstrubel behind it is only visible from a lower point of the valley). 
The experienced pedestrian may ascend the summit of the Wildstrubel 
with two guides from the chalet in 5 hrs. 

From Lenk to Sion lO'/a hrs. The road , at first practicable 
for carriages, passes the parsonage-house, and leads to the valley 
of the Iffigenbach, and, on the 1. bank of the brook, to the (IV2 nr 
imposing Fall of the Iffigenbach, the spray of which rises like 
a cloud of dust almost to the point from which it is precipitated. 

For 1/4 hr. the road mounts the rock above the fall , and in 
i / i hr. more leads to the chalets of Iffigen (6841') (rustic inn), 
situated in a basin resembling that of the Baths of Leuk. 

Leaving Iffigen , the road leads for a short distance through 
a small wood, ascending a stony slope (where it cannot be miss- 
ed), and finally terminating in a path cut in the side of a per- 
pendicular rock. The ascent (l 3 /4 hr.) to the summit of the 
pass , whence a beautiful view is enjoyed over Lenk and the 
mountains of the Simmenthal, is unattended with danger. Below 
the pass is a hut for shelter, where wood may be found for 
making a fire. To the W. of the little Lake of Rawyl Q/ t hr.) 
a cross, indicating the boundary of Bern and Valais, and at the 
same time the highest point of the Rawyl (7428'), is attained. 
The path now traverses the most picturesque scenery , and in 

152 Route 38. AYENT. 

3 /4 hr. the verge of the S. declivity is reached; to the N.W. is 
the long ridge of the Mittughorn (Shi2')\ to the \V. the Schneide- 
horn (9652'); to the S.W. the Wildhorn, completely covered with 
glaciers and snow (10, 722'), and the broad Rawylhom (9541'); 
to the S.K. the Wetzsteinhom (9134'); to the K. the Rohrbuch- 
stein (9626') (ascent from the Rawyl pass in 2 hrs. , extensive 
view, from Monte Leone to the Matterhorn) ; to the N.K. the 
extremities of the glaciers of the \Yei.i*hom (98H2'), a wild and 
savage scene, of the same character as the (iemrni, hut with more 
variety. A second small lake, often nearly dry, is passed before 
the path reaches the S. slopes, which command a magnificent view 
of the valley and the mountains of the Yalais, especially the Matter- 
horn and its \V. neighbours. 

The descent is now made by a zigzag path along the preci- 
pitous white rocks, to the dirty chalets of ( 1 hr.) Nieder-Rawyl, 
Fr. Us Ravins; the path continues to the r. on the slope of the 
mountain, as far as a spring ( '/-2 hr.) , shortly before which a 
bridle-path diverges to the r. , ascending the opposite height in 
the direction of Ayent (3 hrs. ) (accommodation and excellent 
Yalais wine at the cure's). 

The footpath, shorter by 1 hr., by the so-called 'Jiandle' ( = channel] 
is only practicable for travellers thoroughly accustomed to such giddy 
altitudes. In order to convey water to the opposite side of the mountain, 
a channel has been cut in the rock at the height of 130U', overhanging 
the precipice, and generally not exceeding 1' in width, which also serves 
as a path. At one place, the water is conveyed across the abyss by a 
wooden pipe, and a single plank is the only means of crossing it. This 
path perhaps presents more apparent than actual dangers, but it is not 
easy to divest the mind of all apprehension whilst traversing it. In 
3 |i hr. the bridle-path is rejoined, From this point to Aiient the track is 
broad and easy. 

From Ayent in 2 hrs. by Grimisuat, tier. Grimsein (2720'), 
to Sion (1732'), see p. 254. 

38. From Thun to Gesseney by the Simmenthal. 

34>j2 31. Diligence once daily direct in 8'|« hrs., and once daily 
spending the night at Zweisimmen. 

From the Bernese Oberland to the Lake of (tencva the 
following beautiful route is strongly recommended to pedestrians I'JI hrs. 
from Interlaken to Aigle; the whole journey may be performed on horse- 
back; guides superfluous, exeept between Adelhoden and Lauenen). Four 
moderate days 1 walk : 1st day. From Thun or Interlaken by carriage 
to Frutigen [or by the first steamboat to Spiez (p. U'3j, and on foot in 
3'la hrs. to Frutigen (see p. 145)]; tlience on foot in 4 ■ l-j hrs. to Adelboden 
(p. 145j. — 2nd. On foot in 3 hrs. over the ilahncnmoos (p. 145j to Lenk 
(p. 151), and excursion (of 5 hrs.) to the .Seven Fountains (p. 101). 
3rd. On foot in 7'J2 hrs. over the Triittlisberg and the Chiinnen (p. 151) 
to CSsteig (p. 155). — 4th. On foot in 8 hrs. over the t'ol de 1'illon (p. 155) 
(or by carriage from the Hotel des Diahlerets or from Sepey) to Aigle 
(p. 2U0), whence the traveller may proceed by railway to the Lake of 
llcneva, or to Jlartigny, or Sion in the valley of the Rhone. 

The road traverses a fertile valley (p. 145) as far as (iwutt, 
ascending thence in the direction of the Nieseii. and affording a 

WEISSENBURG. 38. Route. 153 

beautiful view of the Stockhorn on the r. and the Bernese Alps 
on the 1. ; the valley is watered by the Kander. 

The diligence makes a short halt at the village (G'/o M.J 
of Brothausi (*Hirsch) , the picturesque old castle near which, 
rising on a mountain slope, is now occupied by the authorities of 
the district. (Wimmis and the Niesen, see p. 101.) The road then 
passes through a defile into the Simmenthal , a rich and fruitful 
valley, studded with numerous villages , and carpeted with well- 
cultivated gardens and pastures extending to the summits of the 
mountains, which are partially crowned with forests. The channel 
of the Simmen lies far below. 

Near (8'/4 M.') Latterbach the valley of Diemtigen opens, 
see p. 150. (2 l / t M.) Erlenbach (2428'j (? Krone, R. 1, B. li/ 4 
fr. ; Lowe, R. 1 fr.), with well constructed wooden houses, is the 
usual starting-point for the ascent (3^2 hrs.) of the Stockhorn 
(p. 145); descent by the Wahlalp , Buntschi , and the Baths of 
Weissenburg, which are reached on this side by means of ladders. 
A short distance farther, the road passes through 

Weissenburg ('2418') (*Post), containing a few houses only. 
Beyond , in a gorge seldom penetrated by the rays of the sun, 
2 M. to the N.W. , are the much frequented Sulphur - Baths of 
Weissenburg ('2940'), or Buntschi (82° Fahr.J. Bath-house at the 
entrance of the gorge. Room and bath 2 — 3, pension 3 fr. per day. 

Near Boltigen (2782') (*Bar), a village of some pretensions, 
mid-way between Weissenburg and Zweisimmen, two rocks seem 
to obstruct the passage ; this spot is termed the Simmeneck or 
Enye. Above the village rise the bald peaks of the Mittagsfluh; 
in 1846 a wood at the foot of this mountain was destroyed by 
a landslip to the 1. are the snow-fields of the Rawyl (p. 151), 
beyond the mountains in the foreground. 

A coal-mine is worked in a side-valley near Reidenbach 
( 3 /4 M. from Boltigen), which accounts for the sign (a miner) 
of the inn. 

F rom Reidenbach to B ulle (p. 157) two direct mountain-paths lead 
in 8 hrs. ; one by the Klus, the other by the Bddermoos. The first is some- 
what rugged, but picturesque ; the second traverses beautiful pasture-lands 
and pine forests (guide from Boltigen to the top of the Badermoos 1 fr.). 
The path unites with that from Ablantschen , 3 \i hr. before Jaun is reached. 
The village of Jaun (3817') (Inn, rustic and unpretending; cattle-markets 
of some importance are held here), in the Canton of Freiburg, 3 hrs. from 
Boltigen, is situated in a very beautiful district, not far from a picturesque 
cascade, forming a column of water SO' high. A rough path to Char- 
mey, Ger. Oalmers (2>|2 hrs.) (2956'; two good inns), traverses the 
beautiful Valley of Jaun, rich in pastures, where a superior quality of 
tiruyere cheese is made (p. 158). Beautiful view near the church, the 
path next leads to Cresus and Chatel, and passes the ruins of Monlsalvens 
(rare plants); then, crossing the Jaun, to Broc; the Sarine is also crossed, 
and finally 1 hr. through a forest. — From Cresus a picturesque bridle- 
path (3'|2 hrs.) leads by Cerniat, the ancient monastery of Valsaiiite, and 
the Ghessalle - Eck (4659 ft.) to the Black Lake (lac Soir), surrounded by 
lofty precipices. On the \V. bank are the sulphureous Bains de Domene, 
recently fitted up. 

154 Route 38. CHATEAU UUJLA. 

The high-road crosses the Sirnmen, and turns abruptly round 
a prominent rock (the Laubeckstalden). To the 1. are the ruins 
of the two castles of Mannenburg. 

lit/4 M. Zweisimmen (32150 (Bar; *Krone, with pension 
attached, 4 fr.), a village at the confluence of the Great and 
Kittle Simmen. The Castle of Blankenburg, a prison, and resi- 
lience of the bailiff, is situated on a neighbouring height (not 
visible from the road), on the road to Lenk (p. 151) (8 M. 

The road ascends gradually for nearly 6 M. To the 1. runs 
the Little Simmen , in a valley wooded with pines ; five or six 
deep ravines are crossed. After an ascent (*Inn) begin the 
Saanen - Moser (4226'), a broad and beautiful Alpine valley, 
sprinkled in the direction of Gesseney with innumerable chalets 
and cottages. A magnificent view is gradually disclosed of the 
Riiblehorn, or Dent de Chamois (7569 r ), which serves as a baro- 
meter to the surrounding country (comp. p. 54), the jagged ridge 
of the Gumfluh (8068'), beyond it the snow-flelds of the San- 
etsch, and finally, to the 1., the huge Oelten Olaeier (p. 155). 

8i/ 2 M. Gesseney, Ger. Saanen (33560 (*Orand Logis, R. 
V/2, L. and A. 1, D. 3fr.; *Ours, unpretending; one-horse carr. 
to Thun 25 fr.), is the principal place in the valley of the Upper 
Saane (Sarine), with 3639 inhab. (11 Rom. Cath.), who are ex- 
clusively occupied in cattle-breeding and in the manufacture of the 
celebrated Gruyere Cheese. Vacherin , a kind of cream-cheese, 
is also highly esteemed. A few houses only are built of stone, 
among them the tower of the prison to the E. The wide brown 
jackets without sleeves, commonly worn by the men, are quaint; 
and among the fair sex an unusual number of pretty faces and 
comely figures may be observed. 

From Gesseney to Gsteig, and over the Sanetsch to 
Sion, see p. 156. From Gsteig over the Col de Pi 11 on to Aiglc, 
see below. 

From Gesseney to Aigle by Chateau d'Oex (28'js M.). Dili- 
gence twice daily in l'| 3 hr. from Gesseney by Rougemont, Ger. Rothtnbeiy, 
the frontier between the cantons of Bern and Vaud, and between the 
German and French languages, to (6 3 |« 51.) Chateau d'Oez, Ger. Oetch 
(3261') ("Htlel Berthod, well situated on a grassy plateau ; Hdtel de VOurs, 
R. l'|j, B. l'| 4 fr. ; Maison de Ville; "Hdtel Rosaz du Midi, in each 4 fr. per 
day. Ices, also a few private apartments, at Turrian's, opposite Berthod), 
a scattered village, rebuilt since a conflagration in 1800. The new road 
hence to Aigle is traversed by a diligence once daily in 6'|j hrs. The road 
to Jlontbovon and Bulle is followed as far as (»| 4 M.) Le Prt and (»|i M.) 
Let Moulint, where the new road diverges to the 1., and ascends the valley 
of the Tournereue ( ValUe d^Etivaz) by long windings. (Pedestrians should 
follow the old road, which diverges at Le Prt, immediately beyond the 
bridge over the Sarine.) The road runs at a considerable height above 
the valley, and affords picturesque views of the profound and rocky bed 
of the brook. At (3»| t M.) Au-Devant the road emerges from the gorge, 
and its continuation is visible high up on the mountain to the r. It 
remains, however, in the valley as far as &/ t M.) Etivaz (3865'), where it 
turns and quits the ravine. Pedestrians avoid this long bend of the road 
by a rugged and stony path descending to the r. at a saw-mill in the 

TUL l»j ri^LuIv 39. Route. 155 

vallcv, and ascending to the road at a point considerably higher. From 
Etivaz to the top of the hill 2i|i M. ; 3| 4 M. farther La LechereUe (4519')-, 
then (l>|s SI.) Les Masses (inn), whence a magnificent view of the Dent 
du Midi is enjoyed. The road now descends the valley of the brook La 
Raverette, and next reaches (2'|4 M.) La Comballaz (4416') ( ::: Lys, pension 
5 — 8 fr., much frequented for its mineral spring and invigorating mountain 
air, and a favourite resort of mountaineers ; but rooms often not procura- 
ble unless previously ordered). Beyond this the road commands a fine 
survey of a very picturesque basin, with the Diablerets and Oldenhorn 
in the background. 3 51. Le Sepey (3675') (Hotel deiAlpes; Cerf, new. well 
situated, pension 4 — 5 fr.); hence to (7 M.) Aigle, see p. 156. 

39. From Gesseney to Aigle over the Col de Pillon. 

Comp. Map, p. 146. 

32 II. Diligence between Gessenej and (9 M.) <1steig, bridle-path 
thence to (3 hrs.) Ormont-dessus, diligence several times daily between 
Ormont-dessus and (15 51.) Aigle. — Guide unnecessary. One-horse carr. 
from the Hotel des Diablerets to Aigle 15 fr. 

Gesseney, see p. 154. Near (2^4 M.) Gstaad (Bar; the road 
ascends to the S. into the valley of the Sarine , the upper part 
of which bears the name of Gsteigthal. At Gstaad the Valley of 
Lauenen opens to the S.E., 12 M. in length. It is one of the most 
picturesque in the Oberland , abounding in cascades , and small 
lakes, and terminated by the magnificent Oelten Glacier; the view 
towards the glacier is especially beautiful from the hill at the 
commencement of the Lake of Durren. 

63/ 4 M. Gsteig, Fr. Chdtelet (3937') (Bar, R. 1, B. li/ 4 fr.J, 
in a wild and grand situation. From the marshy valley rise the 
precipitous Sanetschhorn (9426') and the Oldenhorn (10,250'), 
which almost entirely hide the rays of the sun from the village 
during the winter. 

The path here turns to the S. W., ascends the valley of the 
Reuschbach through woods and pastures , commanding a view of 
the precipices of the Oldenhorn and Sex Rouge, whence several 
waterfalls are precipitated, and reaches (2 hrs.) the summit of the 
Col de Pillon (5092'). During the descent (pedestrians may 
frequently avail themselves of short cuts) a view is disclosed of 
a valley surrounded by picturesque , wooded mountains , and 
studded with innumerable houses and chalets, known collectively as 
Ormont-dessus (3832 ft.) ; in the background rise the peaks of the Tour 
a" Ay. To the 1. the rocky Creux de Champ, the base of the 
Diablerets , from which numerous brooks precipitate themselves, 
forming the Grande-Eau, which waters the Ormont valleys and 
falls into the Rhone below Aigle. Then a descent of 3'/ 2 M. 
to the *H6tel des Diablerets (R. l'/-2, B. V/ 2 , L. and A. 1, pen- 
sion 5 fr.), at the W. base of the Pillon. The hotel is l 1 ^ M 
distant from Vers I'Eglise (*H6tel de l'Ours, also a Pension ; Cerf, 
pension 3^2 fr.), the largest of these scattered villages. 

F r o m r m o n t - d e s s u s t o G r y o n by the Pas de Is Croix 
3'|2 hrs., or by Arveyes (see below) 4 hrs.; a beautiful walk, guide un- 
necessary. From the" Hotel des Diablerets the traveller ascends the valley 

156 Route 39. ORMONT-DESSONS. 

of the Grande Eau for '/* hr., and then enters a lateral valley by a bridle- 
path to the r. (S.W.). Alter a somewhat steep ascent of I 3 /* hr., during 
which a line retrospect of the Diablerets is frequently obtained, the sum- 
mit of the Pas de la Croix (5705') is attained ; several houses lie to the 1. 
The traveller should descend hence by the r. bank of the Qryonne for 
about 1 hr., till within >|4 hr. walk from Arveiim (l'\t hr. from the pass), 
and then descend to the 1. ; the brook is soon crossed, and Oryon is 
reached in 20 min. (p. 243). This route is preferable to that which leads 
more directly to Gryon on the 1. bank of the brook, on account of the 
magnificent view it commands of the Dent du Midi, Dent de Morcles, Grand 
Moveran, and the Argentine. 

The Oldenhorn (10,250') is frequently ascended for the sake of the 
magnificent view it commands ; guides (necessary) may be found at Gsteig 
and at the Hotel des Diablerets (10—12 fr.). Ascent from Gsteig in 7, 
descent 4'/a hrs. ; from the hotel ascent S, descent 5'|2 hrs. The excursion 
is unattended with danger, but requires a steady head and sure foot. The 
paths unite at the chalets of the Obere Oldenalp (Alpine fare only), where 
the night is usually passed. 

Immediately adjoining are the houses of the 
lower part of the valley, known as Ormont-dessous, where the 
following inns are much frequented in summer: Hotel des Alpes; 
Mont d'Or, well spoken of; *Trois Suisses, moderate; one-horse 
carr. to the Hotel des Diablerets 8 fr. , and a gratuity of 2 fr. 
About -i'/o M. from Vers l'Eglise the road unites with that from 
Chateau d'Uex (p. 154), and turns to the S.W.; l»/ 2 M. farther 
is Le Sepey (3453'), the principal village in the lower part of the 
valley (p. 155). Far below, at the base of the precipitous and beauti- 
fully wooded rocks, the Grande-Eau forms several waterfalls; 
opposite rises the imposing Chamossaire (6932'). Beyond the 
valley of the Rhone rise the four peaks of the Dent du Midi. 
The road now descends in numerous windings towards the Grande- 
Eau, and, passing between vineyards, reaches (7 M. from Sepey) 
Aigle (see p. 200). 

From Gsteig to Sion over the Sanetsch, a fatiguing and 
unattractive route. From Gesseney to Gsteig (p. 154) 9 JI., thence to 
Sion in 8 l |4 hrs. The path crosses the Sarine beyond Gsteig, and ascends 
the valley of that river to the dreary Kreuzboden (2'|2 hrs. from Gsteig); 
thence l'|2 hr. to the culminating point of the Sanetsch (7369'), Fr. Senin. 
ISeyond the pass a magnificent 'view is obtained of the valleys and mountains 
of the 8. Valais as far as Mont Blanc. Then a descent to (3 3 |4 hrs.) Chan- 
d oli n (Inn, good wine), and by Qranoit and Ormona to (l'|i hr.) Sioii 
(p. 254). Ascent from Sion to the pass 7. thence to Gsteig 2 hrs. 

40. From Bulle to Montreux or Vevay by the Moleson 
and the Jaman. 

C'omp. Afaps, pp. 14b', 188. 
From Bulle to the Moleson 4 l J2 hrs, descent to Montbovon 4 hrs. ; thence 
to the Col du Jaman o\ descent to Montreux 3, to Vevay 4 ! |2 hrs., a most 
attractive excursion of two days. Byron terms the passage of the Jaman 
'beautiful as a dream'. In order to realise this, the traveller yet unac- 
quainted with the Lake of Geneva and the mountains of Savoy, should 
cross the pass from the valley of the Sarine, so as to have this mag- 
nificent spectacle suddenly presented to view - , the morning and evening 
light* are the most favourable, for about noon the lake is veiled in mist. 

MOLfiSON. 40. Route. 157 

— From the Lake of Geneva to the Bernese Oberland the route hv Aigle 
and the Col de Pillon (p. 155) is far preferable to that over the Jaman 
see p. 152. 

Bulle(2523') (Cheval Blanc; Hotel de la Ville), the principal 
depot of the highly esteemed Gruyere cheese, is the terminus 
of the branch railway Romont-Bulle (see p. 162). Diligence several 
times daily to Gesseney (p. 154) by Albeuve, Montbovon (see 
below), and Chateau d'Oex (p. 154); also to Vevay by Chatel St. 
Denis. Guide (3 — 5 fr.) for the ascent of the Mole'son (5 hrs.) 
unnecessary for moderately experienced mountaineers. 

The path gradually ascends by the brook La Treme to the 
(1 hr.) red-roofed buildings of Part-Dieu, formerly a Carthusian 
monastery (3133'), whence it proceeds along the W. slopes of 
the mountain, crossing several small affluents of the Treme. 
2 hrs. Chalets of Les Planes (Alpine fare and 8 indifferent 
beds). The route can hardly be mistaken, as the summit of the 
Mole'son is frequently visible. The path, which now becomes 
precipitous and ill-defined , ascends hence to the summit in 
1V2 hr. 

The Moleson (6578'), a continuation of the Jaman, the most 
advanced spur of the group, is the Rigi of W. Switzerland, and 
may be recognised in all the panoramas of this part of Switzer- 
land by its precipitous , rocky slopes , surrounded by meadows 
and forests; it affords a rich field for the botanist. 

The view embraces the Lake of Geneva, the Mts. of Savoy, 
the Dent d'Oche and Dent du Midi , as far as the Mont Blanc 
chain, of which the highest summit, as well as the jagged Aiguille 
Verte and Aiguille d'Argentiere , is visible hence. To the 1. of 
the latter, and more in the foreground, rises the Dent de Morcles, 
forming the commencement of a chain of mountains which cul- 
minate in the Diablerets in the centre, and extend to the heights 
of Gruyere at the feet of the spectator. Of the Alps of the 
Valais, the Grand Combin, to the 1. of the Mont Blanc group, 
is alone visible. Most of the Bernese Alps are also concealed. 
To the extreme 1. rises the Titlis. To the W. the Jura. 

From Albeuve (see below) to the Mole'son (A — 4'| L . hrs.). On the 
outskirts of the village the path crosses to the 1. bank of the brook, tra- 
verses pastures, enters a picturesque ravine, and leads along the well 
shaded slope to a small chapel, and a saw-mill a short distance farther. 
The path, here crosses to the r. bank of the stream, and at a charcoal- 
kiln, ^a hr. farther, recrosses to the 1. bank. The first chalet is reached 
in 5 min. more. Towards the N.N.E. the ridge which separates the Mo- 
leson from the Little Moleson is now visible. The path continues trace- 
able as far as the vicinity of the highest chalet, which the traveller leaves 
on the 1. Thence a somewhat fatiguing scramble of I 1 !-* hr. to the sum- 
mit. There is no path, but the traveller will find his way without diffi- 
culty to the ridge, whence the summit is visible, and is attained in 
10 min. more. 

The path ascending from Vaulruz, the station before Bulle (p. 162), 
unites at Part-Dieu with that from Bulle ; another path ascends from 
Semsales. But neither of these routes is recommended, as a lofty but- 

158 Route 40. JAMAN, 

tress of the mountain must be traversed before the traveller enters the 
valley of the Treme and reaches the base of the Moleson. 

From the summit of the Moleson the traveller may descend 
in 3 hrs. to Albeuve (2539'), a small village (*Iun) in the valley of 
the Sarine, on the high road from Gesseney to Bulle. Hence by 
the road towards the S. to (3 M.J Montbovon (2608'J [Hotel du 
Jaman; horse to the Jaman 10, to Montreux 20 fr. ; guide 5 fr., 
but not necessary). 

The road from Gesseney and Chateau d'Uex (p. 157), on which a di 
ligence runs several times daily, leads N. from Montbovon to (lO 1 ^ M.) 
Bulle. To the 1. of the road, 4'|2 M. before Bulle is reached, on »n 
eminence, is situated the ancient little town of Gruyere, Ger. Gnyen 
(Maison de Ville; Fleur de Lys). It possesses an old castle, Hanked with 
towers and ramparts, once the residence of the powerful Counts of 
Uruyere, who became extinct in the 16th cent. ; it is believed to date fruiu 
the 5th cent., and is one of the best preserved memorials in Switzerland 
of that remote age. The church of St. Theodule dates from 1254. The 
surrounding district consists of rich pasture-land; the chief occupation »f 
the inhabitants is the manufacture of the well-known cheese which takes 
its name from the town. The 'ranz des vaches' of Gruyere is celebrated. 

Beyond the last houses of Montbovon the path ascends to the 1. ; 
after 25 min. to the r. by a house; further on it descends to 
the bridge (35 min.) over the Hongrin; '/ 4 hr. church of the 
scattered village of Allieres; l / t hr. inn Croix Noire. 

The path now ascends gradually to the foot of the pass, then 
more rapidly over green pastures (not too much to the 1.) in 
l'/o hr. to the chalets of the Plan de Jaman (4872'J, and some 
min. farther to the Col de la Dent de Jaman. Here is suddenly 
disclosed to the S. a strikingly beautiful *prospect of the entire 
mountain-range as far as the Rochers de Naye (6923') and the 
Tour d'Ay; to the N. the Mole'son (p. 157); the view also em- 
braces the rich Canton de Vaud, the >S. portion of the Jura 
chain, the long range of the Alps of Savoy, the E. extremity 
of the Lake of Geneva; S. the huge mountains which bound the 
Valais, and the snowy summits of the Great St. Bernard. Krom 
the Dent de Jaman, Ger. Jommen (6165'), 1279' above the 
'Col', a fatiguing ascent of l 1 /., hr. more, the view embraces the 
entire Lake of Geneva, the lakes of Neuchatel and Morat, Pila- 
tus, and the Weissenstein. 

From the Col to Montreux the path cannot be mistaken; 
12 min. from the chalets it turns to the r. ; 25 min. a bridge, 
then a gradual ascent, and a level walk to En Avant, an inn, 
1 hr. from the Col, similar to that at Allieres. The path hence, 
generally paved, follow., the W. slope of the valley. At a curve 
in the patli (1 hr. from En Avant), at the commencement of the 
region of fruit-trees, a narrower path, also paved, leads to the 1., 
to (10 min.) Sonzier, again descends rapidly to the 1., and reaches 
C/.jhr. ) Montreux, or Vernex (p. 197), a steamboat ami railway 


If the path to the r. at the above-mentioned curve he taken. 

LAIPEN 41. Route. 1 Mt 

the village of Cliernex is soon reached (2054'), charmingly situ- 
ated in the midst of fruit-trees; a new road, passing to the N. 
of Chatelard, leads thence towards the village of Ckailly (Pens. 
•Benker). Before it is reached, a path descends 1. to the high- 
road leading to (4'/., M.J Vevay (p. 194). (The traveller pro- 
ceeding in the opposite direction, from Vevay, when he arrivt > 
at the last houses of La Tour, must take the first path to the 
1. of the high road, turning to the r. ; 12 min. direction-post, 
indicating the way to 'Cfailley, Charnex, and Jamart). 

41. From Bern to Lausanne (Vevay). 

Oron- Rail way. To Freiburg in 1— ['(4 hr., fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 70 <•.. 
2 fr. ; to Chexbrcs (Vevay) in 3 — 3' f-_. hvs. , fares 9 fr. 60, 7 fr., 5 fr! 
20 e. ; to Lausanne in o'Jj — 4 hrs., fares 10 fr. 90, 7 fr. 85, fr. 80 c. ; to 
Geneva in 5«/ s — 6i| 2 hrs., fares 17 fr. 50, 12 fr. 30, 9 fr. 10 c. 

On the arrival of each train at Chexbrcs, an omnibus is in waiting to 
convey passengers to Vevay (fare 1 fr., luggage 20 c.), which is thus reached 
more expeditiously than by first proceeding to Lausanne. (Path from 
Chexbres to Vevay see p. 163..) Several trains correspond at Lausanne with 
trains on the Western Railway to Geneva; in the direction of Vevay-Bex 
(Sion) there is no direct communication, a change of carriages always tak- 
ing place. Arrangement of carriages with passages throughout, the same 
as in German Switzerland. 

As far as Chexbres the Oron-line traverses a fertile tract of arable 
land and pasture; to the 1. occasional glimpses are obtained of the Alpine 
chain, from the Bernese Oherland to the mountains of Savoy on the S. 
bank of the Lake of Geneva. The district between Chexbres and Lausanne 
is one of singular beauty, affording views unsurpassed by those of any 
other Swiss railway. 

On starting , a seat on the left should be selected , but the 
traveller should observe that the train backs out from the Bern 
station, afterwards taking a W. direction. Shortly after leaving 
the station , a glimpse is obtained of the Bernese Alps (in front 
of them, to the 1.. rises the pyramidal Niesen) and the range 
enclosing the valleys of the .Simmen and the Sarine ; of the latter 
the barren and rugged walls of the Brenlaire (7726') and Folie- 
rant (7690') are most conspicuous. First stat. Biimplitz. As far 
as stat. Thbrishaus the country is monotonous; the line now de- 
scends (to the 1. glimpses of the mountains of the Simmenthal), 
and crosses the Sense (Sinyine), the frontier between the cantons 
of Bern and Freiburg. Next stat. Flumatt. 

From F la matt to Laupen diligence twice daily in I'.U hr. by Neueneck 
(Bar or Post). Laupen, a small town at the foot of the Bramberg, at the 
junction of the Sense and the Sarine ( Saane), is celebrated in the annals 
of Switzerland as the scene of a victory gained in 1339 by the Bernese 
under Rudolph von Erlach (p. 95) over the army of Freiburg and the allied 
forces of the nobility of the Uechtland, the Aargau, Savoy, and Burgundy. 
The anniversary of the battle is observed every live years. The battle- 
field on the Bramberg , s \\ if to the N. of the road between Neueneck 
and Laupen, is indicated by a monument, erected in 1829. — Another 
obelisk has been erected on a hill above Neueneck in memory of the 
insignificant victory gained here in 1798 by Bernese troops over the French. 

Beyond Flamatt a tunnel is entered, on emerging from which 
the line traverses the green valley of the Tafferna-Barh. After 

160 Route 41. FREIBURG. From Bern 

passing stat. Schmitten, Diidingen (French Guin), and Balliswyl, the 
lofty *Viaduct of the Sarine is reached, 260' in height, and 
nearly l / 2 M. long. The fact that upwards of 3000 tons of iron 
were employed in its construction will convey some idea of its 
proportions. Soon after , the train skirts the old town-walls of 
Freiburg, and enters the station on the W. side of the town. 

Freiburg. "Zahringer Hof, near the bridge, fine view of both 
the bridges from 4 he terrace, R. 3, L. i| 2 , B. li| 2 , D. at 12'| 2 and 8 o'cl. 
3, at 5 o'cl. 4, A. 1 fr. ; 'Kramern, or Hotel des Merciers, near the 
Church of St. Nicholas, similar prices; 'Hotel deFribourg, in the 
upper part of the town ; Beer-garden in the lower part of the town, near 
the barracks. — Omnibus to the lower part of the town >|2 fr. 

Freiburg (2041'), Fr. Fribourg , the capital of the canton of 
that name, and of the ancient Uechtland, founded in 1175 by 
Berthold of Zahringen (p. 95), stands on a rocky eminence, sur- 
rounded by the Sarine (Saane), in situation very similar to Bern, 
and contains a pop. of 10,904 (1136 Prot.), the majority of whom 
speak French. Freiburg forms the boundary between the two 
tongues, German being spoken in the lower part of the town. 

The picturesque situation of the town and bridges is not visible from 
the railway station; a visit of a few hours, however, suffices to inspect 
them. The following walk (occupying about l'|2 hr. ) is recommended. 
From the station to the Jesuits' College; thence through the town, across 
the Suspension Bridge, ascend by the road to the r. to the Pont de Gotteron 
( see below ; an old tower between the two bridges is a good point of 
view), across this, and by numerous windings to Bourgillon, a group of 
houses in the vicinity of the town. Proceeding to the 1., by a crucifix, as 
far as the first curve in the road, a point (on the r. side of the road) is 
gained, which affords a good survey of the windings of the Sarine and a 
view of the Mole'son. (The high road to Lausanne commands the same 
view as the railway, so that the traveller need proceed no farther.) In 
returning, the Lorctto Chapel should be visited, from which another fine 
view of the town is obtained. Farther on, by a small chapel, a direct 
path descends by steps to the Arsenal. Hence to the 1. by the fountain, 
and across the stone bridge over the Sarine, from which the traveller 
ascends to the Council Hall. Those who care to examine the bridge more 
closely should walk to it from Freiburg. About 1 31. from the town a good 
footpath to the r. descends to the foot of the pillars on which the bridge 
rests, and a steep path ascends thence to the cafe on the Freiburg side. 
Then across the bridge to stat. Balliswyl, and back to Freiburg by train. 

Previous to the construction of the suspension-bridge , an 
hour scarcely sufficed for the descent of the hill by numerous 
windings and the ascent of the opposite bank ; the transit is now 
effected in two or three minutes. 

The *Suspension Bridge, completed in 1834, is, according to 
an inscription on the terrace of the Zahringer Hof, 905' in length, 
22' in breadth, and 175' above the surface of the Sarine. It is 
suspended by four chains, upwards of 1300' in length, which 
form a single arch, the extremities being secured by means of 
128 anchors attached to blocks of stone , at a considerable depth 
below the surface of the earth. 

At some distance above the bridge is the Pont de Gotteron, 
a similar structure . completed in 1840, spanning the Xallie de 

'to Lausanne. FREIBURG. 41. Route. 161 

Gotteron , a deep and romantic rocky ravine , which opens into 
the valley of the Sarine. The construction of the bridge (700' 
in length, and 285' above the water) is in some respects more 
remarkable than that of its neighbour, as the wire-chains are 
secured in the sandstone rock itself, thus rendering pillars 

The *Churcli of St. Nicholas, the episcopal cathedral, recently 
restored, with its slender tower (266' in height, erected 1452) 
is a good specimen of Gothic architecture (founded 1286, com- 
ipleted 1500). The portal bears some remarkable reliefs. 

The 'Organ, one of the finest in Europe, possesses 67 stops and 7800 
jpipes, some of them 32' in length. It was built by Al. Mooser (d. 1839), 
whose bust has been placed under the instrument to the r. Performances 
on it may be heard every evening in summer after dusk, except on Satur- 
days and the eves of festivals, when the hour is 1. 30. p. m. ; tickets of 
adm. at the hotels 1 fr. each (fee for a concert at other times 60 fr. for a 
party of 12; 5 fr. each additional pers.). — The old carved stalls also de- 
serve notice, and, in the second chapel, a fine modern picture by Vesckwan- 
deru, representing St. Anne and St. Mary. The choir possesses three modern 
.■stained-glass windows, representing St. Nicholas and other saints. A tablet 
ion the S. pillar at the entrance to the choir is to the memory of Peter 
tCanisius (d. 1597), the first German Jesuit, celebrated for his theological 

The Town Hall, near the Church of St. Nicholas, occupies 
the site of the former palace of the dukes of Zahringen. Ad- 
jacent is the Council Hall with a clock-tower. In front of these 
buildings stands an old lime-tree, 14' in circumference, partially 
supported by stone pillars. Tradition says this venerable tree 
was originally a twig, borne by a young native of Freiburg, when 
he arrived in the town , breathless and exhausted from loss of 
blood, to announce to his fellow-citizens the victory of Morat. 
'Victory' was the only word he could summon strength to utter, 
and having thus fulfilled his mission , he expired. The tree 
thus serves the double purpose of commemorating the triumph 
of the Swiss, and the heroic conduct of the young soldier. 
Adjoining the square by the old lime stands the Monument 
of Father Gregoire Girard (b. at Freiburg 1765, d. 1850). 

A long flight of steps leads from the Council Hall to the 
lower part of the town and the river ; the pavement of the street 
Grand-Fontaine serves the houses as a conduit for conveying the 
water of the river to the lower portion of the town , to be 
employed in case of fire. 

Near the Gate of Morat is the Jesuits' College , founded by 
Father Canisius (see above) in 1584, suppressed in 1847, after the 
war of the Separate League. The extensive buildings belonging 
to the college occupy the highest site in the town, and afford a 
survey of the town and its environs. — Near it is the extensive 
and loftily situated Seminary for Priests, 

The Hermitage of St. Magdalena, on the Sarine, 3'/i M. below the town, 
a cell and chapel cut in the rook, frequently attracts the curious, but 
is scarcely worthy of a visit. 

B.tUEKEi:, Switzerland. 5th Edition || 

162 Route 41. ROMONT. 

After Freiburg is quitted the finest views are always to the 
1., the Moleson (p. 157) forming the most prominent feature in 
the landscape. The Sense, with its perpendicular tanks, also 
lies to the 1. As Romont, the first station of importance is 
approached, the nunnery of La Fille-Dieu lies to the 1. ; beyond 
it rise the mountains of the S. hank of the Lake of Geneva, 
farther to the 1. the Dent du Midi, and nearer, to the extreme 
1., the Mole"son. 

Romont (2326') (Cerf; Couronne; Croix Blanche), on the 
Olane, the principal place in this district, is picturesquely 
situated on an eminence. The castle, which rises on the S. side 
above the walls and watch-towers, was founded by the Burgundian 
kings in the 10th cent. , and now serves as a residence for the 

Branch railway from Romont to Bulle (p. 157) (in >|« hr., fares 
1 fr. 65, 1 fr. 25 c. ; stations Vuisternens, Sales, Vaulruz), of which travellers 
intending to ascend the Mole'son, or to make the tour described in R. 40. 
may avail themselves. 

Beyond Romont, Mont Blanc becomes visible, and occasional 
glimpses of the Mole'son, Dent de Jaman, and Dent du Midi are 
obtained. After passing through a tunnel , the train commands a 
fine prospect to the r. of an undulating, fertile district , bounded 
by the Jura range ; on an eminence in the foreground is situated 
the picturesque little town of 

Rue (2323') (Maison de Ville; Flew de Lys) , commanded 
by an old turreted castle. The valley is traversed by the Broye, 
which falls into the Lake of Morat, and connects ii with the 
Lake of Neuchatel. At Oron le Chdtelet the line intersects 
the rocks of the castle-hill, on the S. side of which is the 
station ; Oron la Ville lies below, to the r. Beyond stat. Palezieux 
(Granges.) the mountains become more conspicuous. Chexbres is 
the station for Vevay (see below). 

Beyond the next tunnel, a **view of singular beauty, embracing 
the greater part of the Lake of Geneva and the surrounding 
mountains, is suddenly disclosed. In the direction of Vevay, 
which is not itself visible, are the Pleiades, the Dent de Jaman, 
the valley of the Rhone, and the mountains of Savoy; the fore- 
ground consists of numerous villages in the midst of vineyards. 
Beyond stat. Grand- Vaux, the villages of Lutry, Pully, and Ouchy 
on the bank of the lake become visible, ana, to the r. of the 
latter, Lausanne. After passing through a tunnel and over a 
viaduct, the train next reaches stat. La Conversion (Lutry), 
beyond v,hich the valley of the Paudize is crossed by a long 
viaduct of nine arches. Below it is an iron viaduct of the 
Western line. After passing through another short tunnel, the 
train reaches Lausanne, where the Ornn-line unites with the 

AARBERG. 42. Route. 1 63 

From Lausanne to Geneva, or to the valley of the Rhone, by 
steamboat or by the Western line, see R. 50. Omnibus, see p. 191. 

From Chexbres to Vevay. 

Comp. Map, p. 188. 

Distance 4 31. Station Riva; (St. Saphorin) on the Western line, be- 
low the village of Chexbres to the S.E., is life M. nearer. The diligence, 
which leaves Vevay l'|2 — 2 hrs. before the arrival of the trains at 
Chexbres, ascends in l'ji hr. Beautiful views, especially on the descent 
to Vevay. 

The view from the station is limited ; the mountains of Savoy 
only are visible, and to the 1. , in the background of the Rhone 
valley, Mont Catogne. On leaving the station, the road ascends 
l /-2 M., then descends nearly i /. 2 M. to the large village of Chexbres; 
l l l~2 M. farther the Western line is crossed, and the Lausanne 
and Vevay road is soon joined; from this point to Vevay V 2 M. 
more. The last part of the route, leading between vineyard-walls, 
is uninteresting. 

On the descent a magnificent "view, not inferior to the prospect 
commanded by the railway to Lausanne, above described, though dis- 
closing itself more gradually, is enjoyed. Best survey from the "Signal 
de Chexbres (Hdtel du Signal, with garden), i| 2 31. from the stat. At the 
spectator's feet lies the greater part of the Lake of Geneva; to the 1. Vevay ; 
above it from 1. to r. extends the ridge of the Pas de Jaman, commanded 
by the Dent de Jaman, so called from its tooth-like form, and the broad 
ridge of the Rochers de > T aye; then the twin peaks of the Tour d'Ay and 
de Jlorges, rising from the mountain chain which bounds the lake ; to the 
rear the Grand-Sloveran and the Dent de Morcles ; in the centre the back- 
ground is formed by the pyramid of Jlont Catogne, on the 1. of which rises 
the snowy cone of Jlont Velan (Pain de Sucre); then the mountains of 
Savoy, the highest point of which is the Dent d'Oche with its broad ridge. 
As Vevay is approached, the Grand-SIoveran in the Rhone Valley to the 1. 
seems to recede, and the rugged, partially snow-clad ridge of the Dent du 
Midi, to the r. in the rear of the mountains of Savoy, to advance. 

42. From Bern to Neuchatel by Morat. Avenches. 
Pay erne. 

Besides the direct Bern and Bienne Rai 1 way (see p. 7), there are 
also the two following routes : 

(1). High-road from Bern by Aarberg and Ins to Ne 
chatel. Diligence in S'Jzhrs., distance 3DJ4 31. 

The road intersects the Enge (p. 97), crosses the Aare, and ascends to 
JIaikirch. Pleasing panorama from the top of the hill (2690'). Passing 
Frienisberg, once a Cistercian monastery, now a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 
the traveller reaches 

12'J2 31. Aarberg (1479') (Krone), an important military point, situated 
on an eminence , entirely surrounded by the Aare when swollen. The 
church is adjoined by the ancient palace of the counts of Aarberg, who in 
1351 sold their town to Bern. — Beyond Aarberg the road traverses the 
extensive Aarberger Moos, and leads through an undulating district to 

9 l |2 31. Ins, Fr. Anet (Bar), on an eminence affording an admirable 
survey of the three lakes and the entire Alpine chain from the Titlis to 
Jlont Blanc. 

Diligence to 3Iorat once daily, to Neuveville twice daily in 1 hr. 
see p. 10. 

Passing the S.W. slopes of the Jolimont (1982'), the road now descends 
to the Zihl Bridge, the boundary between the cantons of Bern and Neu- 


164 Route 4l>. MOKAT. 

chaU'l. At Montmirail there is a well - conducted Moravian Institution fur 
girls, not far from which, on the lake, is the PrtfaryierAsylum (p. 167). 

At St. Blaise (Cheeal Blanc) the lake and the railway (p. 10) are 

O'l-i M. Neuchatel, see p. 165. 

(2). High-road from Bern by Morat to Neuchatel. Diligence 
to Morat (17 M.) in 3 hrs., in correspondence with the steamboat to Xcu- 
chatel (in li| 2 hr.). 

Bern is quitted by the Obere Thor, and a handsome avenue 
traversed, Tunning parallel with the railroad to Freiburg (p. 159). 
The road passes through Frauenkappelen , so named from a sup- 
pressed convent (to the 1. a distant view of the Alps of Bern and 
Freiburg) and Miihleberg. Beyond 

IOV2 M. Gumminen (1591') (3 M. to the S. is Laupen, 
p. 159), the road crosses the Sarine, which falls into the Aare 
3 M. lower down. At Biberen the Canton of Freiburg is entered, 
and the N.E. extremity of the Lake of Morat approached, not 
far from the town of that name. 

6'/-2 M. Morat (1479'j, Ger. Murten (*Couronne or Post; Aigle; 
Lion, on the lake), a small but wealthy town, with 2328 inhab. 
(120 Rom. Cath.), is situated on the lake to which it gives its 
name. Its narrow streets, with arcades similar to those at Bern, 
are overshadowed by an ancient Castle , which , with a garrison 
of 1500 Bernese under Adr. von Bubenberg, in 1476 resisted 
the artillery of Charles the Bold for ten days. 

The Battle of Morat was fought on June 22nd, 1476. It was the bloodiest 
of those three disastrous contests (Grandson, Morat, and Nancy), in which 
the puissant Duke of Burgundy successively lost his treasure, his glory, 
and his life. The Confederates numbered barely 34,000 men. The 
Burgundians sustained a loss of 15,000 men, with the whole of their am- 
munition and baggage. A story is current at Morat, that Napoleon I., 
when on his way to the Congress of Eastadt in 1797, visited the field of 
battle, and remarked to a young Swiss officer of his guard : l Jeune Capi- 
taine, si jamais nous livrons bataille en ces lieux, soyez persuadi que nous 
ne prendrons pas le lac pour retraiteS 

The government of Freiburg caused a marble Obelisk, 65' high, to be 
erected on the battle-field in 1822, li| 2 M. to the S. of Morat. — The 
Gymnasium, or grammar-school, contains a collection of ancient Burgundian 

The Lake of Morat (1427') . termed in the middle a^ies 
the Vecht-See (comp. p. 160), the Lacus Aventkensis of the Ro- 
mans, 6 M. long, and 3 M. wide, is separated from the Lake of 
Neuchatel by a narrow mountain-ridge , the Mont Vully (see 
below) towards the N., and the Charmontel to the S., but con- 
nected with it by the river Broye. 

The Steamboat steers due N. from Morat across the lake 
towards Mont Vully (2267'), which on the side towards the Lake of 
Morat is covered with vines, and on that towards the Lake of Neu- 
chatel with forests. Near Suyiez, where the Broye issues from the 
Lake of Morat, the tunnel is lowered to allow the steamboat to 
pass under a wooden bridge. To the ~\V. extends the Jura chain, 
from the 'Weissunatein near Soleure to a point S. of .Neucliatel. 

AVENCHES. 43. Route. 165 

The Broye , which connects the Lakes of Morat and Neuchatel 
(the level of the latter lake is 4 inches below the former), and 
tlows round Mont Vully on the N., is the channel by which the 
steamboat enters the Lake of Neuchatel near La Sauge, steering 
first S.W. to Cudrefin, and afterwards N.W. to Neuchatel. The 
motion in these small vessels is considerable in stormy weather. 
Neuchatel, see below. 

From Morat to Pay erne (12 M.), a route historically interesting. 
The road at first skirts the lake as far as 

51/4 M. Avenches ( Jfaison de Ville ; Couronne), the Rom. Aventicum y 
capital of the Helvetii, known as early as the time of Caesar, now a small 
Prot. town (pop. 1835). 

The remains of the great amphitheatre and other public buildings, and 
especially the walls with their handsome towers, still easily traced, bear 
testimony to the former magnificence of the city } and as it was the largest 
Roman settlement in Switzerland, so it is now the richest field for Swiss 
antiquarian research, l 1 ^ M. to the N. of the town the road from Morat 
passes through a fragment of the old wall. In the background to the 1. 
stand the ruins of an old tower, the best -preserved remains of Roman 
architecture in the place. Close to the town, also on the 1., is a solitary 
marble column of the Corinthian order, 39' high, supposed to be a remnant 
of a temple of Apollo, and now termed Le Cigognie-i\ from a stork's nest 
having occupied its capital for many ages. 

" By a lone wall a lonelier column rears 
A grey and grief-worn aspect of old days." 

Ch. Har. Pil. Cant. III., 65. 

Most of the antiquities found at Avenches have been removed hence; 
the most important are now in the museums of Bern and Lauanne. A 
different plan is now adopted , and the yield of fresh excavations is pre- 
served in a Museum in the vicinity of the amphitheatre. Recent investi- 
gations have brought some interesting objects to light, mosaic pavements, 
fragments of pillars , inscriptions , utensils of all sorts, some of them 
probably sacrificial, but often absurdly misnamed. 

For centuries a tradition was current that a tombstone to the memory of 
a daughter of Julius Alpinus had been discovered at Avenches, the supposed 
inscription on which Lord Byron describes as a most affecting composition 
(see Ch. Har. Pil., C. III., 66, 67) ; but modern investigations have rudely 
dispelled the illusion. A certain Paulus Gulielmus, who lived in the 16th 
cent., is said to have imposed upon the credulity of posterity by inventing 
both monument and inscription. 

G 3 |4 M. Payerne (1291') (Ours; Reine Berthe), the Paterniacum (?) of the 
Romans, destroyed by the barbarians, and rebuilt in the 7th cent., is now 
an unimportant little town in the Canton de Vaud, with a population of 
3259 (French Prot.). The environs abound in reminiscences of Bertha^ Queen 
uf Rudolph II. of Burgundy, the benefactress of the district, who is said 
to have employed much of her time in spinning. So much traditionary 
interest is attached to this period, that to this day the French Swiss, in 
alluding to the departure of 'the good old times\ frequently use the 
expression: l Ce n est plus le temps oil Bet'the JUaW. 

43. Neuchatel and the Chaumont. 

Hotels. "Bellevue, in an open situation on the lake, R. from 2 fr., 
B. 1, D. at 1 o"c]. 3, at 5 o'cl. 4, L. *| y , A. 1 fr, omnibus 3 | 4 fr. (luggage in- 
cluded *, Hotel du Mont Blanc, a handsome building opened in 1871; 
(Wand Hotel du Lac (formerly lintel des Alpes), near the lake, R. 2, 
I). 3, A. 'fi, omnibus ■Ja fr. ; Hotel du Lac (with cafe), on the quay; 
Fan con, in the town, a commercial inn \ Hotel du Commerce, near 
the post-office. — Restaurant in the Palais Rougemont (p. 167). 

Kill Hnutt 43. NKITHATT-X. Castle. 

Railway - Station high above the town to the N.E., at a considerable 
distance from the steamboat - pier. Pedestrians should quit the hot, dusty 
road near the station, and descend to the lake by the shady walks to the 1. 
— Omnibus to or from the station 30 c. , box (under 50 lbs.) 15 c. — 
S teamboat to Yverdon see p. 172, to Moral see p. 165. 

Swimming Baths at the harbour, opp. the Bellevue Hotel, bath 40 c. 

Wines. The wine of Neuchatel is greatly esteemed ; the best red wine 
is grown at Cortaillod (p. 173) and Derriere-Moulins, the best white between 
St. Blaise (p. 110) and Aueernier (p. 170), and at Bevaix (p. 174). Sparkling 
wine is also manufactured here. 

Watches. The manufacture of watches is the most important branch 
of industry in the canton, more particularly at La Chaux-de-Fonds and 
Le Lode (11. 44); many of the watches sold at Geneva are made here. — 
Ladies' and gentlemen's watches (works warranted) may be purchased at 
the manufactory of Jeanjaquet Freres. 

The Principality ofXeuchatel belonged to Burgundy down to 
the 11th cent. ; it was then united to the German Empire, and ceded by the 
Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg in 1288 to John of Chalons, whose great- 
grandson John III. became Prince of Orange by marriage. After the Chalons 
family was extinct, the Counts of Freiburg and Hochberg became lords of 
the principality. It subsequently descended by marriage to the house of 
Orleans - Longueville, which also became extinct in 1707. It was then ad- 
judged by the states to Frederick I. of Prussia, who was selected from 
among fifteen competitors as being descended on the mother's side from 
John III. of Orange. It remained among the possessions of the crown of 
Prussia for a century. In the year 1806 Napoleon created Alexander Berthier, 
one of his marshals, Prince of Neuchatel, but eight years later it was 
restored to Prussia. In the following year (1815) "Neuchatel, which had 
as early as 1406 been in close alliance with several Swiss towns, and 
fought side by side with them, formally united with the Confederacy as the 
21st canton , though it still remained under Prussian protection. The 
bond which connected it with Prussia was linally dissolved by a treaty 
signed at Paris, May 26th, 1857. 

Neuchatel (1433'), the capital of the canton of that name, 
with 13,321 inhab. , is built on the steep slope of the Jura, 
rising in the form of an amphitheatre, with the lake (27 M. 
long, 6 M. wide) at its base. The modern part of the town, 
■with its handsome houses, grounds, and *quay nearly 1/2 M- long, 
is situated on the lake , upon a narrow strip of land formed by 
the deposit brought down by the Seyon from the Chasseral. An 
area for building purposes was reclaimed in 1839, a new channel 
(524' in length) having been constructed tor the Seyon above 
the town by means of a tunnel [Tunnel de la Trouee du Seyon, 
p. 168). 

The Castle, on an eminence, is the scat of the government of 
the canton. Near it stands the Temple du Haut, erected in the 
12th century. The choir contains a handsome Gothic monument 
with 15 life-size figures in stone, erected in 1372 by a Count 
of Neuehatel, restored in lc<40. There are also monuments to the 
Prussian Governor General von Zustrnw, and the reformer Farel. 

The College, a large new edifice on the bank of the lake, 
contains a small natural history collection , founded by Professor 
A(jassiz (comp. p. 135), now resident in America. 

In the vicinity, in the open square to the S., facing the 
lake, is a bronze *Statue (_1855) of David do Pury , a wealthy 

Chaumont. NEUCHATEL. 43. Route. 167 

philanthropist and native of Neuchatel , who bequeathed to the 
city 4'/2 million francs. 

The Collection of Pictures, formerly exhibited in the College 
des Filles (a handsome edifice on the road to the stat.), has been 
transferred to the former Palais Eougemont, at present Hotel 
Dupeyron ('Cercle du MuseV), in the N.E. suburb (near it a 
footpath ascends to the stat., comp. p. 166). The pictures are 
chiefly by modern Swiss artists, and many exhibit considerable 
talent. The custodian lives in the house, fee 1 fr. 

The Entrance Hall contains a number of casts. — 1st Room. 
18. K. Girardet, Cromwell reproached by his daughter Mrs. Claypole for the 
death of Charles I. ; 23. Grosclaude, A richly-dressed lady kneeling at the 
feet of the Doge Marino Falieri; 50. Robert, S. Paolo fuori le Mura, the 
great Basilica near Rome after the fire of 1823 ; "16. Girardet, A Huguenot 
assembly surprised by Rom. Cath. soldiery; 12. Calame (d. 1864), the 
Rosenlaui Glacier; 22. Girardet, 'The good-for-nothing'; 37. Meuron, 
Pastures between Iseltwald and the Faulhorn; 33. Jecklin, Lake of 
Lucerne. — 2nd Room (right). Over the door: 8. Bertltoul, Young 
Savoyard; 24. Grosclaude, 'Vive le vin de 1834!''; 19. Girardet, A Father's 
blessing ; Leopold Robert, Roman oxen ; 56. Tschaggeny, Mother and 
child pursued by a bull ; "57. Tschaggeny, Flemish bridal procession of 
the 17th cent. ; 40. Moritz, Henry II. of Longueville in the castle of 
Oolombier; 32. M. de Meuron, View of Rome from the palace of the 
emperors , together with the latter building and the Baths of Caracalla ; 
""13. Calame, Monte Rosa. — 3rd Room. Portraits of Prussian regents 
and generals ; Marie d'Orleans in her 4th year , and at a later age ; 
Henry II. of Orleans. — 4th Room. Drawings and water-colours. 

The adjacent building contains the "Music Challande, formerly 
at Bern, an interesting collection of stuffed Alpine animals. 

The new Observatory , erected for the convenience of the 
watch-manufacturers, is in telegraphic communication with Chaux- 
de-Fonds and Le Locle (p. 169). 

The Charitable Institutions of Neuchatel are celebrated; the 
Municipal Hospital, founded by David de Pury, the Pourtalts Hospi- 
tal, near the Bern gate, the Lunatic Asylum of PreTargier, 3 M. from 
Neuchatel, erected by M. de Meuron in 1844 at a cost of l'/ 2 
million fr. , and presented to the canton, etc., are all praise- 
worthy and admirably conducted establishments. 

The "Chaumont (3845'), a spur of the Jura chain, situated to the N. of 
the town, commands the most beautiful view in the vicinity of Neuchatel, 
embracing the lakes of Neuchatel, Morat, and Bienne, the towns of Soleure, 
Bern, Freiburg, and the fertile hill-country lying between them, with the 
entire Alpine chain from the Sentis to Mont Blanc in the background. An 
afternoon cannot be more agreeably spent than in ascending this moun- 
tain ; but the traveller must bear in mind that a prospect of the Alps in 
all their magnificence depends upon a state of the weather which it may 
not be his good fortune to enjoy. "Restaurant '^ hr. below the summit. 
The footpath diverges from the Chaux-de-Fonds road l 1 /* M. from Neu- 
chatel, and leads in 1 hr. to the summit ; the carriage-road diverges l'|4 M. 
farther on, leading to the summit in l'lj hr. Char-a-bancs there and back 
10 fr. 


44. From Neuchatel to Le Locle by Chaux-de-Fonda 
and back by Les Fonts. 

Railway ('■Le Jura InduslrieT) from Neuchatel to Le Locle by 
Chaux-de-Fonds in 2 lirs. 3 min.; fares 4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 70 c. — 
Diligence from Le Locle to Neuchatel by Les Ponts in 4 hrs., fare 
4 fr. 25 c. 

The railway -journey from Neuchatel to stat. Hauts Geneveys (1700' 
above the lake of Neuchatel) is very delightful in clear weather, as it 
commands beautiful views of the lake, and the Bernese Alps as far as 
Mont Blanc. The traveller should secure a seat on the left (S.E.) side. 

Station, p. 166. The line skirts the heights behind the town 
and the castle, running for some distance parallel to the Pontarlier 
and Lausanne lines. To the 1. below is the Tunnel de la Trouee du 
Seyon (p. 166). The line then crosses the Seyon, the high road 
to Les Ponts (p. 170), and the Val de Travers, and passes through 
a tunnel ((1968' long) immediately above the two viaducts (p. 170) 
across the gorge of Serrieres. As the train emerges, a beautiful 
*view gradually unfolds itself, embracing the lake and the Alps ; 
the Bernese Alps are distinctly visible to the E., and Mont Blanc, 
towering above the Alpine chain, to the S. First stat. Corcelles; 
the village (1879', p. 174) lies above, to the r. 

Stat. Chambrelien (the village lies farther to the N.E., above 
the last tunnel) occupies a most remarkable situation. To the S., 
almost perpendicularly below it , runs the Pontarlier line (at a 
horizontal distance of about 150 yds.) through the valley of the 
Reuse (p. 170). Fine view near the refreshment-room. This 
station is a terminus, out of which the train is backed. The 
view, however, still continues on the same side, as the train 
now proceeds in almost exactly the opposite direction, above the 
two small tunnels before-mentioned. It then skirts a wooded 
eminence: to the r. is the green and fertile Val de Ituz (3 M. 
wide), with its numerous villages; beyond it, to the E., the 
Chaumont (3845', p. 161). 

Next stat. Geneveys-sur-Coffrane (2874'). Before stat. Hauts- 
Geneveys (3136') (Hotel Renaud) the line crosses the road from 
Neuchatel to Chaux-de-Fonds, at the S.E. base of the Tete de 
Rang (4668'). 

The road from Neuchatel to Chaux-de-Fonds, which passes through 
Valangin (21,443'), or Vallemjiii (Couronne), in the valley of the 
Seyon, and traverses the Val de Kuz, reaches Les Hauts - Genevevs bv 
Jloudevillers I 2\ST ). It then ascends to the N.W. for 4'J 2 M. by steep 
zigzags to the Col des Loges (4219') ( llohl « la !'«<- des Alpes), which 
commands an extensive view of the Vosges, the Jura, and the entire 
Alpine chain as far as Mont Blanc. The descent to Chaux-de-Konds is a 
drive of 1 hr. 

The Hauts -Geneveys station, the loftiest point of view 
on the line, commands an imposing prospect of Mont lilanc. 
The train shortly after enters a tunnel, l :, / 4 M. in length, 
under the Col de* Loyes (see above), through which it passes in 
7 min. Stat, (.'oncer*, at the N. extremity of the tunnel, stands 

LE LOCLE. U. Route. 169 

amidst wild scenery , surrounded by almost perpendicular rocks, 
through a small opening in vthich the road leads to the unim- 
portant village of Les Convers, 1 M. distant. From Convers to 
Bienne a railway through the valley of St. Imier is in course 
of construction. Immediately beyond this the train enters a tunnel 
through Mont Sagne ( 3 / 4 M., 3 min. transit), then through 
another near 

La Chaux-de-Fonds (3274') (*Fleur de Lys; Quillaume Tell; 
Balance ; Lion d'Or). The traveller will be surprised to find in 
this remote and sterile Alpine valley, situated at the altitude of 
Snowdon, and imperfectly supplied with water, an important town 
with handsome houses, numbering 19,930 inhab., the results of 
whose skill and industry penetrate to the remotest quarters of 
the globe , and who are thus enabled to defy the rigours of a 
climate in which corn only ripens in the warmest summers. The 
division of labour is here carried out to its fullest extent, each 
portion of the mechanism of the watch being confided to a separate 
class of workmen , while another class is employed in putting 
the finishing touches to the completed work. Upwards of 160,000 
watches are manufactured here annually, and about 85,000 in the 
rival town of Le Locle. 

The watchmakers are almost exclusively natives of the canton, 
whilst the other artizans come from other districts', especially 
from German Switzerland. The hotels are principally frequented 
by commercial travellers ; several extensive firms at Hamburg, 
Trieste, etc. have agents constantly resident here. 

The traveller detained here may visit the Church with its 
tasteful vaulted ceiling, and the subterranean Mills. At the N.W. 
extremity of the town is the extensive School-House, and many 
other handsome edifices, which afford an indication of the increas- 
ing prosperity of the town. 

Near Chaux-de-Fonds the railway makes a sharp curve to- 
wards the S.W., and traverses a monotonous green Alpine valley 
(stat. Eplatures half-way) to 

le Locle (3022') (*Trois Rois), a considerable town of similar 
character to the last , entirely burnt down a few years ago , but 
since rebuilt, with 10,333 inhab. (1015 Kom. Oath.), almost ex- 
clusively employed in the manufacture of watches. 

The 'Roche Fendue, 3 M. to the \V. of Locle mi the French frontier, 
is an aperture cut through the rock, commenced in 1799, and lately com- 
pleted, hy which the road from Locle to Besancon effects a saving of 
6 M., and avoids the steep ascent of Les Brenets (Couronne; Lion d'Or; 
both tolerable). A visit should be paid to the neighbouring; subterranean 
Mills of Cul des Roches (Inn), situated one above another in the face of a per- 
pendicular precipice, and worked by the water of the Bietl, which descends 
from a height of 100', working each mill in succession. On the road to the 
Roche Fendue stands Les IUHoiIl's, an educational estab. for poor children. 

4'j-j M. to the N.W. of Locle is the Saut du Doubs, a picturesque water- 
fall, SO' high (several inns). It is best seen from the French side. From 
Locle a drive of 1 hr., char-a-bancs 5 fr. Above the waterfall the river 

170 Routt /."». Al'VKRNlKU. 

expands, presenting the appearand' of a laki' ; below, it flows for a distance 
of 6 JI. through a rocky gorge 1000' in depth, forming the frontier between 
France and Switzerland. The pedestrian may here enjoy a charming 
variety of rock and river scenery, and also lower down, as far as Goumois 
and Ste. Cr^aime. 

The Diligence from Lode to Neuchatel (19'|« M., in 4 hrs.) 
traverses the monotonous valley for a long distance (to the r. La Chaux- 
Uu-slfilieii), and descends to 

fj3|j M. Les Ponts (3389'), where the road intersects the Hague valley. 
From Lex Pedis Ponts a road runs S.W. to the valley of Travers (diligence 
see p. 168), reaching it between the railway stations of Noiraigue and 
Travers (p. 171). Near La Tourne ("Inn) the road reaches the ridge of the 
mountain (view), and then descends to Montiiwllin, where it crosses the 
line from Neuchatel to Chaux-de-Fonds (p. 169). It next leads to Coreelles 
(1883', p. 174), and finally to 

123| 4 M. Neuchatel. 

45. From Neuchatel to Pontarlier through the Val 
de Travers. 

Railway ('Franco- Suisse*) in 2 3 /* hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 55, 4 fr. 45. 3 fr. 
5 c. — Comp. Introd. X. — This is the direct route from W. Switzerland to 
Paris, by Dole, Auxonne, Dijon, etc.; comp. Baedeker's Paris and 
Northern France. 

This Jura-railway (comp. p. 168) is a highly interesting line, and tra- 
versing a very picturesque country for a considerable distance ; a seat should 
be selected on the left ( S. E. ) side. The most remarkable portions of the 
line are between Neuchatel and Noiraigue, between Boveresse and the last 
tunnel above St. Sulpice, and between St. Pierre de la Cluse and Pontarlier. 
The nther parts of the line traverse green valleys, overshadowed by the 
lir-clad mountains of the Jura range. 

The Pontarlier line , running parallel with that to Yvcrdoii 
(p. 1 ?2) as far as stat. Auvernier, crosses the Seyon, and passes 
through a short tunnel under the high-road to the Val de Tra- 
vers and Le Lode. On issuing from this tunnel the traveller 
enjoys a beautiful 'view of the lake and the Alps (comp. p. ll>8). 
The line traverses the vine-clad slopes of the hill, and then by 
a lofty viaduct crosses the Uortje of Serriires. Above the latter 
stands the small castle of lieauregard. 

The train now descends to stat. Auvernier (l'/s M- distant 
the hydropathic estab. of Chanelaz, pension (> — 8 fr. ), where the 
Yverdon railway (p. 178) diverges to the 1.; then, again ascending, 
it commands a view of the lake and the Alps. At the entrance of 
the wooded ravine of the Reuse (the 1. bank of which the line 
follows through the Val de Travers to its source near St. Sulpice, 
p. 171), a lofty viaduct of the Yverdon line is visible far below 
to the 1. The last glimpse of the lake down this romantic valley 
is particularly picturesque. The train then enters a tunnel, high 
on the N. slope of the valley, with the little river below to the 
1. , almost under the station of t'hambrelien (p. 170J on the 
Neuchatel and Chaux-de-Fonds line. After passing through four 
more tunnels, the train reaches stat. Noiraigue ('28f>9'), at the 
N. base of the Creux du Vent (4806', p. 178). The valley which 
from this point to St. Sulpice bears the name of Val de Tracers, 

FLEURIEIi. 45. Route. 17] 

now suddenly changes its character, and the Reuse flows between 
comparatively level meadows. 

Pedestrians may ascend the Creux du Vent (p. 173) in 2 hrs. by a 
steep path from Noiraigue, and descend to Boudry or £7. Aubin ( p. 174). 
The view is far more striking when the ascent is made from this side 
than from the lake. 

The line now traverses level meadow-land , with the wooded 
heights of the Jura on both sides. Along the hill-side to the r. 
the road to Le Locle by Les Fonts winds upwards (comp. p. 170); 
the road through the Val de Travers to Neuchatel has already 
been visible from above Noiraigue. Next stat. Travers (2392'), 
near which is a tunnel. Near stat. Couvet, on the opposite side 
of the valley, are mines of asphalt. Couvet (2418') is a picturesque 
little town , the birthplace of Ferd . Berthoud , the inventor of 
marine chronometers for determining the geographical longitude. 
Here, and also at Motiers (see below), excellent Extrait d'Absynthe 
is manufactured. Diligence to Motiers twice daily ; to Le Locle, 
see p. 168. 

The line again ascends the N. slope of the valley. Far down 
on the opp. side lies Motiers(-Travers~) (2392'), where Rousseau 
spent some time by permission of the Prussian governor Lord 
Keith, after having been expelled from Yverdon by the government 
of Bern, and wrote his 'Lettres de la Montague', which caused 
so great a sensation at Geneva. 

The lofty stat. Boveresse is situated some distance to the S.W. 
of the village of that name. Below, in the valley, lies Fleurier 
(2454'), with extensive watch-manufactories. The train traverses 
a long tunnel , beyond which St. Sulpice (2553') lies below to 
the 1. The scenery again becomes extremely picturesque. In the 
defile of La Chaine, the Reuse, which probably flows by a sub- 
terranean course from the Lac de Tullieres 4l/2 M. to the N.E., 
rises in the form of a considerable stream. 

The line here attains its highest point ; beyond the last tunnel 
it enters a level green valley. At stat. Verrieres (Les Verrieres 
Suisses, 3061'), the last Swiss village, the French army under 
Bourbaki crossed the frontier in Feb., 1871. The line crosses 
the French frontier before Les Verrieres de Jou.r (3015'). Near 
St. Pierre de La Cluse the scenery again becomes interesting. The 
defile of La Cluse , which both the railway and the high-road 
traverse, is fortified; the line can be closed by a gate, connected 
by walls with the fortifications on the heights on both sides; on the 
1. rises the ancient Fort de Joux, strengthened by modem works, 
and by a new fort on a rocky eminence to the r. Mirabeau was 
imprisoned here in 1775 through the influence of his father; and 
the negro chieftain Toussaint l'Ouverture of Haiti was confined 
in the Fort de Joux by order of Napoleon, and died here. 

The line crosses the Doubs (which drains the Lake of St. 
Point, 3 3 /4 M. to the S.W., and here emerges from a valley to 

172 Route 46. YVERDON. From Neuchatel 

the 1.), the 1. bank of which it skirts as far as Pontarlier; sce- 
nery picturesque. 

Pontarlier (2854 ft.) (Hdtel National; Croix Blanche), a small 
French town on the Doubs. On arriving , passengers' luggage is 
examined at the station. Opposite the station are the '■College' 
and Telegraph Office. The large building with the turret to the 
r. of the railway, as the station is approached, is the Hospital. 
( Diligence from the stat. to Salins.) 

46. From Neuchatel to Lausanne and Geneva. 
Lake of Neuchatel. 

Swiss Western Railway. To Lausanne 2 1 /* — 3i|2, to Geneva 
3i| 4 — 4>J 2 hrs.; fares to Lausanne 7 fr. 40, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 80 c, to Geneva 
12 fr. 80, 9 fr. 10, 6 fr. 50 c. Comp. Introd. X. — Some of the trains (ex- 
press ) go to Lausanne, others to Morges ; there is in any case direct cor- 
respondence at Lausanne with the trains to Geneva, and at Morges with 
those to Geneva and Lausanne. — The Steamboat on the Lake of Neu- 
chatel plies between Neuchatel and Morat (R. 42), and between Neuchatel 
and Estavayer only. 

The Steamboat on the Lake of Geneva from Lausanne (Ouchy) 
or Morges to Geneva (in 3 and 2' [2 hrs. respectively) is far preferable to 
the railway, affording a more complete survey of the beautiful scenery. — 
The railway from Yverdon to Bussigny (where Mont Blanc and the moun- 
tains of Savoy first become visible) is uninteresting. Between Neuchatel and 
Geneva a seat on the left should be selected (between Bussigny and 
Lausanne on the right). 

The Lake of Neuchatel (1427'), the Lacus Eburodunemis of 
the Romans , is far inferior in beauty to the lakes of the higher 
Alps; the N. bank, however, with its vine-clad slopes, bounded 
by the precipitous Jura Mts. , from which the Alpine chain 
from the Bernese Oberland to Mont Blanc is visible , is pictu- 
resque. The lake is 25 M. in length, and, at its broadest part 
between Auvemier and Port Alban, nearly 6 M. in width ; greatest 
depth 500'. 

At the N. extremity of the lake is situated St. Blaise, l'/> M. 
to the E. of which the Thiele emerges ; in the background rises 
the Jolimont (p. 10). About 3 M. to the S.E. is the influx of 
the Broye (p. 164). The following steamboat-station is Cu- 
drefin, then 

Estavayer (1538') , a small town of some important; , with 
the castle of Chilnaux, the architecture of which is worthy of notice. 
The following stations on the S.E. bank are Font and Cheires; 
on the opposite side Concise and Corcelles, see p. 174. On a pro- 
montory extending far into the lake, is situated Yvonand, where 
Roman mosaic pavements have been found, one of which is pre- 
served in the Museum at Yverdon. At the extremity of the 
promontory the Mentue falls into the lake. 

Yverdon (1433') (Vlulel de Londres, R. 2, B. li/ 2 fr. ; *Croix 
Fcilt'rale), the Roman Eburodunitm, situated at the S. extremity of 
the Lake of Neuchatel, at the influx of the Toile, or Thiele affords 

to Geneva. BOUDRY. 46. Route. 173 

several picturesque walks and lino points of view. This town 
(pop. 5889 , 561 Rom. Cath.) was for twenty years ('1805— '25) 
the scene of the labours of the philanthropic Pestalozzi. This 
truly practical philosopher, a native of Zurich, first devoted his 
time to theology and jurisprudence, but soon abandoned these 
pursuits, and interested himself exclusively in ameliorating the 
moral condition of the lowest classes. Pestalozzi's method of 
teaching , it is well known , consists in the communication of 
instruction by an immediate address to the youthful sensations, 
or conceptions, and effecting the development of the child by 
constantly calling all his powers into exercise. During the life 
of this great and good man his exertions were not attended with 
the success they merited ; but his method has since been exten- 
sively adopted, and its advantages are now thoroughly appre- 

The ancient Castle, erected by Conrad of Zahringen in 1135, 
formerly the scene of Pestalozzi's exertions , contains the public 
schools , the Town Library, and the Museum ; in the latter are 
preserved numerous objects from the ancient Swiss lake-villages, 
as well as some Roman and other antiquities. The Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum enjoys a high reputation. Near the town there 
is a much frequented Sulphur-Bath (Hotel and Pension). 

An interesting excursion to the Lac de Joux is described in R. 47. 
The Chasseron (5282'), which rises from the Jura range to the S.W. of 
Yverdon, deserves a visit for the sake of the fine view from its summit. 
As far as Sfe. Croix (2 hrs. from the top) diligence twice daily in 
3'|4 hrs. Ste. Croix is noted for the manufacture of musical boxes, upwards 
of 50,000 of which are annually exported. 

The Railway from Neuchatel to the first stat. Auvernier 
has been described at p. 170. The line here quits the lake 
(the Pontarlier branch diverges to the r.) , to which it returns 
beyond Bevaix (see below). 

Colombier produces one of the most esteemed Neuchatel 
wines (p. 166). In the vicinity some remarkable Roman anti- 
quities have been discovered. Beyond the village, on the bank of 
the lake, lies the picturesque estate of Le Bied. After passing the 
station for Boudry , the valley of the Reuse is crossed (p. 170) 
by a lofty bridge. To the 1., near 

Cortaillod (1594'), where the best red wine in the canton 
is produced, is the mouth of the Reuse, which descends from the 
Val de Travel's. Near the village of Troisrods (1692'). imme- 
diately above the station and below the Pontarlier line, is a con- 
siderable stalactite grotto. Boudry (1545') (Maison de Ville), the 
birthplace of Marat, lies on the r. bank of the lteuse, at some 
distance to the r. of the line. 

The Creux du Vent (4806'), about li|»hr. to the W., is frequently ascended 
from Boudry (comp. p. 171). The summit is in the form of a basin. 500' 
in depth, shaped like a horse • shoe, and nearly 3 31. in circumference. 

174 Route 40. GRANDSON'. From NeuchHtel 

Previous to a change in the weather, this crater -like basin is filled with 
surging clouds of white vapour, which rise and fall like the steam in a 
boiling cauldron, but do not quit the hollow. The phenomenon seldom 
lasts above an hour. A gun-shot produces a peculiar echo, resembling that 
of a volley of musketry. The current of air which prevails in this 'hollow 
of the wind', is frequently so violent as to force back objects of considerable 
weight thrown from the brink. The rare plants and minerals found here 
are a source of attraction to the scientific. 

Beyond stat. Bevaix (1571') the line re-approaches the lake, 
which it now skirts as far as Yverdon. The Creux du Vent may 
also be ascended from the next stat. Gorgier St. Aubin (1555'). 
Opposite, on the S.E. bank, lies the little town of Estavayer 
(p. 172). To the r., on the slope of the hill, is situated the 
well-preserved castle of Vauxmarcus (1581'); then La Lance 
(to the r.) , formerly a Carthusian convent , now a chateau and 
park of Count Pourtales. At Concise (1466') (Ecu de France), 
where the line crosses an arm of the lake by means of an 
embankment, a great number of ancient flint axes, saws, chisels, 
and other tools were found in 1811 at the bottom of the lake, 
dating from the period of the lake-villages ('Pfahlbauten'). Near 
Corcelles, situated to the r. on the highroad, a little farther on, 
three blocks of granite, 8 to 10' in height, placed in the form 
of a triangle, are visible from the line. According to some they 
were erected by the Swiss in commemoration of the battle of 
Grandson which was fought in the vicinity , but they are more 
probably of Celtic origin. 

Battle of Grandson. When Charles the Bold of Burgundy had by 
treachery gained possession of the castle of Grandson, and, contrary to 
the stipulation, put the Swiss garrison to death, he abandoned his secure 
position at Grandson, and seized the castle of Vauxmarcus, which com- 
mands the road. Here he was surprised and signally defeated by the 
Swiss, justly infuriated by his cruel breach of faith. An enormous booty, 
valued at upwards of 250,000 I. sterl., fell into the hands of the victors, 
together with numerous trophies now distributed among the various 
arsenals of the Confederation. Among other treasures were two diamonds 
of great value from the crown -jewels, one of which now adorns the 
French, the other the papal crown. 

Grandson (Lion d' Or; Croix Rouge) is the next station of im- 
portance. The line skirts the bank of the lake, and passes through 
the precincts of the picturesque old Castle with its ivy-clad 
towers , where a collection of antiquities and other objects is 
preserved. The ancient Church with its quaint pillars once 
belonged to a Benedictine abbey. Grandson is undoubtedly of 
Roman origin. The feudal proprietors of the castle were among 
the most powerful in Switzerland as early as the 9th cent. 
Otto of Grandson , the last of his race, was killed in a duel in 
1399 by Gerhard of Estavayer; his tomb is in the cathedral of 
Lausanne (p. 192). 

The train skirts the S.W. extremity of the lake, crosses the 
Thiile, and enters the stat of Yverdon near the steamboat quay. 

Yverdon, see p. 172 

to Geneva. NYON. 40. Route. 175 

Here the line quits the Lake of Neuchatel, and enters the 
broad valley of the Toile, or ThiUe, near stat. Ependes. To the 
W. rises the long chain of the Jura, the Aiguille de Beaulmes, 
Mont Suchet, and between them in the distance the Mont d'Or, 
the Dent de Vaulion (p. 177), and Mont Tendre. After passing 
stat. Chavorney-Orbe (p. 176) and Eclepens-la-Sarraz, the line 
enters the picturesque , wooded ravine of the Venoge (connected 
with the Toile by means of a canal), near the beautifully situated 
town of Cossonay (Hotel d'Angleterre). 

As the valley expands , a distant prospect of the long chain 
of the mountains of Savoy is obtained. Beyond Bussigny a branch 
line diverges to the r., affording a more direct communication 
with the line to Morges and Geneva on the N. bank of the like 
(see below). From the curve which the line here forms, a glimpse 
is obtained in favourable weather of the snow-fields of Mont 
Blanc, through an opening in the mountains. The station of 
Morges is nearly J / 2 M- fr° m tne steamboat quay (p. 191). 

Steamboat hence, or from Lausanne (Ouchy), to Geneva, 
see R. 50. 

The line towards Lausanne unites with the main-line of the 
N. bank of the lake at Renens. The station at Lausanne is 
situated on the slope between the town and Ouchy (p. 191). 

Lausanne, see p. 191. 

The train from Lausanne to Geneva (comp. Map, p. 188) 
returns by stat. Renens. Near Morges (p. 191) the line approaches 
the Lake of Geneva, but skirts the N.W. side of the village. 
To theN.W., above the valley of the Morges, which is here crossed, 
rises the castle of Vufflens (p. 191). St. Prex, the next village, 
lies to the 1., on a promontory extending into the lake. Aubonne- 
Allaman is the station (omnibus 40 c.) for the small town of 
Aubonne, situated on the hill, 1^2 M. to the N. As Rolle is 
approached, the Signal de Bougy (p. 191), a celebrated point 
of view , rises to the r. The district between the Aubonne and 
the Promenthouse , which the line crosses beyond stat. Gland, 
is termed La Cote , and is noted for its white wine , one of 
the most highly esteemed in Switzerland. 

gil Near Nyon the line skirts Prangins with its castle (p. 190), 
and again approaches the lake. To the r. rises the Dole (5505') 
(p. 190), the highest of the Jura Mts. Celigny , Coppet, and 
Versoix are the next stations (p. 189). The narrowest part of 
the lake is at stat. Genthod-Bellevue (comp. p. 188). Chambesy, 
the last station before Geneva is reached, is only l'/o M. distant 
from the French frontier. On the opposite bank the wooded 
hills and picturesque villas in the environs of Geneva become 
visible, above which, in favourable weather, Mont Blanc and the 
Savoy range are seen. The station at Geneva occupies a lofty 

176 Route 47. ORBE. 

position on the r. bank of the Rhone , at the extremity of the 
new Rue du Montblanc, which leads direct to the lake. 
Geneva, see p. 177. 

The traveller who desires to return, and is already acquainted with 
the above route, may vary his journey agreeably by proceeding from 
Jlolle (p. 190) to St. Georges, 9 M. to the N.W., at the foot of the Col de 
Marcheiruz (4970'), over which a good road leads to (9 M.) Le Br ass us 
(8412') ("Hotel de la Lande; "H6tel de France). 

The ascent from St. Georges to the Col affords a succession of magni- 
ficent views over the Lake of Geneva and the Rhone Valley, and the 
descent to Le Brassus commands a prospect of the Lac de Joux and the 
Dent de Vaulion. 

From Le Brassus a road skirts the W. bank. of the lake to Le Lieu 
and (9 M.) Le Pont (p. 177). Diligence between Le Brassus and Le Pont 
twice daily in 2 hrs. ; one-horse carr. 10 fr. It is, however , preferable to 
perform this journey by water, from Le Sentier, a village at the S.W. 
end of the lake , 2'|4 M. from Le Brassus (in 2 hrs. , boat with one rower 
3 fr.). From Le Pont to Orbe and Yverdon, see below. 

47. Lac de Joux. Dent de Vaulion. 

An interesting excursion for one day : from Yverdon to Orbe by dili- 
gence in 11(2 hr., or by railway (stat. Chavorney, p. 174, omnibus from the 
station to Orbe 40 a); thence on foot in 4 hrs. to Le Pont. In the after- 
noon to the Dent de Vaulion and the Sources of the Orbe. The next day 
by diligence from Le Pont in l»(a hr. to stat. Cossonay (p. 175), or by Le 
Brassus and the Col de Marcheiruz to Rolle. Diligence between Le Pont 
and Le Brassus twice daily in 2 hrs. (see above). 

Orbe (1463') (Ouillaume Tell; Maison de Ville), an ancient 
town (pop. 1843, Rom. Cath. 76), picturesquely si':,ited on the 
river of the same name , was in the early part of the middle 
ages the capital of Little Burgundy, to which period the two towers 
of its castle (line view from the terrace) and a mosaic pavement 
discovered in the neighbourhood appertain. The first orthopedic 
establishment in Europe was founded here by Venel, towards the 
close of the last century. 

The road to Le Pont passes by Romainmotier (2241*) 
(Couronne), a very ancient place, which owes its appellation to the 
monastery founded here in the 6th cent, by St. Romain (Romani 
Monasterium) . The nuptials of Margaret of Austria and Philibert, 
Duke of Savoy, were celebrated here in 1502. She had already 
been affianced to Louis, Dauphin of France, and to the Infanta 
of Spain, to which circumstance she jestingly alludes in an epi- 
taph she composed on herself: 'Ci git Margot la genie damoiselle 
qua deux maris et si mourut pucelle', etc. 

The road passes by Vaulion and the base of the Dent de 
Vaulion to the village of Le Pont. Pedestrians leave the high 
road l'/ 2 M. beyond Vaulion and take a footpath to the r., 
which ascends to the summit of the Dent in 1 hr. ; descent to 
Le Pont 1 hr. 

From Orbe by Vallorbe to LePont, good road (about the same 
distance as by the above route; diligence between Orbe and Ballaiguea 
once daily, between Ballaigues and Vallorbe twice daily , but not between 
Vallorbe and Le Pont), a pleasant route gradually ascending, passing through 

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DENT DE VAUL10N. 47. Route. 177 

tin- villages of Monteherand, La Russille, Lignerolles (fine view), and Bal- 
laigues (fine retrospect of Orbc), in a mountain-valley; to the N. Mont 
d'O/", to the S. the Dent de Vaulion. 

9>| 2 M. Vallorbe (2520') (Maison de Ville), Ufa M. from the Sources 
of the Orbe (2569'), which gush with considerable force from the rocks, 
and are doubtless the subterranean discharge of the Lac de Joux (sec 
below). They may be reached by leaving the road 3 |4 M. beyond Vallorbe, 
and proceeding to the r. for about '|4 hr. Rejoining the road , the tra- 
veller reaches the summit of the pass, bounded on the 1. by the lofty and 
precipitous slope of the Sent de Vaulion (see below), the summit of which 
may be attained in 1 hr. (fatiguing ascent of l \z hr. through thickets, then 
across meadows inclining to the 1. , and passing near a chalet). After de- 
scending to the road by the same path, the pedestrian reaches Le Pont in 
1 Ja hr. (The walk from Vallorbe to the sources of the Orbe, the Dent de 
Vaulion, and Le Pont occupies 4>|2 hrs.) 

14'/ 4 M. Le Pont (*Inn) lies at the N. extremity of the Lac 
de Joux (3310'), which is 6 M. long, l!/ 2 M. wide, and sep- 
arated from the little Lac Brenet by an embankment (with a 
bridge, which gives the name to the village). On the N. side 
of the Lac Brenet are seen some apertures, into which flow the 
waters of the lake , forming 750' lower , after a subterranean 
course of 4 , / 2 M., the sources of the Orbe (see above). 

Le Pont is situated on the 8. side of the *Dent de Vaulion 
(4877'), which on one side presents a barren and rugged precipice, 
1600' high, and on the other a gentle, grassy slope. The sum- 
mit is reached in l^hr. from Le Pont, and in 1 hr. from Van- 
lion (guide desirable). The view embraces to the S.W. the Val- 
ley and Lac de Joux , more distant the Lac des Ilousscs , the 
Noirmont, and the Dole ; to the S.E. a considerable part of the 
Lake of Geneva, and in the background the glaciers of Mont 
Blanc and the Alps of the Valais ; from the S.E. to the E. the 
chain of the Bernese Oberland. This is the most beautiful view 
of the Jura, second only to that from the Dole (p. 190). 

48. Geneva. 

Fr. Geneve, Gor. Qenf, Ital. Ginevra. 

Hotels. On lite Left Bank: Hotel de la Mctropole (PI. b), a large 
cstab. belonging to a company ; 200 apartments in 3 stories, R. facing the lake 
4, L. 1, B. l'/s, D. excl. W. at 1 o'cl. 4, at 5 o'cl. 5, A. 1, Pension 8 fr. ; 

Ecu de Geneve (PI. c), of the first class, frequented by Americans; 
Couronne (PI. d), R. 3 fr., L. 3( 4 , B. l'j 2 , table d'hote excl. W. at 1 
o'cl. 3, at 5 and 7 o'cl. 4, A. 1 fr. ; these three large establishments com- 
mand a view of the lake. "Hotel du Lac, good and not expensive, about 
to be transferred to a new building opposite the Pont du Mont Blanc. — 

Hotel du Rhone (PL h.), view of the Rhone, no table d'hote; "Hotel 
Garni de la Poste, Place Bel-Air, R. 2, L. »/ 2 , B. Vj t , A. >| 2 fr. ; Hotel 
Helvetia, also a restaurant. Lion d'Or (PL i), Grand Aiglc (PL k), 
both in the Rue du Rhone; Balance (PL g). 

The Hotels on the Right Bank of the Rhone (those situated on the Quays 
command a view of the Alps) are in winter protected from the 'Bise'(N.wind). 

Hotel des Bergues (PL a), opposite Rousseau's island; "Hotel de 
Russie, new, elegantly fitted up, in the former Palais Fazy, Quai du 
Jlontblanc, R. 3, B. li|», L. and A. l'jj fr. ; Hotel do la Paix (PL gg), 
li/EDlillKR. Switzerland. Sttl Wditinr. 12 

178 Route 48. GENEVA. Voituriers. 

on the Quai du Montblanc, and near it *Hu tc 1 d'Angleterre it Beau 
R i v a g e , on the Quai de Paquis, botli new and of the first class. "Schwei- 
7. erhof (PI. e), near the station; Hotel Victoria (PI. m), opp. the 
English Church, R. 2 fr., B. l'| 2 , A. l'|a fr. •, -Hotel de Geneve, Rue 
du Montblanc 13, not far from the station, R. 2, B. 1>|4, A. and L. 1 fr. - 

Pensions Alimentaires, very numerous on account of the great influx of 
strangers; 85 to 300 fr. per month. For families and single persons: Mme.Bu- 
scarlet (200 to 250 fr.), Quai du Mont Blanc 9 ; B o v e t , Avenue des Paquis ; 
P i c a u d (85 to 200 fr.) , Quai des Eaux-Vives ; Mad. E. M a g n e n a t (150 fr.), 
Tranchees de Plainpalais 3; Baud (180 fr.), Chemin Pre" l'Eveque; Flae- 
g e 1 , Rue Pierre Fatio ; R u e g g , Rue du Rhone 92; Fromont-Jackson, 
Rue Pradier 3; Veuve Piccard (150 fr.), Place de la Metropole 2; Veuve 
Flouck, Place Bel-Air, au quatrieme; Soeurs Crochat (80—100 fr.), 
Plainpalais, Chemin Dancet 184; Ben field, Place du Port 2. — For 
students : Mme. R o u s s y (85 to 100 fr.), Rue du Rhone 29; Decosterd, 
Rue des Allemands 8; Mayor, Rue des Allemands 14, etc. — Farther in- 
formation may be obtained at the hotels and booksellers' shops. 

Cafes. On the Left Bank: "Cafe' du Nord (PI. o), de la Couronne 
(PI. p), and de Geneve, all on the Grand Quai; *du Husee, Corraterie, 
opposite the Musee Rath, with garden; du Theatre (PI. r), with garden; 
Claret; du Globe. — On the Right Bant: Cafe" de la Poste (Pl.t), 
near the English Church. — Beer. Bavarian at Acker nunn'i, Rue du 
Rhone 92, and Jutz, Chemin des Eaux-Vives 6; Macon and Lyons beer 
may be procured at most of the Cafes, Geneva beer at the breweries out- 
side the gates: Paquis Brewery (Lausanne road, PI. 1.3); Treiber 
(Route de Chene, PI. C. 7). 

Restaurants. Left Bant: Cafe" du Nord (PI. o, see above); Kriiger- 
K e g 1 e r , Luncheon- room, Place Bel-Air 4;Dettinger, Place de la Fuste- 
rie 4 ; V i z i o z , Rue du Rhone 36; Villars, Rue du Rhone 52 ; D a u - 
ben f eld, Baussont, both on the island ; also at the different hotels. 
— Right Bank: Railway Restaurant. 

Baths. De la Poste, Rue du Stand , well fitted up , hot , cold, 
shower, vapour baths, etc.; Canel, Rue de l'Hotel de Ville 11, etc. — 
Lake Baths: swimming-school, and separate baths, at the new quay on 
the 1. bank, outside the harbour, on the Vesenaz road, p. 186. — Rhone 
Baths (' Bains flottants'), Quai pont de Bel-Air, for gentlemen and ladies, 
two small swimming-basins ('piscines' ) , 40 c. per bath with towel ; sepa- 
rate baths 60 c. — Baths in the Arve, very cold, 3 jt M. from the Place 
Neuve: Granthie'raut and Hasen, both on the Chemin de l'Arve, 
424 and 473. 

Railway Station for Switzerland and France (Lyons, Chambery, etc.), 
at the upper extremity of the Rue du Montblanc, r. bank. 

Post and Telegraph Offices, Quai de la Coulouvreniere (PI. 21). Branch 
Offices opp. the rail, station, and Rue Pierre Fatio 1, all open from 7 a. m. 
to 8 p. m. 

Diligences to Chamouny, every morning at 7, Vfa, and 8, starting from 
the Grand Quai, the Place du Rhone, and the Lion d'Or (p. 177). To 
Annecy (p. 212) once daily, at 3 p. m., from the Grand Quai; to Sa- 
moens and Sixt (p. 222) daily at 2 o'cl. from the Rue de Rive 13. 

Omnibuses from every hotel to the station, and also from the post- 
office , fare 30 c. ; each article of luggage 15 c. ; to F e r n e x (every hour) 
50 c. , Place Cornavin ; Mornex (in summer) at 8. 30 and 11. 30 a. m. 
and 6. 30 p. m. from the Rue de la Croix d'Or 11 , fare 1 fr. To the 
Voirons, or Bons (p. 187) in summer Thursd. and Sund. at 5 a. m., 
Sat. at 4 p. m. , from Rue Winkelried 4 , near the Hotel des Bergues. 
Tramway to Carouge 10 c, stat. Place Neuve, near the theatre; Chene 
20 c, from the Cours de Rive. 

Voituriers. Ki) Hiker, aux Paquis; Regard, on the Terrassiere; 
S o c i e" 1 6 Genevoise (Ac hard <fc Co.), Rue des Paquis 35, the drivers 
of which wear a brown livery. One-horse carr. 15 fr. per day, two-horse 
30 fr., everything included. — Fiacres per hour 2'|2, la course l'j» fr. 

Shops. GENEVA. 48. Route. 179 

Steamboats, Swiss Bank (N.) p. 183; Savoy Bank (S.) p. 204. 
Piers of both at the Jardin Anglais (p. 181). The express-steamer Boni- 
vard (p. 188) starts from the Q,uai du Montblanc, opp. the Hotel de Russie. 

Boats for excursions on the lake (2 to 3 fr. per hour with, 80 c. 
without boatman), near the steamboat-pier on the Grand-Quai, the Quai 
du Montblanc, and the two jetties near the lighthouses. The English 
'canots'' are steadier than the 'voilliers' or sailing-boats. It is prohibited 
to approach the Pont des Bergues on account of the dangerous rapidity of 
the stream. 

Shops. The most tempting are those on the Grand-Quai , the Rue du 
Rhone, the Rue de la Corraterie (1. bank), the Quai des Bergues, and the 
Rue du Montblane (r. bank). Geneva is celebrated for its watches and 
jewellery ; the designs for the latter are for the most part borrowed from 
the French, and the principal markets for the articles themselves are Italy 
and the Levant. In Geneva 70,0JO watches are manufactured annually 
(comp. p. 169). Among the watchmakers of repute may be enumerated Venve 
Vacheron and Comp., Rue Tour de Tile 3; Patek, Philippe and 
Comp., Grand-Quai 22; Golay - Leresc he, Quai des Bergues 31 and 
Place du Port 1 (on the Grand-Quai); S. Mercier, Place du Rhone 42; 
Ekegren, Rue du Rhone SS, au troisieine. — Engravers: M. L. Bovy 
especially for medals, Rue Rousseau 18; Bo vet et Fol, Petite Fusterie 1. 
Mountain-shoes: Miiller, Place du Molard. Trunks and other travelling 
requisites: Isenring, Place du Lac 2. Carved wood, musical boxes, etc. : 
Mauchain, next door to the Mctropole. 

Booksellers. Georg, Rue de la Corraterie 10; Monroe, Place des 
Bergues 1; Menz, Place du Molard 2. 

Newspapers, periodicals, etc. in the Socie'te' de Lecture, on the 
upper floor of the Muse'e Academique, Grand 1 Rue 11; cards of admission 
procured from members. 

Exhibition of Art (permanent) of the Society des Amis des BeavT-Arts, 
in the handsome new Athenee. Admission 1 fr. 

Physicians. Dr. Metcalf, Quai du Montblanc 3; Dr. L. Appia, 
Rue des Chanoines 5; Dr. Landesmann (homoeopathic) , Rue du Mar- 
che 34. — Chemists. Geo. Baker, Place des Bergues 3; Hahn, Place 
Longemalle, etc. 

Bankers. Lombard Odier andComp., Petite Corraterie ; Kohler 
and Comp., Rue de la Corraterie 10. 

English Church on the r. bank, near the Hotel des Bergues (PI. a). 

Geneva (124:]'), with 47,581 inhab. (20,695 Rom. Cath.), 
capital of the smallest canton except Zug, is the richest and most 
populous town in Switzerland. The entire canton has a population 
of 94,116, of whom 30,000 are aliens. 

The town is situated at the S. extremity of the lake, at the 
point where the blue waters of the Rlione emerge with the swift- 
ness of an arrow; the Ari'e flows into this river below Geneva. 
The Rhone surrounds the little Quartier de Vile, and divides the 
town into two parts : on the r. bank is the Quartier St. Oervais, 
the smallest, chiefly inhabited by the industrial classes until the 
opening of the railway, since which it has been considerably 
embellished ; on the N. side squares of handsome houses occupy 
the site of the ancient fortifications. 

Seen from the lake, Geneva presents a very imposing appear-' 
ance , the banks of the Rhone being flanked with broad quays 
and substantial buildings. The interior of the older part of the 
town by no means produces a corresponding effect, and the 
streets, with a few exceptions, are narrow, steep, and crooked. La 


ISO Routt -tx GENEVA Itousmiu* Island. 

Cormterii; the ancient fosse, is celebrated in the annals of tlio 
town -|- ; les Hues Basses , a long scries of streets which intersect 
the town from E. to W. (Rue des Allemunds, du Marclie, etc.); 
and the Rue du Rhone. 

The two halves of the city, which arc separated by the Rhone, 
arc connected by means of six bridges. The highest of these, 
the handsome *Pont du Mont Blanc, completed in 18G2, leads 
from the Rue du Mont Blanc, a broad street descending from the 
railway-station, to the Jardin Anglais (see below), and with the 
latter forms the central point of attraction to visitors in summer. 
Between the Pont du Mont Blanc and the Pont des Bergues is Rous- 
seau's Island, united to the latter by a suspension bridge, and 
planted with trees (small cafe). In the centre stands the bronze 
statue of the 'wild self-torturing sophist' himself, executed by 
l'radier (1834). 

Handsome quays with numerous shops extend along both 
banks of the river in the vicinity of these bridges. The principal 
of these arc the Quai des Bergues on the r., and the Grand Quai 
on the 1. bank. The Quai du Mont Blanc, extending from the 
l'ont du Mont Blanc towards the N.E., on the r. bank of the lake, 
affords a magnificent survey of the *Mont Blanc group, which is 
visible almost in its entire extent , and presents a strikingly beau- 
tiful appearance on clear evenings. An idea of the relative alti- 
tudes , which can never be adequately appreciated at Chamouny 
itself, is obtained from this point of view. Thus Mont Blanc it- 
self is 15,781' in height, whilst the Aiguilles du Midi on the 1. 
are 12,G08'only. Farther to the 1. are the Grandcs Jorasses and 
the Dent du Ge'ant; in front of the Mont Blanc group are the 
Aiguilles Rouges; then, more in the foreground, the Mole, an 
isolated pyramid rising from the plain ; the snowy summits of the 
Aiguilles d'Argentiere and the broad Buet; to the extreme 1. the 
long ridge of the Voirons, which terminate the panorama on the 1., 
while the opposite extremity is formed by the Great and Little 
Saleve. The corner-house of the Quai and Rue du Mont Blanc, 
formerly the Palais Fazy, is now the Hotel dc Russie ; the reliefs 
on either side of the portal represent (r.) armorial bearings and 
weapons, and (1.) an eagle with a key rising above Geneva to- 
wards the sun (the arms of the city). — On the r., farther up in 

t On the night of Dec. 11th, 1G0'2, the Savoyards attempted to obtain 
possession of Geneva, and would have scaled the wall of the Corratcric 
if the citizens had net promptly repulsed them. A Fountain (PI. 25) 
in granite (designed by a sculptor of Munich), erected in 1857 at the W. 
extremity of the Rue dea Allcmands, commemorates this event, lteneath 
are two reliefs representing the del'eM of the assailants, and Tln'od. dc 
Itezc returning thanks to Ood ; ahuve, a group of soldiers scaling the walls, 
surmounted by a statue (emblematical of the town of < : encva), armed with 
lance and buckler. 

Jardin Anglais. GENEVA. 48. Route. 181 

the Rue du Mont Blanc, is the English Church, a small and taste- 
fully built Gothic structure. 

The Quai des Paquis, planted with trees, forms the continua- 
tion of the Quai du Mont Blanc, and extends to the Jetce, or 
pier, which is also adorned with trees and furnished with benches. 
The latter affords another fine view of the Alps , as well as a 
good survey of the city itself. (The finest view of Mont Blanc 
is obtained from the Pavilion de Pregny , p. 18G.) Beyond the 
Jote'e, as far as the Villa Plantamour, extends the new Quai du 
Leman, adorned with handsome villas. 

Near the Pont de la. Machine , the next bridge below the is- 
land, is a large building containing an Hydraulic Machine which 
supplies the public fountains and a great number of houses with 
river water. At the extremity of the island are the Slaughter- 
houses (Boucheries, PI. 4); at the entrance are five eagles in a 
cage, the heraldic emblems of the canton, supported at the ex- 
pense of government. 

On the S. bank of the lake (1. bank of the Rhone), on the 1. 
of the traveller approaching from the Pont du Montblanc, rises the 
National Monument, a bronze group of Helvetia and Geneva 
by Dorer, on a lofty pedestal commemorating the union of Geneva 
with the Confederation in 1814. — Farther up the lake extend 
the pleasant grounds of the Jardin Anglais. To the 1. of the 
entrance is a column with a barometer, thermometer, and hydro- 
meter; in the centre a tasteful fountain. In the Kiosque, opposite 
the Hotel de la Me'tropole, is a *Relief of Mont Blanc which 
merits a visit (on Sundays and Thursdays from 11 to 3 admission 
gratis ; at other times !/ 2 fr-)> made of lime-wood, 24' in length, 
and affording a good general idea of the relative heights of the 
'monarch of mountains' and his vassals. It comprises the mountains 
from the Col de Bonhommc to the Great St. Bernard. 

In this neighbourhood two granite blocks appear above the 
surface of the lake, termed the Pierres du Niton, on which, as 
tradition affirms, the Romans once offered sacrifices to Neptune. 
They are doubtless erratic blocks, similar to those met with on 
the Saleve and other places in the vicinity , deposited by the 
glaciers which probably covered the whole country at a very 
remote period (see Introd. XIV). 

If the traveller follow the side-street which leads from the 
Grand Quai opposite the above-mentioned Kiosque , and ascend 
a few paces, he will reach the Promenades de St. Antoine, well 
shaded grounds laid out on part of the old ramparts, and afford- 
ing a beautiful view of the lake. On an eminence to the 1. 
(S.E.), at some distance from the town, is situated the new 
Russian Church, with its glittering gilded domes, erected by 
contributions from the Imperial and other Russian families. The 
interior is worthy of inspection. 

182 Route -IS. (MONKVA. Cathedral. 

In a neighbouring street, Rue Verdaine If), is the Public 
Library (PI. 3J, open from 11 to 4 (entrance by the Salle de 
Lecture, tee 1 ft.), occupying the upper story of the College. 
It was founded in 1551 by Bonivard (p. 108J , and in 1858 
united to the grammar-school founded by Calvin. 

In the first room are the portraits of the most celebrated characters 
of the wars of the Reformation ; in others those of the Swiss reformers, etc. 
Carefully preserved under glass cases are numerous Attlographs and manu- 
scripts of Calvin, Beza, Melanchthon, Luther, Bonivard, Rousseau, St. Fran- 
cis dc Sales, St. Vincent de Paul, etc.; also a variety of curious documents 
and miniatures, forming part of the treasures of Charles the Bold (p. 174) 
taken at Grandson. 

The *Cathedral (St. Pierre, PI. 5), completed in li)'2i by the 
Emperor Conrad II., is in the purest Romanesque style; the ex- 
terior was disfigured in the 18th cent, by the addition of a 
Corinthian portico. The sacristan's (concierge) residence is behind 
the church, or he may be found in the Hoge du concierge' adja- 
cent to the church (fee '/2 fr-)- 

Interior. Stained-glass windows and carved stalls of the 15th cent.; 
the monument of the Duke Henri de Rohan (chief of the Protestants under 
Louis XIII.), who fell at Rheinfelden (p. 18) in 1638, of his wife Manj. de 
Sully, and his son Tancrede; the black marble sarcophagus rests on two 
lions; the duke is represented in a sitting posture ; the monument has been 
restored since its destruction in 1798. Beneath a black marble tombstone 
in the nave, lies Jean de Brogn'.er (d. 147G), president of the Council of 
Constance. A black monument in the S. nave is sacred to the memory 
of Agrippe d'Aubigne' (d. 1630), an eminent author and confidant of Henry IV. 
of France; the Republic of Geneva, where be died in exile, erected this 
monument in gratitude for services which he had rendered. The pulpit, 
a modern work, contains a chair once used by Calvin. 

No. 11 Rue des Chanoines (PI. l(i"), to the W. of the Cathe- 
dral, is the House of Calvin, occupied by him from 1543 until 
his death in 1564. Ho was interred in the now disused ceme- 
tery of Plain-Palais , but the spot cannot be recognised, as the 
great reformer expressly forbade that any monument should be 
erected over his remains. 

In the immediate neighbourhood, Grand' Rue No. 40, is the 
house where Jean Jacques Rousseau was born (1712, d. 1778). 

The Musee Academique (PI. 19), Grand' Rue 11, may be 
visited daily, fee 1 i'r. ; the zoological department is open to the 
public on Sundays and Thursdays, from 11 to 3 o'clock. 

Among the most remarkable of its contents arc Swiss specimens of 
natural history, geological collections by Hansst/rc, collections ot basils 
by Jirogniarl and />c i'undolli:, zoological collections by Jloissicr and Aee/>r, a 
physiological cabinet hv A. /'/V/e/, and extensive botanical collections 
bequeathed to the town in 1S6S by the heirs of Baron IMrssert. — The 
Museum of A n t i q u i t i e 8 a n d Medals, on the first lloor, contains (in 
addition to some Egyptian relics) a silver shield with figures in bas-relief, 
found in the Arve in 17'J1. 

The Reading Room (p. 179l is in the upper story. 

The Hdtel de Ville (PI. 13J, a massive building in the Flo- 
rentine st>le, is only remarkable for inclined planes in the in- 
terior being substituted for staircases, by which singular arrangement 
the counsellors in ancient times were enabled to ride, or be 

Muse? Rath. GENEVA. 48. Route 183 

conveyed in litters, to or from the council-chambers. The edifice, 
which has been recently restored , is appropriated to the use of 
the cantonal and municipal authorities. 

The Arsenal (PI. 1) (opposite to the Hotel de ViTle) which 
contains ancient and modem armour, the ladders used by the 
Savoyards in their unsuccessful enterprise (p. 180) etc., is al- 
ways open to the public. 

Adjacent to the Hotel de Ville a gate leads to the shady 
promenade of La Treille, which affords a beautiful view of the 
Saleve. Adjoining this terrace is the Botanic Garden, estab- 
lished in 1810 by the celebrated De Candolle; it is entered from the 
Bastion Bourgeois, and also serves as a promenade. Botanist:; will 
here find a valuable collection of living and preserved plants. 
The facade of the greenhouse is ornamented with marble busts 
of celebrated Genevese: Chambrey, Trembley, Ch. Bonnet, de 
Saussure, Sencbier, and Rousseau; opposite to these is a bust in 
bronze of De Candolle. Near the Bastion opposite the Bota- 
nical Garden is the new edifice destined for the reception of the 
Academie, the Library, and Museum, commenced in 1807. Near 
it, in the grounds, is a statue of David by Chaponiire. 

The Athenee , situated S.E. of the Botanical Garden, is a 
tasteful edifice in the Renaissance style, whose facade is adorned 
with busts of six celebrated citizens of Geneva. It was erected 
by the wife of the 'philhellenist' Eynard, and presented to the 
Societe" des Beaux-Arts. It contains lecture-rooms, a library of 
works on the history of art, and an exhibition of objects of art (see 
p. 17U). 

The Theatre in the Place Neuve to the N.W. (PI. 24), 
erected in 178'2, is generally closed during the summer. Theatrical 
performances were long forbidden at Geneva by the austere 
regulations of Calvin. When Voltaire caused his pieces to be 
performed at Fernex (p. 180), almost in sight of the Genevese, 
Rousseau thus remonstrated with his great contemporary: 'Jc ne 
vous aime pas; vous avez corrompu ma re'publique en liii don- 
nant des spectacles'. 

The *Musee Rath (PI. 18), opposite the theatre, containing 
a collection of pictures, casts, etc., was founded by the Russian 
general Rath, a native of Geneva, and presented to the city by 
his sisters. It has since been greatly extended. Admission in 
summer daily from 11 to 3 gratis; at other times, fee '/iff. 

Vestibule: on the 1. casts of modern sculptures, chiefly by 1'rudier ; 
also a picture by Odier, representing Charles the liold entering a church 
on horseback; to the r. the gates of the Baptistery of Florence by Ghiberti, 
the Graces by Canova, Plato by l'ra<li<:r (original). Hall on the r. : casts 
from celebrated antiques: the Laocoon, the Athlete, the Venus de Medicis, 
the Gladiator, the Listening Slave, the Extraction of the Thorn, Torso 
from the Vatican, the Apollo Belvedere, the Diana of Versailles, etc. — 
Picture Hall I. (on the E. side): 71. Lugardon, Bonivard's release; 
51. Hornung, Bonivard in prison (p. 198) ; 72. Lugardon, Arnold von Melch- 

t84 Route 48. GENEVA. History. 

thai; "19. Calame, Forest at the Handeck; 162. Favas, Portrait of General 
Dufour ; "29. Diday , Cascade of the Sallenche (Pisse-Vache) ; "28. Diday, 
Oaks in a storm •, ST. side 50. Hornung, Catherine de Hcdicis contemplating 
the head of Admiral Coligny ; 65. Liotard , Portrait of himself, in chalks ; 
67. Liotard", Maria Theresa, in chalks ; W. 49. Hornung, Death of Calvin ; 
121. A. Tbpffer , Winter landscape; -55. Humbert, Cattle; 134. Wouver- 
mans, Crossing a river; 48. Van der Heist, Portrait; 117. D. Teniert, A 
smoker. In the centre of the hall a bust of General Bath. — Hall II. 
(E.) 100, 101. Landscapes by Salvator Rosa; 130. Portrait of the Princess 
Palatine Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orleans (d. 1722), by Rigavd. 

Passing between the Musee Rath and the Theatre, the tra- 
veller reaches the Place Neuve, in the new suburb Plain-Palais. 
(Horse-railway to Carouge in 20 min., comp. p. 178.) On the 
S.W. side is the Conservatoire do Musique, behind which stands 
a handsome building, formerly a Freemasons' Lodge, now a club- 
house and cafe". To the S. of this is the new B&timentElectoral, 
on which is inscribed the motto of Geneva: 'Post tenebras lux' ; 
to the N. the Synagogue, in the Moorish style. 

Leaving the latter, the traveller may cross the Pont de la 
Coulouvreniere, the lowest of the bridges, and passing the simple, 
but handsome Rom. Cath. church of Notre Dame, proceed direct 
to the railway-station. 

History. The sights of Geneva may easily be inspected in a day. The 
town possesses few monuments, and is chiefly interesting on account of the 
prominent position it held during important historical periods. The prin- 
ciples which since the 16th cent, have shaken Europe to its foundation, 
emanated chiefly from Geneva. Calvin (who resided at Geneva from 
1536 to 1564) and Rousseau (born at Geneva in 1712) wore the great 
advocates, one of religious, the other of social reform ; but, though kindred 
in genius, these two illustrious men had no other qualities in common. 
The former, after Luther the most eminent of the old reformers, used 
his powerful intellect in propagating that pure faith which is now so 
widely extended, whilst the other employed his transcendant powers of 
mind in disseminating principles, generally considered to conduce neither to 
the good nor the happiness of mankind. Geneva has also given birth to the 
naturalists de Luc, Bonnet, and de Saussure, the botanists de Candolle and 
E. Boissier, the political economist Say, the historian Sismondi, the natural 
philosophers de la Rive , J. Pictet , and many other distinguished savants. 
Nec&er, minister of Louis XVI., and his daughter, Madame de Stall, were 
also natives of Geneva. A country so limited in extent (the canton is only 
15 miles long by as many broad) could never have much prominence in a 
political point of view. ' When I shake my wig, I powder alt the republic', 
was the well known sarcasm of Voltaire. '/( is a tempest in a glass of water", 
was the contemptuous exclamation of the Emperor Paul, on hearing of 
some commotion in the little republic. 

The history of this small state may be thus briefly summed up. We 
find it mentioned for the first time by Cscsar: l Extremum oppidum Allo- 
brogum est proximumque Helveliorvm finibut Geneva. Ex eo oppido pons ad 
Helvetios pertinet, quern Caesar jubet rescinds, etc. (de Bello Gall. I. 6 — 8). 
In common with the Allobrogi , Geneva fell under Roman rule ; in 482, 
owing to the decay of the Roman Empire , it became subject to Burgundy ; 
in the following cent, the Franks gained possession of it, and retained 
their footing until the division of the empire. After subduing Burgundy 
(1034), the Emperor Conrad II. caused himself to be proclaimed king here 
for the second time, and was crowned by the Archbishop of Milan. 

Succeeding ages were witnesses of a series of struggles between the 
Bishops of Geneva, who aimed at the temporal power, the Counts of Ge- 
neva, in their capacity of Prefects of the Empire, and the Counts or Dukes 

History. GENEVA. 48. Route. 185 

of Savoy, who contrived that the episcopal throne should be always occu- 
pied by a member of their own family. In the midst of these dissensions, 
the citizens of Geneva concluded an alliance with Freiburg (1518) and Bern 
(152C). Two parties were thus formed in the town, the Confederates (Ger. 
Eidgenossen, pronounced by the French 'Higuenos', whence the term 'Hugue- 
nots '), and the Mamelukes, partisans of the House of Savoy. 

From these discords, which the treaty of St. Julien in 1530 only par- 
tially appeased, sprung the Reformed Religion, to which Geneva iin 
mediately attached itself. In 1535 the Bishop transferred his scat to Gcx. 
From that time the supremacy of the Romish Church ceased at Geneva } 
the new doctrines were vigorously and successfully propagated by Farel, 
and the Bishop was deprived of his power. 

About this time a theologian, expelled from France on account of his 
tenets, sought refuge at Geneva ; this was Jean Calvin, properly Caulvin 
or Chauviti, who was born at Noyon in Picardy in 1509. He attached himself 
to Farel, and soon obtained so great an influence in all the affairs of church 
and state, that he may be said to have exercised a complete sway in Ge- 
neva. He maintained his authority until his death (1564). He was indefatig- 
able in preaching, and his zeal against the corruptions of the Romish Church 
was unbounded ; his rhetorical powers were of the highest order , and he 
exercised an irresistible influence over his fellow-citizens. Austere in his own 
mode of life, he imposed a most rigorous code upon others, and if the 
Bishop's sway had been tyrannical, Calvin's was not less so. But whilst 
vindicating the liberty of conscience, he too frequently forgot his own 
principles and the behests of the Gospel he advocated. Castellio, one of 
his earliest friends and fellow-labourers, having ventured to differ from him 
on the doctrine of predestination , was banished by bim in 1540. Michael 
Scrvetus, a Spanish physician who had fled from Viennc in Dauphine in con- 
sequence of having written a treatise on the doctrine of the Trinity (de 
Trinitatis erroribus) , and who had only sojourned in Geneva for a short 
time, was arrested in 1553 by Calvin's order and condemned to the stake, 
a judicial murder which has left an indelible stain upon the memory of 
the stern and unforgiving reformer. The execution took place on the 
Champel, a hill to the S. of the town. 

The attempts made by the Dukes of Savoy at the commencement of 
the 17th cent, to bring Geneva again under their sway were abortive. Many 
Protestant princes, who recognised Geneva as the bulwark of the Reformed 
church , contributed considerable sums of money towards the fortification 
of the town. 

In the 18th cent. Geneva was greatly weakened by intestine troubles. 
Jean Jacques Rousseau, the son of a watchmaker, was born here in 
1712, and remained in his native town during his early youth. His writings, 
which exhibit ability of the highest order, exercised a great influence over 
the opinions of his age, but their tendency was highly injurious to society, 
and he passed a troubled and agitated life. At the instigation of 
Voltaire and the university of Paris, and by order of the magistrates of 
Geneva, his '■EmiW and 'Contrat SociaV were burnt in 17G3 by the hang 
man, as being 'te'me'raires, scandaleux, impies et tendants a dHruire la ?'<'- 
ligion chretienne et tous les gouvernemenls' . He died at Ermcnonville, near 
Paris, in 1778. 

On the 15th of April, 1798, the French entered Geneva, annexed the 
town to the French Republic, and made it the capital of the 
du Liman. The events of 1814 having restored it to liberty, it became in- 
corporated with in the Swiss Confederation , of which it became the 22nd 
Canton. The later history of Geneva, the rise of Radicalism within it, 
the ascendancy of James Fazy and bis fall in 1864, are well known. 

49. Environs of Geneva. Fernex. Mont-Saleve. 

Comp. Map, p. US. 

Omnibuses and carriages, see p. 178. 

In the vicinity of Geneva , both banks of the lake are stud- 
ded with a succession of villas, in the erection of many of which 
much taste has been displayed , and enormous sums have been 
expended. Most of them are not accessible to the public; the 
Villa Rothschild at Pregny, however, is an exception (see below). 

Sight (\V.) Bank. At Les Vi-lices, the Villa Tronchin, property of 
Voltaire from 1755 — 1760; at VareuM, Mac Culloch ('Chateau de Tlin- 
peratrice', formerly occupied by the Empress Josephine); at Lc Rivage, 
the Villa of the Countess Gasparin; at Pregny, Adolf Rothschild 
(a superb chateau recently built, visible from the lake ; magnificent "view 
of Mont Blanc from the pavilion in the park; adm. on Sundays and Thurs- 
days 12 — 3 by cards, procured gratis at the hotels at Geneva). From Geneva 
the road to Fernex may be followed as far as a (1 M.) garden-pavilion, 
where a finger-post indicates the way to Pregny to the r. (l'| 2 M. to the 
entrance of the garden). 

Left (E.) Bank. At Les Eaux Viees, Favre (a magnificent chateau 
containing the Parting of Venus and Adonis, an early work of Oanova) ; 
Diodati (Villa of Lord Byron). 

Walks. The most beautiful arc on the right bank by 
Petit- and Grand-Sacconnex along the brow of the hill, 
which commands a view of the lake and Mont Blanc, as far as 
Versoix (p. 189) on the bank of the lake, whence Geneva may 
be regained either by railway or steamboat in i i /. i hr. — On the 
left bank: from the Jardin Anglais (p. 181) along the quay, 
beneath the shade of the avenue of plane-trees, skirting the lake 
as far as (3 M.) Vesenaz (inn with garden by the lake); return 
by Cologny (*Restaurant at the Chalet Suisse, beautiful view of 
Geneva and the lake), or farther to the E. by Chougny. From 
both these roads Mont Blanc is visible. 

Omnibuses leave the Place Comavin every hour for Fernex 
(Truite), situated 4'/'2 M. to the N. of Geneva. On the road, 
from the highest part of the Petit Sacconnex, there is a charming 
view of Geneva , the lake, and Mont Blanc. Fernex is in French 
territory. YoUnive may be regarded as the founder of this little 
town. He purchased the land in 1759, attracted industrious 
colonists, founded manufactories, built his own dwelling, which he 
dignified with the title of Chateau, and erected a church, over 
the portal of which he aflixcd the ostentatious inscription : Deo 
trt.iit Voltaire. The 'patriarch' was proud of his new creation, 
and often boated of it. All memorials of him have long 
since disappeared. Fine view from the garden-terrace of the house 
(not accessible on ,Sund.). Within the last 30 years an old gar- 
dener, who had been in the service of Voltaire, and retained a 
perfect remembrance of him, still resided at Fernex, and retailed 
to the curious many anecdotes and traits of character of the man 
whose stupendous talents undoubtedly exercised a great, though 
injurious influence, over the age in which he lived. 

LES VOIRONS i9. Route. 187 

Omnibus to Carottye (p. 21;]) 15 c, horse-railway from the 
Place Neuve in Geneva to the Grande Place at Caiouge 10 c. 

The *Saleve (Petit and Grand), a long ridge of limestone 
rock, rises 4'/ 2 M. S.E. of Geneva, in the territory of Savoy 
(France); its N.W. side is nearly perpendicular, whilst that on 
the S.E. presents a gentle slope, covered with pastures and 
numerous habitations. The Petit-Saleve (2946'), which forms 
its N. extremity, extends to the Arve; it affords a beautiful 
view, greatly surpassed however by that from the summit of the 
Grand-Saleve (4537'), which embraces the Lake of Geneva, the 
Jura, the Cantons of Geneva and "Vaud, and part of France; 
on the S.E. the prospect is bounded by Mont Blanc. Refreshments 
on the summit in the Auberge des Treize Arbres. The still higher 
prolongation of the Saleve to the r. is termed Les Pitons; on the 
highest point stands a stone tower. 

The most direct road to the Grand-Saleve (9 M.) from Geneva 
is by Carouye and Crevin (leaving the pond at the end of the 
village to the r.); then through the Grande Gorge by a winding 
path. — The road passes by Chine (p. 214) and (T'/oM .) Mornex 
(*Ecu de Geneve; *Ecu de Savoie; Iiellevue), a charming village 
on the S. slope of the Petit-Salt' ve, anil a favourite summer resort 
of the Genevese ; thence to Monnetier j*Jnn), situated in the 
defile which separates the Petit from the Grand-Saleve ; the 
ruined towers at the end of the new road have been converted 
into a pension (*Chateau de Monnetier). From this point the 
ascent of the Petit-Saleve may be made in '^ nr -> that of the 
Grand-Saleve in 1 '/ 2 hr. 

Omnibus from Geneva to Mornex, see p. 178. Donkeys at Mornex and 
Monnetier 1 t'r. per lir. Pedestrians may descend by the steps on the N. 
side ('Pas des BclieDes') to ('|'2 hr.) Vei/rier, whence Carouge (p. 213) is 
reached in 3 |j hr. 

*Les Voirons (4 380'; omnibus to its base, see p. 178), a long 
mountain ridge N.E. of Geneva (see p. 180), affords a very 
pleasing prospect, extending from the Dent d'Oche to the mountains 
of the Lake of Annecy, and embracing the Mont Blanc chain. 
On the E. side, 200 yds. below the summit, are situated two 
*Pensions, the Chalet (moderate), and the Hotel des Voirons, whence 
beautiful walks may be taken to (1 hr.) le Pralatre, the W. 
summit; to the ancient monastery on the E. slope, and to the 
pavilion on the highest peak. 

The mountain is reached by a carriage - road from Geneva by Boege, 
and by another via Bons, the latter being the more attractive (omnibuses); 
thence to the summit by carr. or on foot. — The shortest route is from 
Geneva to La Burgve on the road to the Val de Sixt, by carriage in l'j* hr. ; 
thence by a good bridle-path on the X. side of the mountain, commanding 
a beautiful view of the lake and environs of Geneva, to the hotel in 2 1 |a 
hrs. — From Geneva to Boege 9 M., whence the hotel may be reached by 
a steep foot-path in 2 hrs. 

The Fort de I'Ecluse and Perte du Rhone (in France) may be 
reached by railway (Geneva-Lyons) in 1 hr., see p. 208. 


50. From Geneva to Martigny by Lausanne and 
Villeneuve. Lake of Geneva (Northern Bank). 

Railway. In 4>| 4 — 5'| 2 hrs. [to Lausanne l'|»— 2'U, to Vevay 2«/-t — 3'/ 4 , 
to Sion (If. G3J 0'|.|— 0'|j hrs.l ; fares 12 fr. 35, 8 fr. 80, G fr. 20 c. (to Lausanne 
4 fr. 90, 3 fr. G5, 2 fr. 45 c, to Vcvay C fr. Of), 5 fr. 5, 3 fr. 45 c, to Sion 15 fr. 
50, 10 fr. 85, 7 fr. 75 c). From Geneva to Ilex, and from Bouvcrct to Sion 
(comp. K. 51) return- tickets, available for the same day only, are issued 
(on Sundays to Bex at reduced fares available for 2 days), but between 
Bex and St. Maurice return-tickets are not issued. — It should be particu- 
larly observed that passengers by all trains to and from Rex change car- 
riages at St. Maurice. — Comp. Introd. X. 

Steamboats along the Northern Bank far preferable to the railway, 
affording a more perfect survey of the scenery: to Morges (4 fr., 1 fr. GO c.j 
in 2'|2 hrs., to Ouchy (Lausanne, 5 fr., 2 fr.) in 3 — 3'|i hrs., to Vevay (G fr. 
50, 2 fr. GO c.) in 4— A'ii hrs., to Villeneuve (7 fr. 50, 3 fr.) in 4'| 4 — 5 hrs.; 
to Bouvcrct (5 fr., 2'|2 fr.) in 4 3 |4 — 5 hrs. Express-steamer jionivard, starting 
from tliu Quai du Montblanc (p. 180), from Geneva to Villeneuve in 3 hrs. 
55 min. ; fares higher. Return-tickets for two days at a fare and a half, 
available also for the return-route by railway, in which case, however, 
they arc valid for the day of issue only. Landing and embarkation 
free. — Stations on the N. Bank (those printed in italics are pro- 
vided with piers) : Versoix , Coppet , Celigny , Nyon, Rolle, Morges, Ouchy 
(Lausanne), Lutry , Cully, Vevay, Clarens- Montreux, Chillon, Ville- 
neuve. — The steamboats 'La Fleche' and 'Chablais' ply between the 
N. and S. banks. Between Evian and Geneva once daily (the ' Simplon' and 
' Lltalic ' also make this trip twice daily, sec p. 204) : Stations : Belotle, 
Ilellerive, Asniires, Hcrmanee, Nernier, T/ionon. (From Evian to Morges or 
Ouchy 2 fr., or 1 fr.). — Service along the Southern Bank, sec p. 204. 
There is no table d'hote on board these boats, but a plain dinner may be 
procured for 2 fr. — The service along the N. bank is preferable to the S. 
(It. 51), affording a more extensive view of the Alps. 

Those who wish to visit the Lake of Geneva, and the valley of Chamouny 
from Geneva as expeditiously, and at the same time as inexpensively as pos- 
sible, without retracing any portion of the route, will require 3 or 4 days 
for the purpose. 1st day. By the first boat along the S. bank ( R. 51 ) to 
Bouveret and thence by railway to Martigny, or from Geneva to Martigny 
direct by the iirst train ; arriving at Martigny at noon, the traveller lias 
still time, in the middle of summer, to cross the Col de Balmc (R. 5G) or 
the Tote Noire (R. 55) to Argcntierc in the valley of Chamouny. — 2nd day. 
Early in the morning by Lcs Tines to the Ghnpeau, over the Mer dc Glace 
to Montanvert and Chamouny. In the afternoon to the Flegere, returning 
to Chamouny in the evening (R. 54). — 3rd day. By diligence to Geneva 
(I!. 53). Excursion-tickets, sec p. 213. 

The Lake of Geneva (1230'), Fr. Lac Leman,GeT. Oenfer See, 
the Laeus Lemanus of the Romans, is 45 M. in length, 8 x k M. 
wide between Rolle and Thonon, 7'/. 2 M. between Ouchy and 
Rvian, and only l l /*2 M. between the Pointe de (ienthod and 
Bellerive, 500' deep near Chillon, 050' near Meillerie, and 300' 
between Nyon and Geneva. The area is about 2G0 sq. M. , being 
34 sq. M. more than that of the Lake of Constance. In shape it 
resembles a half-moon , the two horns of which are inclined to 
theS.; this form is most distinctly and beautifully observed from 
the Signal de lloiigy (p. 191). The K. horn formerly extended 
9 M farther towards Itex : the deposit brought down bv the 





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COPPET. 00. Route. 189 

Rhone lias, however, gradually filled up this part of the lake, 
and the alluvial soil thus formed daily increases in extent. 

The Lake of Geneva differs from the other Swiss lakes in its deep blue 
colour, most of the other lakes being of a greenish hue. This blue tint is 
ascribed by Sir Humphrey Davy (who lived some years and died at Ge- 
neva), to the presence of iodine; the Swiss naturalists, however, do not 
take this view. There are 21 different kinds of fish in the lake, the most 
abundant and highly esteemed of which are the Ferraz. The navigation of 
the lake is inconsiderable, but there are many vessels of 190 tons ; the 
graceful lateen sail, rarely seen except at Leghorn and on the Scottish lakes 
(where they are termed ' goose-wings ') , is here employed, and has a very 
picturesque appearance. On the banks are seen the sweet and wild chest- 
nut, the walnut, the magnolia in great luxuriance , also the cedar of 
Lebanon, and the vine. 

The Lake of Geneva, like that of Constance, is subject to occasional 
changes of level (seyches). At particular spots the water rises several feet 
without any apparent cause, nor is there any perceptible motion ; it remains 
at this height for a period never exceeding 25 min., and then again sub- 
sides to its original level. This phenomenon is usually attributed to the 
action of the wind upon the surface of the water ; it occurs more frequently 
during the night than the day, in spring and autumn oftener than in summer, 
and seems also dependent upon other atmospheric influences. The waves 
of the lake in stormy weather are termed by the natives 'moutons \ In the 
early months of the year the water is lowest ; in July, August, and September 
the melting of the snow occasions a rise of 5 or 6'. The currents (ar- 
dyres) caused by the rising of subterranean springs are frequently so strong, 
that no oarsman can make way against them. Waterspouts also occur oc- 
casionally. It has been ascertained that when the temperature of the lake 
at the surface is 7G° Fahr. , at a depth of 923' it is only 46". The lake has 
never been entirely frozen over. 

The Lake of Geneva has for centuries been a theme for writers of all 
countries. Its connection with some of the greatest names of modern times 
is universally known ; Voltaire and Goethe speak of it with enthusiasm ; 
Eousseau makes it the scene of his impassioned romance, the 'Nouvclle 
11010136''; the exquisite stanzas of Byron, who dwelt for some time upon 
its shores, fairly describe its varied beauties ; Alexander Dumas deems it 
worthy of comparison with the bay of Naples : indeed the arts of the poet 
and painter have been exhausted to do justice to this lovely expanse of 
water, which combines the sunny softness of the Lago Maggiorc with the 
imposing grandeur of the Lake of Lucerne. Mont Blanc is visible only 
from the W. bank, from Geneva, Nyon, Rolle, and more especially from 
Morges (p. 191). 

Steamboats, seep. 188; departure, seep. 179. The banks of 
the lake , beautifully planted , and studded with innumerable 
villas, are remarkably picturesque. 

Versoix(1263'), a considerable village, which formerly belonged 
to France. The Duke of Choiseul, Minister of Louis XV., being 
hostile to Geneva, contemplated founding a rival city here. The 
streets were even mapped out, but the design was never carried 

Coppet (Croix Blanche ; Anye ; Hotel et Pension du Lac), opposite 
Hermance (p. 204). The castle formerly belonged to Necker, 
a native of Geneva, who from being a banker at Paris was 
appointed minister of finance by Louis XVI.; in 1790 he quitted 
Paris and retired to Coppet , where he died in 1804. His 
daughter, the celebrated Madame cle Sta'el (d. 1827), the first 
female writer of her age, likewise resided here lor some years, 

190 Route 50. ROLLE. From Geneva 

and attracted a brilliant circle of wits and savants around her. 
Her desk, her portrait by David, and a bust of Necker are shown 
to those interested in names which fill no mean place in the 
page of history. The father and daughter, with other members 
of their family, are buried in a chapel hidden from view by a 
group of trees.and surrounded by a wall to the W. of the castle. 
The whole is now the property of the Due de Broglie, son-in-law 
of Madame de Stae'l. 

Nyon (*H6tel du Lac, carriages to St. Cergues, see below ; *Ange, 
unpretending near the station, V4 M. from the lake), the Colonia 
Julia Equestris, or Noviodunum , of the Romans. The ancient 
castle, in the Romanesque style, with walls 10' in thickness, 
and 5 towers, now the property of the town, was built in the 
12th cent. Carnot (d. 1823, at Magdeburg), the able and devoted 
adherent of Napoleon, feund a refuge here. Farther on, among 
the trees, stands the chateau of Prangins, formerly the property 
of Joseph Buonaparte ; La Bergerie, a portion of it, now belongs 
to Prince Napoleon ; the remaining portion has been converted 
into the 'Pension Grand Chdteau de Prangins'. 

On a promontory stands Promenthoux , and on the opposite 
bank, 3 M. distant, Yvoire (p. 204). The Jura mountains gradually 
recede. The most conspicuous peaks are the Dole (see below), 
the highest summit of the chain , 500 or 600' higher than the 
adjoining ridge, and to the N. of this the Noir-Mont (5118'). 
The lake forms a semicircular bay from the mouth of the 
Promenthouse to the Aubonne beyond Rolle, and here attains its 
greatest width ' (p. 188). On the banks of this bay, which are 
termed La Cote, one of the best Swiss wines (p. 175) is produced. 

Ascent of the Dole, a delightful excursion in clear weather _ 
Omnibus from Nyon in 3 hrs. (fare 2'ja fr.) to St. Cergues (H6(el du Canton' 
de Vaud; Union; Pension Delaigue; ' Observatoire on an eminence, 5 min. 
from the post - office, between the old castle of St. Cergues and the Noir- 
mont, commands a lovely view), a small village at the N. E. base of the 
Dole, two-thirds of the way from the top, frequently selected for a prolonged 
stay in summer on account of its salubrious air; thence with a guide (5 fr., 
hardly necessary) to the summit of the 'Dole (5319') and back in 5 hrs. 
(including rest) , time being still left to reach Nyon the same night if 
desired. The carriage-road from Nyon to St. Cergues leads by (3 M.) Trilex, 
at the base of the hill. The traveller should drive as far as the commence- 
ment of the well -shaded old road, l'/a M. beyond Trelex, preferable for 
pedestrians to the new. It follows the telegraph wires, and leads to 
St. Cergues in a straight direction (4 M.) up the mountain. A one-hone 
carr. (6 fr.) may be hired from stat. Nyon to the foot of the old road. — 
A pleasanter footpath to the Dole leads by La Rippe, l'J 4 hr. to the S. of 
Nyon. — Chalet on the Dole dear. 

Diligence from St. Cergues by Let Roustes, a small French frontier- 
fort, and Le Brassut , to Le Sentier, the Lac de Joux , Le Lieu , and Lt 
Pont (comp. R. 47), a pleasant and diversified route, traversing the valley 
of Uappet (at the £. base of the Dole), a district adjudged to Switzerland 
in 1815, but until recently a source of contention between that country and 

Rolle (*Tete Noire; Couronne), birthplace of the Russian 
general Laharpe, tutor of the Emperor Alexander I., and one ol 

■V^ t" €' ' *■ <#$% lit W-- kX^a^* 



PI 4 JIMflM- 

to Martigny. LAUSANNE. 50. Route. 191 

the most zealous advocates of the separation of the canton of 
Vaud from Bern (1798), comp. p. 193. His native town has 
erected an Obelisk , 42' high , on a small island in the lake to 
his memory. 

3 SI. to the N. of Rolle , on a vine -clad hill above the village 
of Bougy, is a celebrated point of view, the 'Signal de Bougy (2910'), 1680' 
above the lake, of which it commands a noble prospect, with the moun- 
tains of Savoy, and Slont Blanc towering behind them. A u b o n n e ( ' Cou- 
ronne), a small town of great antiquity, lies 2 M. E. of the Signal. The 
church contains a monument to the French Admiral Duquesne (d. 1G87). 
The castle formerly belonged to the celebrated traveller Tavernier. Om- 
nibus from Aubonne to (l'|2 M.) Stat. Allanuw. 

The bank of the lake between Rolle and Lausanne is almost flat. On 
a promontory the village of St. Prex ; then, in a wide bay, Morges 
(Hotel des Alpes , on the quay , pension 4 fr. ; Hutel du Port ; Cou- 
ronne), a busy manufacturing town, with a harbour, and an old castle 
now used as a magazine for artillery. The venerable castle of Vufflens 
stands on an eminence at some distance to the N. ; tradition 
attributes its construction to Queen Bertha (p. 165). From this 
point *Mont Blanc is visible in clear weather in all its majesty 
to the r. , through an opening in the mountains. The railway 
station (p. 175) is 1 / 2 M. from the steamboat-pier. 

The steamboat next reaches Ouchy (1230') (Hotel Eeau- 
Rivage, on the quay, R. from 3 fr., L. 1, B. l'fs, A. 1 fr. ; An ere, in- 
different; "Lake Baths for gentlemen and ladies, >|2 fr.), formerly Ripe, the 
port of Lausanne. Omnibuses await passengers for Lausanne. The 
railway station (p. 175) is about 3/ 4 M. from Ouchy, and Lau- 
sanne lies l /i M. higher up (comp. the Plan). 

Lausanne (1689'), the Lausonium of the Romans, with 
26,520 inhab. (3517 Rom. Cath.), capital of the Canton de Vaud. 

Hotels. 'Faucon (PI. a), R. 2'ja fr., L. 1, B. 1% D. at 1 o'cl. 3, at 
5 o'cl. 4, A. 1 fr. ; Hotel Gibbon (PI. b), opposite the post-office. In the 
garden behind the dining-room the historian Gibbon wrote the concluding 
portion of his great work in 1787. — "Bellevue (PI. c); "Hotel du 
Grand Pont (PI. d), near the bridge, R. 2, B. li| 4 , D. 3, A. i| 2 fr., a cafe 
below; Hotel Riche Mont (PI. e), to the 1. on the way from the 
station to the town; "Hotel et Pension Belvedere, well situated 
near the 'Belvedere' promenade, R. from l'| 2 fr. , D. 3 fr. ; A. '(2, L. 
'|2 fr. ; Hotel du Kord (PI. g) Rue du Bourg , with Cafe; Hut el 
d 'Angle terre (PI. f); Hotel du Raisin (PI. h); all of the second 
class. — Hotel des Alpes (also Cafe), at the station, in a garden. Pen- 
sions: Pension Cheval lier 5 fr., and others. — C a f 6- Re s t au- 
rant du Casino-Theatre, elegantly fitted up. 

Omnibus from the station into the town or to Ouchy (to the steamboats), 
'|2 fr., box 'la fr. — Fiacres dear: to the station 2 fr. 

Post and Telegraph Office, at the entrance of the town from the station. 

English Church Service at the English Chapel erected by Sir. Haldimand. 

Lausanne, visible on the lake from a great distance, is most 
delightfully situated on the terraced slopes of Mont Jorat, over- 
shadowed by its cathedral on one side, and its castle on the other. 
The interior of the town produces a less agreeable impression. 
The streets are irregular, and the houses in the older part in- 
significant. The two quarters are connected by a handsome 

102 Route 50. LAUSANNE. From Geneva 

*hridge ("the (/rund-Pont), erected 1839 — 1844, also named the 
I'ichard bridge, after the architect who designed it. The almost 
level causeway intersecting the town passes under the castle by 
a tunnel, 50 paces long, near the Place de la Riponne, in which, 
as well as in the new Rue de Berne and the Casino Promenade, 
the houses are large and handsome. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 6), erected 1235 — 1275, and consecrated 
l>y Gregory X. in the presence of Rudolph of Hapsburg, is a Gothic 
edifice of simple but massive construction. The terrace on 
which it stands is approached from the market-place by a flight 
of 164 steps of mean appearance. The sacristan (marguiUier) 
lives to the 1. (N.) of the principal entrance, No. 5 ; the church 
is open daily 9 — 12 and 2 — 5 o'clock. 

In 1536 a celebrated Disputation took place in this church , in which 
Calvin, Farel, and Viret participated, and which resulted in the episcopal 
scat being transferred to Freiburg, the separation of Vaud from the Romish 
Church, and the suppression of the supremacy of Savoy. The Interior 
of this Prot. church (352' long, 151' wide) is strikingly symmetrical 
in its proportions. The vaulted roof of the aisle, 66' in height, is sup 
ported by clustered columns of different designs, 20 in number. Above 
the graceful triforium runs another arcade, which serves as a framework 
for the groups of the upper windows. The choir is adorned with columns 
arranged in a semicircle ; in the arcades which surround the choir appears 
an ancient form of pilaster, a relic of the Burgundian-Romanesque style 
of architecture. The beautiful circular window and the W. and S. portals, 
with their carving, also merit inspection. Above the cupola rises a clock- 
tower, covered with wrought iron. The old tower was destroyed by light- 
ning in 1820. The most remarkable 'Monuments are those of Duke 
Victor Amadeus VIII. of Savoy (d. 1451), whom the Council of Bale (p. 2) 
elected pope under the title of Felix V. ; farther on in the choir are monu- 
ments to Otto of Grandson, who fell in a judicial duel (p. 174) (the absence 
of hands to the figure has no symbolical signification) ; the bishop Guillaumc 
de Menthonex (d. 1406) ; the Russian Princess Orlow (d. 1782) ; the Duchess 
Caroline of Curland (d. 1783); Harriet Stratford-Canning (d.1818), first wife of 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, at that period ambassador in Switzerland (by 
Bartolini , not , as is commonly believed , by Canova) ; Countess Wall 
moden-Gimborn (d. 1783), mother of the Countess of Stein, wife of the cele- 
brated Prussian minister, etc. A tablet on the wall of the N. transept 
near these monuments bears the following inscription : *-l la me'moire du 
Major Davel, mort sur Vichafaud en 1723, le 24 Avril, martyr des droits et 
de la liberie du peujtle Vaudois'', a tribute paid to his memory by Laharpo 
(p. 190), who succeeded in effecting that for which Davel was beheaded as 
a traitor. 

The Terrace (formerly the churchyard) commands a fine *viow 
of the town, the lake, and the Alps of Savoy; the prospect is still 
more extensive from the summit of the tower, 162' in height. The 
adjoining episcopal palace (Evlche , PI. 12) is now used as a 
prison and court of justice. The view from the ancient episcopal 
Castle (PI. 7) (now the Cantonal Council Hall) which stands 
higher \ip, ia also very fine. It was erected in the 13th cent., 
but from repeated alterations has lost much of its original 

The Cantonal Museum (PI. 1) (open Wed. and Sat. 10—4, 
Sund. 11 — 2 o'clock) in the Collri/c near the cathedral, contains 

to Martigny. LAUSANNE. 50. Route. 193 

a cabinet of natural history, a valuable collection of freshwater 
conchylia, presented by M. tie Charpentier (d. 1855); also relics 
from Aventicum (p. 165) and Vidy, the ancient Lausanne, and a 
number of interesting Celtic Antiquities, chiefly relics from the 
ancient lake-dwellings. 

The Arlaud Museum (PI. 19), founded by an artist of that 
name in 1846, in a large building in the Riponne opposite the 
corn-exchange (Orenette), is open 11 — 3, gratis on Sundays, 
Wednesdays, and Saturdays, on other days fee 1 fr. It contains 
a small collection of pictures by the old masters , and also some 
good modern works: Calame, Lake of Brienz; Diday, Rosenlaui; 
Gleyre, Execution of Major Davel (see above), etc. — In the 
vicinity, Rue Chaucran 16, is the Musee Industriel Elementaire, 
with well arranged industrial collections (admission on Wed. and 
Sat. 12—31/2, Sund. 11—12 o'clock). 

The admirably organised Blind Asylum (Asyle des Aveuglesj, 
l / 2 M. from the town, on the high-road to France, was founded 
by Mr. Haldimand, a wealthy and benevolent Englishman (d. 
1862). The Blumer Institution, for children physically or 
mentally diseased, in the castle of Vermes, is l'/2 M. above 
Lausanne, on the road to Bern. The Penitentiary, erected in 
1828, is a model of orderly arrangement. The Schools of Lau- 
sanne are also in high repute. 

The Montbenon, an eminence in the immediate vicinity of the 
town, and on a level with it, on the road to Geneva which 
diverges to the W. near the Hotel du Grand- Pont, is laid 
out with avenues on the W. side. It commands a charming view 
of the lake, and serves as promenade, exercising -ground, and 
place of assembly. The environs of Lausanne are more beauti- 
fully wooded than those of the towns on the E. bay of the Lake 
of Geneva. 

The 'Signal (2126'), % hr. walk above the town, commands a justly 
celebrated view. From the post-office to the castle >|4 hr. ; over the tunnel 
by the road for about 100 paces; then an ascent to the r. by a paved 
path, from which a flight of steps on the 1. ascends to the carriage- 
road ; this is followed to the r. as far as the summer-house and pleasure 
grounds (on the r.), which are finally entered by a footpath. Descent to the 
T?. through the wood, then to the r. to (i|ihr.) Montmeillan (passage someti- 
mes forbidden), and back in >|« hr. more by a shady path to the castle. 
The view embraces a great portion of the lake. Mont Blanc is not visible 
from this point, but is seen from the Grandes Roches (li| 2 from the 
town, to the r. of the Yverdon road), another charming point of view. 

On the steep and lofty mountain-slopes (at the base of which 
lie the villages of Lutry, Cully, and St. Saphorin) , which bear 
the name of La Vaux, one of the best and strongest of the Swiss 
white wines is produced. Between Pully and Lutry, higher up, 
is the lofty viaduct of the Lausanne -Freiburg line, across the 
valley of the Paudeze. The amphitheatre of mountains becomes 
grander as the steamboat advances ; the Mol6son, Dent de Jaman, 

Bjedeker, Switzerland, nth Edition. 13 

194 Route 50. VEVAY. From Geneva 

Rochers de Naye , the Tour d'Ay and Tour de Mayen. the Dent 
de Monies and Dent du Midi; between these, to the S. , Mont 
Catogne, and in the background the snowy pyramid of Mt. Velan. 

Vevay, Fr. Veney, the Vibiscua of the Romans. 

Hotels. 'Ti-ois Couronnes, or Hotel Monnet , on the lake; 
( i rand Hotel de Veycy, to the W. of the town; "(J rand Hotel 
du Lac, to the K. of trie Couronnes; these three hotels arc spacious and 
comfortable, charges similar: H. 2— 4 fr., L. 3 J4, B. I 1 )-;, dejeuner a la 
fomchette 3, table d'hote at 1, 5, and 7>|« o'cl. 4, A. 1 It., reading, smok- 
ing and billiard-rooms, warm baths. — Hotel Lciuan, to the W. of the 
Couronnes; '"Hotel 8 e nn ; these two on the lake, charges more moderate ; 
Hotel du Faucon, opposite the Couronnes, smaller, well spoken of; 
i'rois Rois, not far from the station, no view; Croix Blanche, 
near the post-office; "Hotel du Pont, at the station, unpretending; 
Hotel de la Poste, in the town. — Pensions see p. 196. 

Cafes. Cafe du Lac;Bellevue; lies Alpes;allon the new quay, 
with terraces. — Rinsoz, Rue de Lac. 

Baths at the E. extremity of the town ; small bath-houses on the lake ; 
farther on, a swimming-bath (7 — 12 a. m. for ladies only). Warm Bath* 
at the Hotels Monnet, Senn, and Trois Rois. 

Station on the N. side of the town, on the 1. bank of the Veveyse. 

Post Office, Place de l'Ancien Port. — Telegraph Office opposite the 
X. side of the Hotel de Ville. — Bankers : Geo. Glas, Place de la Maison 
de Ville; A. Cutnod Churchill, Place du Marche 21. 

Omnibus from the station to the hotels 20 c, box 10 c. ; to La Toui- 
de-Peilz 30 c., box 15 c. ; to Chexbres from the post-office, 1 fr. (see p. 163). 

One-Horse Carriage, half-a-day 8 fr. and 2 fr. driver's fee. 

Rowing-boats may be hired at the quay and the Place du Jlarche : 
without a rower 1 fr. per hr., with 1 rower 2, with 2 rowers 3 fr. ; to 
Chillon, with 1 rower 6, with 2 rowers 10 fr. ; to St. Oingolph (p. 2001 
same charges ; to the rocks of Meillerie (p. 205) with 2 rowers 12, with 3 
rowers 15 fr. 

Pianofortes at Ratzenberger's, Place de l'Hotel de Ville. — Mest- 
ler's Atelier de peinture, at La Tour; studios of Mad. Hegg (llowerst 
and Valouys (oils) both in the Place du Marche. 

Bookseller. Ben da, at the Hotel Monnet (also music, etc.). 

Physicians. Dr. De Montet, Dr. C u r c h o d , Dr. G u i s a n , Dr. 
Lees on, Dr. Mniet, and Dr. Rossi er. — Grape-cure, p. 197. 

English Church Service at the Church of St. Clair. 

Vevay , charmingly situated at the influx of the Veveyse 
(1263'), is the second town of Vaud, popul. 7887 (1393 Rom. 
Oath. J. Rousseau has contributed greatly to immortalise this 
spot. The views from the small terrace at the market, the quay, 
and the new Ch&teau of M. Courreu (beautiful *garden with 
plants of southern growth, fee 1 fr.) embrace the whole scene 
of the 'Xourelle Helo'ise', the 'burning pages' of which depict 
with the utmost force and accuracy all the features of this lovely 
neighbourhood. To the K. the Tour de Peilz, Clarens, Montreux, 
and Chillon are visible; next, Villeneuve and the mouth of the 
Rhone; in the background the Alps of Valais, the Dent du .Midi, 
Mont Velan (adjoining the (Jreat St. Bernard) and Mont Catogne 
(the 'Sugar-loaf); on the S. bank of the lake, the rocks of 
Meillerie, overshadowed by the Dent d'Oche; at the foot of the 
mountains the village of St. Gingolph (p. 206). The Quai Sina 
and 1'eriionnel afford a beautiful walk, sheltered from the N. 

to Martigny. VEVAY. 50. Route. 195 

The Church of St. Martin, erected in 1498, on an eminence 
(the '•Terrasse du Panorama) among vineyards outside the town, 
surrounded by lime and chestnut trees , commands a lovely pro- 
spect. It ic; only used for service during the summer. A mountain- 
index. ( *" Indicateur des Moatay ties') has been placed here. 

In the church repose the remains of the regicides Ludlow ( l potestatis 
arbitrariae oppugnatov actrrimu$\ as the marble tablet records) and Brough- 
tim. The republicanism of Ludlow was of the purest kind ; he opposed 
the ambitious views of Cromwell, and was free alike from hypocrisy and 
fanaticism. B rough ton read the sentence to King Charles Cdignatus fuit 
setitetitiam regis regum prof art, qua/n ob causam expulsus patria sua' is 
the inscription on his monument). On the restoration of Charles 11. 
he demanded the surrender of the refugees, a request with which the 
Swiss government firmly refused to comply. Ludlow's House, which 
formerly stood at the K. extremity of the town, has been removed to 
make way for an addition to the Hotel du Lac. The original inscription 
chosen by himself, Uhiute solum, fort i pat ria\ was purchased and removed 
by one of his descendants. 

In the best wine-years the guild of vintners (I'Abbaye des Yignerons) 
celebrates a peculiar festival, probably a relic of the superstitions of the 
Roman age. The last occasion of the kind was in 1865, when thousands 
of visitors were attracted by the novelty of the spectacle, which will pro- 
bably not occur again for many years. The principal feature of the cere- 
mony consists in a grand allegorical procession, in which sacred and 
mythological subjects are often blended together with absurd incongruity. 

The chateau of "Hauteville, 2 Al. to the N.E. of Yevay, with an 
admirably kept park, commands a beautiful view from the terrace and 
tuniple. In the same direction, 2 M. higher up, is the ancient castle of 
Blonay, which has been in the possession of the family of that name for 
centuries; the path from Hauteville to Blonay inclines to the r. through 
vineyards, walnut groves, and picturesque villages. In returning, the path 
to the r. beyond the bridge may be followed \ this descends to the car- 
riage-road beneath, which leads to the (1 JU.) bridge below Chatelard, 
where the path (described below) from Vevay to Jlontreux and Chillon 
may be followed. 3 M.. farther to the N.K. are the Pleiades (properly 
Pttyaiix^ 4492'), a celebrated point of view, at the E. base of which is 
L'AUiaz |i"U28'), a small sulphur-bath establishment. 

To the E. of Vevay is the BeUerive school, well known to 
many English and American families , founded by M. Sillig ; 
the little fleet belonging to the pupils is visible from the Hotel 
Monuet , lying at anchor or cruising about on the lake. The 
tower among the trees beyond, the Tour de Peilz (Turris Peli- 
ana), said to have been built by Peter of Savoy in the 13th 
cent., was used as a prison previously to the separation of the 
cantons of Vaud and Bern. The neighbouring castle contains a col- 
lection of ancient weapons, the property of M. Rigaud. In the 
vicinity is a villa erected in 1857 by the Princess Liegnitz, widow 
of Frederick William 111. of Prussia by a morganatic marriage. 

From Vevay to Freiburg, see R. 41 \ over the Jaman into the valley of 
the Sarine and to Thun H. 38. An agreeable excursion to St. Oingolph 
(l'Jz hr. by boat) and Novel (on foot), in the valley of the Morge, thence 
ascending the Blanchard (p. 206). Inns at St. Oingolph and >Jovel very 
poor ; the traveller should therefore provide himself with refreshments 
at Vevay. 
- Pedestrians proceeding from Vevay to Montreux and Chillon (PjjM.) 
will do well to avoid the hot and dusty high-road, and select the ehady path 
along the slope of the hill, which winds among villas and gardens, com- 


196 Routt SO. CLARENS. Frtm Gate* 

manding lovely views of the lake, It. is now intersectedjby the rwlwij 
in many places, and is therefore somewhat difficult to find. The nntYi«. 
yard-path to the 1., 1 M. beyond La Tour; then towards the r.-, i&Umis. 
to the 1. ; 12 min. direction-pSst to the r. to Maladeyre aid Clneiuj 
7 min. 1. inland, to the r. a new chateau ; immediately afterward! toon 
a bridge; 17 min. cross-way, where the broad path must still he tollowd; 
3 min. below the castle of Chdtelard, built towards the end of the ffift 
century; then across a bridge to the r. and down a paved way, 5 m. 
to the 1., a slight ascent; 3 min. CfmrchgaifA of (Harm (with serenl 
handsome monuments) commanding a lovely view; the path contima 
at the same elevation, traverses a grove of walnut-trees, and fflilir.) 
leads to the church of Montreux, thence to teytaux, and down tote 

Not far from the lake, 33/ 4 M. from Vevay, lies the beautiful 
village of Clarens, immortalised by Rousseau. On a promontmy 
to the W. is situated Les Crites, a chestnut copse, popotolj 
believed to be identical with Rousseau's 'Bosquet de Julie'. Tie 
genuine 'Bosquet', however, has long since disappeared, awing 
been, according to the indignant comments of Lord Byron, uproot- 
ed by the monks of St. Bernard (to whom the land belonged) 
in order to make way for vineyards. Beautiful view from »to« 
Clarens, near the churchyard (see above). . 

On this favourite S.E. bay of the Lake of Geneva a large numWsrm 
Pensions (see Introd. Ill) have established themselves, The °*"T 
are here mentioned in their order from Vevay. At Vevay: «"™»»" 
Chdteau (6—8 fr.), three houses to the E. of the Hotel Monnet, with a W 
shady garden on the lake ; some houses farther Petition du QW : 3 ° 
Pension Maillard, all with a view of the lake (5 fr.); Pension W^";'' 
«ue des Promenades, recommended to ladies travelling alone. "»•"» ™ 
Panorama, in the vicinity of the town; Pension Chemenin, '|s «• abovel m 
£7£', charn » n g view, 5-6 fr. Farther up (at St. Legier) Pension B«m, 
(at Blonay) Pension Majonnier, 4—5 fr. — Near Vevay, at La T°w « 
J»„»\,vf : <?""«?» Victoria, on the lake; adjoining it, Pension du Aw*- 
Pension Burckhardt, in the little town of La Tour; Sellevue, beautlM 
bTs?*/™.: 1 ^-*".™™*' (Prilaz); Nestler, for gentlemen.^ 

railway-station X lu f* e ' M "Jor (3i/ 2 fr.). Between the village »«« ■• 
6 fr.)/wen shaded '°p/ 5 *">■ PP°«t° the station: Hotel des.CrfUs(tf- 
f^n Alexandre ( 5 fr^T ^l &Iens an(I Vernex (all on the lakeV 
/two houses)" adloinf^' d i h S htf «i"y situated; Richelieu (5-8fr.)i '^*> 
(shaded by fruft Cd "i)n h f % res j den «« of i>r- Carrard. At ChaiHf 
higher up (above Ve™ 1 ™'-*™*); Pen " on Benk ° r > * {r - i at Cbernex, 
Ver nex (te] sta e t ™ ex ^ several pensions at 4 fr., well shaded. -A' 

■"so an inn /•» n., I-J- >■, Pension «»».™ »„.-...- : e__Sfr.. 

de Hon 

(4-5 fr.); ftlSif! ' ° pp - the steamboat rii»? i eV "l (4 ' * fr -)i J - > Plaint * 
^"ereomn.,;*^?"! r -- *^««-X«« P „ d %i' ab ° ve the road, W-*i« 
w »h pleas,"" vfei. n . n J! view - '»»«(,,„/? *? r< <*-« fr-), the three 
f-o««e r> 5 fr ""J' 'J««to-, attentive landfJv "".i. *»«• -J^«r (6 ft-), 
At Terr.tet: », '^ d ^JJ adjacent, /V«fe />«„<»• 
-*«>«, numerous apartments 

irligny. MONTUET'X. 50. Route. 197 

•., well fitted up, rendezvous of the fashionable world, table d'hote 

o o'cl. ; opp. to it the Maison des Alpes, in which suites of 

its may be hired ta 200 — 400 fr. per month; r., Mounond, 

l'r. \ Rbhring (Hotel Bonivard), R. from 2, B. l 1 /^, A. and L. 1 fr. — 

, taux, "Masson (4 — 5 fr.). — Between Chillon and Ville- 

1 , "La Printanniere (4 — 6 fr.), shady walks ; also the handsome 

1 Byron (R. 2, U. 4, L. 1, A. 1 fr.). — At Glion (3002'), in a health y 

autiful situation, "Ildtel Righi Vaudois (R. from 2 fr., B. U\ t , D. 

■'ension 5 — 10 fr.), two houses, highly recommended for the whey- 

a good carriage-road (2 31., one-horse carr. 6 fr., two horse 11 fr. 

ee), and a steep footpath ('| 2 hr.) lead to this establishment. Ad- 

g it, HStel Bellevue (4—5 fr.). In Glion itself, " Hotel du Midi (4 fr.), 

> ther pensions at moderate charges. 

' lost of these Pensions receive passing travellers at hotel prices, but 
^itumn they are often full. The grape-cure usually commences at 
,.:nd of September and lasts about 4 weeks. Grapes charged l \z fr. 
lb. Bex (p. 201) has lately become a place of considerable resort ; 
promenades are better shaded than those at Montreux, but the absence 
he lake renders it less attractive. — In the height of summer when 
heat on the lake and in the valley of the Rhone becomes overpowering, 
pensions at Chateau d'Oex (p. 154) are much frequented. There are 
similar pensions at Geneva, see p. 178. 

All the villages which lie scattered about, partly on the lake 
i, id partly on the mountain, Clarens , Chernex, Vernex, Olion, 
olonges, Veytaux, etc., are in the parish of Montreux. This 
■istrict is divided into two parts by the brook of Montreux, the 
■ortion on the r. bank being named collectively Ch&telard (p. 196), 
.hat on the 1. Les Planches. Montreux (* Hotel de I' Union; Pont; 
pensions see p. 196; Bendu's book shop and reading room), 
in the centre of these scattered hamlets , on the lake , possesses 
a handsome church which commands a superb *view of the lake, 
from the mouth of the Rhone to a point far beyond Lausanne. 
Figs, pomegranates, and laurels flourish here in the open air, and 
the wine is much praised. Consumptive patients are frequently 
sent to Montreux, its sheltered situation rendering it peculiarly 
adapted for a winter residence. 

Excursions from Montreux. Rochets de Naye (6706'), the S. neigh- 
hour of the Jaman, ascent in 4, descent in 3 hrs., view embracing the entire 
chain of the mountains of Bern, Valais, and Savoy ; Mont Blanc only 
partially visible. Easiest ascent by Glion and Mont Can; most picturesque 
route over the wooded ridge of Mont Suchard, for which last a guide is 
desirable. — Mont Cubly (3940'), X.E. of Chernex, to the summit and back 
in 4 hrs. — To the :, Gorge du Chaudron, a profound wooded ravine, 
with groups of rocks and waterfalls, between Glion and Sonzier. The 
entire valley is termed La Bate de Montreux. The walk to the gorge 
from the bridge at Montreux and back occupies 1 hr., or returning by 
(jlion 2'1'i hrs. — By Chernex and Chaulin to the Bains de VAlliaz and 
the PUiades, returning by Blonay (p. 195), 8 hrs. — To the Val d" Jlliez, 
see p. 207. — By Aigle to Ormontt, see p. 156. — Ascent of the Jaman, see 
p. 158. Mules may be hired. — To the Pissevache and Gorge du Triettt 
(p. 202) by railway, and back in one day. 

The Castle of Chillon, with its massive walls and tower:), 
stands on an isolated rock (I'/g M. from Montreux), at a 
distance of 65' from the shore, with which it is connected by a 

198 Route 50. CHILLON. From Geneva 

"Chillon ! thy prison is a holy place, 
And thy sad floor an altar, — for 'twas trod. 
Until his very steps have left a trace, 
Worn, as if the cold pavement were a sod. 
By Bonnivard ! — may none those marks efface, 
For they appeal from tyranny to God." 
The author of these exquisite lines has invested this spot with 
much of the peculiar interest which attaches to it, hut it is an error to 
identify Bonnivard, the victim to the tyranny of the Duke of Savoy, and 
by him confined in these gloomy dungeons for a period of six yearsi with 
Byron's 'Prisoner of Chillon'. The author calls his poem a Fable, and 
when he composed it he was not aware of the history of Bonnivard, or he 
would, as he himself states, have attempted to dignify the subject by an 
endeavour to celebrate his courage and virtue. The following brief outlines 
of the life of a man with whose name these gloomy walls are so intimately 
associated, may be acceptable to the traveller as he contemplates the spot. 
Francis Bonnivard was born in 1496. He was the son of I.ouis Bonnivard, 
Lord of Lune, and at the age of 16 inherited from his uncle the rich prinry 
of St. Victor, close to the walls of Geneva. The Duke of Savoy having 
attacked the republic of Geneva, Bonnivard warmly espoused its cause, and 
thereby incurred the relentless hostility of the Duke, who caused him to 
be seized and imprisoned in the castle of Grolee, where he remained two 
years. — On being restored to liberty he returned to his priory, but in 
1528 he was again in arms against those who had seized his ecclesiastical 
revenues ; the city of Geneva supplied him with the munitions "f war, in 
return for which Bonnivard parted with his birthright, the revenues of 
which "were applied by the Genevese to the support, of the city hospital. 
Bonnivard was afterwards employed in the service of the republic, and in 
1530 when travelling between Moudon and Lausanne fell into the power of 
his old enemy, the Duke of Savoy, who caused him to be confined in the 
castle of Chillon. In 1536 he was restored to liberty by the Genevese forces 
under TTogelin ; he returned to the republic, and was made a citizen. Bon- 
nivard's subsequent career was a stormy one, and he died in 1571 at the 
age of 75 years. 

Above the Castellan's entrance aie the following words, 
inscribed by the Bernese in 1643: "Gott der Herr segne den 
Fin- und Ausgang". (May God bless all who come in and go out). 
In the interior is a range of dungeons in which the early reformers 
and, subsequently, prisoners of state were confined; across one of 
the vaults is a beam blackened by age, on which the. condemned 
were formerly executed. In the dungeons are eight pillars, one 
of which is half built into the wall ; to these pillars the prisoners 
were fettered, and on the pavement the steps of Bonnivard and 
other illustrious captives have left their traces. A fine effect is 
produced by the beams of the setting sun streaming through the 
narrow loopholes into these gloomy precincts. Among the 
thousands of names inscribed on the pillars, Byron's appears 
conspicuous — whether the genuine autograph of the great poet 
or not, is best known to the concierge. 

It is an historical fact that in the year 830 Louis le Ddhonnaire in- 
carcerated the Abbe of Corcier, who instigated his sons to rebellion, in a 
castle from which only the sky, the Alps, and Lake Leman were visible 
(Pert:, Monum. II. p. 55B); this could have been no other than the Castle 
of Chillon. Count Peter of Savoy improved and fortified the castle in 
the 13th cent., and it new stands much as he left it. The strong pillars 
in i the vaults are in t.h.- ancient Romanesque st> le. and belonged to the original 
edifice. The Counts of Savoy frequently resided in it : it was snbse- 

to Martigny. VILLENEUVE. 50. Route. 199 

quently converted into a state-prison, and .since 1798 has served as a 
military arsenal. 

Between Chillon and Villeneuve, on the slope of the hill, is 
the Hotel Byron (p. 197). The lie de Paix, a small island 30 
paces long and 20 wide, '/2 M. W. of Villeneuve, commands a 
complete panoramic view. It was laid out and a wall was built 
to protect it by a lady a century ago ; three elms now flourish 
on it. Byron's lines are vividly recalled to the mind : 
"And then there was a little isle, 
"Which in my very face did smile, 
The only one in view." 

Prisoner of Chillon. S. XIII. 
In the E. bay of the lake (1230'), 9 M. from Vevay, l»/ 2 M. 
from Chillon , lies Villeneuve (Hotel de Ville) , a small town 
surrounded by a wall, the Pennilucus, or Penneloci of the Romans. 
The railway stat. is behind the town, to the E. (see below). 
Footpath to Montbovon (p. 158) by the Col de la Tiniere in 
4'/ 2 hrs., to Chateau d'Oex (p. 154) in 6 hrs. 

Railway (comp. p. 188) from Geneva to Lausanne, see p. 175. 

Lausanne, see p. 191. 

The line generally skirts the bank of the lake as far as 
Villeneuve ; a seat should therefore be selected on the right (W.) 
side. After the station at Lausanne is quitted, the Freiburg rail- 
way (p. 162) diverges to the 1. Before reaching stat. Lutry, the 
line crosses the Paudeze [the viaduct of the Freiburg line with 
nine arches is above, to the 1.], passes through a small tunnel, 
and then winds round the steep vine-clad slopes of La Vaux, which 
produce the excellent wine mentioned at p. 193. On the opposite 
(S.) bank are the rocks of Meillerie (p. 205). Then another 
tunnel. The high-road traverses the vineyards below to the r. 

From stat. Cully to Rhaz St. Saphorin the line runs close to 
the lake. (Here the line from Lausanne to Freiburg, which has 
been gradually ascending, leaves the bank of the lake, and turns 
inland to the N.E.) Near Vevay the line quits the lake; the 
train crosses the impetuous Veveyse, frequently dry in summer, 
and stops at 

Vevay (p. 194), behind the town. 

The line skirts the foot of the hills for some distance, and 
passes through a tunnel before reaching stat. Clarens (p. 196). On 
emerging from this, the view of Montreux, Chillon, and the E. 
extremity of the lake is very beautiful. The next stat. Vernex- 
Montreux (p. 197) is at a considerable elevation above the lake. 
The line now again approaches the lake ; stat. Veytaux-Chillon 
(p. 197) is some distance from the castle. The Hotel Byron is 
near the railway on the 1., between Chillon and Villeneuve. 

Villeneuve, see above. The line passes in the rear of this 
village and enters the Rhone Valley, here 3 M. wide, bounded on 

200 Route 50. AIGI.K. From Genera 

both sides by high mountains. The valley is perfectly level, 
and in most parts marshy. 

On the \V . side of the valley, near Rouveret, the Rhone flows 
into the lake; its grey waters, which in the course of ages have 
brought down considerable masses of deposit, present a curious 
contrast to the crystalline azure of the same river where it rushes 
through the bridges at Geneva. 

The flrst station in the valley of the Khone is Roche. Near 
Yi-orne (1561') a large mass of the mountain was precipi- 
tated upon the village below by an earthquake in 1584. An 
excellent wine is grown in the gorge. This large and thriving 
village extends along a vine-clad ridge near Aigle . a short dis- 
tance to the 1. of the railway. On the r. the jagged Dent du 
Midi (p. 207) is visible. 

Stat. Aigle (1374') (Beau Site, at the station, comfortable, 
pension 5 — 6 fr. ; Mon Sejour, also recommended. 2 min. from the 
station; Victoria, 2 min. farther, opposite the post and diligence 
office, all three hotels with baths and pleasant grounds. — 'Hotel du 
Midi and Hotel du Sord, both commercial, in the town '/< )1. from 
the station. — Large new hotel and sanitary estab. to be opened in 1872 
on the height above Aigle, l'/s M. from the railway), on the impetuous 
Grande-Eau (p. 150}, the Aquita or Aquileja of the Romans, 
once a Roman cavalry station, is a favourite summer resort. The 
village is built of black marble found in the neighbourhood. 

Very agreeable excursion to the Ormonts (p. 156), by carriage as far 
as Sepey or the Hotel des Diablerets (one-horse carr. there and back 
15 fr., fee 1 fr.). 

A very favourite point near Aigle is the hamlet of Villar d. 3'|< hrs. 
from Aigle, 2'|i hrs. above Ollon (see helow). One-horse carr. 12 — 14. two 
horse 25 fr. and fee. High road to (2'|i M.) Ollon, thence a good carriage- 
road with numerous windings. Pedestrians follow the old road, which diverges 
to the 1. from the new immediately above Ollon. About 3 min. farther 
the path divides into three, of which that to the extreme r. is to be fol- 
lowed. 50 min. La Pousaz, where the path to the 1. must be taken; 35 
min. Hettmoz (pron. Wems by the natives), charmingly situated ; 'J2 hr. 
ChesitreSy with beautiful view; '|a hr. I'illard (1026'), an insignificant 
hamlet with several much frequented pensions ( (Iraml Mitreran; t'ltatet: 
Oenillard, new; pension in each 5 — S li. |. Admirable view of the Khone 
valley, ag well as of the Grand Moveran (or Muveran), Dent de Moreles, 
Dent du ilidi, etc. Pleasant park-like environs, affording a variety of 
walks. — The principal excursion hence is the ascent t'2 hrs., carriage- 
road nearly to the top) of the Chamossaire (0972' I, which commands a 
remarkably picturesque view. — To the Hotel des Diablerets over the 
Col de la Croix (5174') 3 hrs. ; descent to the hotel steep and rough, guide 
unnecessary (comp. p. 156). 

On an isolated wooded eminence , rising in the valley of the 
Khone near stat. OUon-St. Triphon, stands a tower. 60' in height, 
of Roman origin, the remnant of an ancient castle. The village 
of OUon (Hotel de Yille, rustic | is situated at the loot of the 
hills, 2 M. from the railway. A direction -post points to the r. 
to Colombey (p. 206) on the 1. bank of the Rhone, connected 
with the r. bank by a suspension-bridge. 

An interesting excursion to the Hlocs Erratiques. near (3 M.) M o n t h ey 
in the Val d lllicz. Ascent of tbe 1 >.-nt du Midi, see p. JUT 

to Martigny. ST. MAURICE. 50. Route. 201 

Next stat. Bex (1427') , pronounced Bay (*Grand Hotel des 
Salines, with baths, well situated; Union; Hotel des Bains; 
"Pension Crochet; *Bellevue), a small town on the Avencon, % M. 
from the station (restaurant; omnibus 30 c); 3 M. to the N.E. 
are the considerable saltworks of Devens and Bevieux, approached 
by a shady path of gentle ascent. A visit to these works takes 
half a day, fee to the guide f) fr. Visitors usually drive to 
Devens, inspect the salt-works, and then visit the mines, where 
the salt is obtained from the saline , argillaceous slate by steep- 
ing it in fresh water. — A hill to the S.E., 2 M. from Bex, 
crowned by the ruined Tour de Duyn, commands a pleasing pro- 
spect of the Val d'Hliez, the Dent du Midi, Dent de Morcles, etc. 

From Bex to Sion by the Co! de Chiville, see R. 60. 

The line now approaches the Rhone , crosses it by a wooden 
bridge, and unites with the railway on the S. bank (Bouveret- 
Sion, p. 206). Before the tunnel (cut through the rock, which 
here descends towards the Rhone , scarcely leaving room for 
the high road) is entered, the picturesque situation of the little 
town is seen to advantage. The fortifications were constructed 
in 1832 and 1847, previously to the war of the Separate League. 
The single-arched stone bridge , by which the high-road crosses 
from the r. bank of the Rhone to the 1., built in the loth cent., 
rests with its E. buttress on a spur of the Dent de Morcles (9639'), 
and its \V. extremity on one of the Dent du Midi (10,678', see 
p. 207), and has a span of 70'. Above the castle, half-way up 
the hill, is situated the Grotte aux Fees, a stalactite cavern said 
to be 2 M. long. Card of adm. (1 fr.) obtained from the castellan 
nt' the fortress. 

On emerging from the tunnel behind the town (of which little 
is visible from the line), the train stops at stat. St. Maurice. 
Passengers by all trains to or from Bex change carriages here. 
Half-way up the apparently inaccessible precipice to the r. (at 
the foot of which the station stands) is perched the hermitage 
of Notre-Dame-du-Sex (sax = rock), to which a narrow footpath 
has been hewn in the rock. 

St. Maurice (1342') (Hotel des Alpes, new, well spoken of; 
Dent du Midi; Ecu du Valais). an ancient town with very narrow- 
streets , on a delta between the river and the precipice , the 
Agaunum of the Romans , capital of the Nantuates , is said to 
derive its name from St. Maurice , the commandant of the The- 
ban legion, who according to tradition , suffered martyrdom here 
in 202 (near the Chapelle de Verolliaz, see below). The abbey, 
probably the most ancient ecclesiastical establishment on this side 
of the Alps, is said to have been founded about the end of the 
4th cent, by St. Theodore, the first bishop of the Valais. Some 
ancient works of art preserved here are worthy of mention : among 
them a vase of Saracenic workmanship , a pastoral staff in gold 

202 Route 50. VERNAYAZ. From Geneva 

with elaborately wrought figures, each one inch in height, a 
chalice of agate, Queen Bertha's chalice, and a rich MS. of the 
Gospels , said to have been presented to the abbey by Charle- 
magne. On the walls of the churchyard and on the tower of the 
ancient church are Roman inscriptions. 

The Baths of Lavey (14200, on the r. bank of the Rhone, life M. 
to the S., above the bridge of St. Maurice, are much frequented. The 
warm spring (100° Fahr.), first discovered in 1831, containing chloride of 
sodium and sulphate of soda, rises in the bed of the Rhone. 

Beyond this, to the r. of the line, is the Chapelle de Verotliaz, 
with rude frescoes , supposed to stand on the spot where the 
6000 soldiers of the Theban legion once suffered martyrdom. On 
the opp. bank of the Rhone are the Baths of Lavey (see above). 
The line now approaches the Rhone, and winds round the spot 
where, in August 1835, a gigantic stream of mud from the Dent 
du Midi inundated the valley, covering it with huge blocks of 
stone and debris of all kinds. 

Stat. Evionnaz stands on the spot where, in 563, a similar 
mud-stream destroyed the town of Epaunum, at which the great 
Council of 517 had assembled. In front rises the broad snow-clad 
Mont Velan (p. 237). Near the little village of La Barma the 
railway and high-road wind round a projecting rock close to the 
Rhone , and the beautiful fall of the Sallenche , known as the 
*Pissevache, becomes visible on the r. The Sallenche, which 
drains the glaciers of the Dent du Midi , here precipitates itself 
ipto the valley of the Rhone from a height of 200'. 

The Pissevache is l'fe M. from Vernayaz, the nearest station. The 
path to the r. above the waterfall, formerly accessible only to goats, is 
now protected by a balustrade (1 fr.); from the height above the tall, 
where a red flag is usually waving, the glacier of Mont Velan, the true 
summit of the Great St. Bernard, is distinctly visible. 

Stat. Vernayaz (Grand H6tel des Gorges du Trient, new, R. 
l'/ji A. and L. 1 fr.; des Alpes, and de la Poste, indifferent), is 
the starting-point of trie new route to Chamouny via Salvan and 
Trinquent (see p. 226), and now possesses a staff of guides and 
horses (same charges as at Martigny: guide to Le Chatelard or 
Barberine 6, to Chamouny over the Col de Balme 12, Cascade du 
Dailly 4 fr.). 

About 3/4 M. beyond Vernayaz the traveller perceives the 
barren rocks at the mouth of the *Oorgo du Trient, which may 
be ascended to a distance of V2 M. (where the gorge widens) 
by means of a wooden gallery (similar to that at Pfaffers, p. 286) 
attached to the precipice, immediately above the foaming Trient. 
Admission 1 fr. 

The view at the entrance of the gorge is very imposing. The rocks, 
here about 420* high, approach so closely to each other at every turn, 
that the traveller continually expects to find himself in a mighty vaulted 
cavern. The sunshine never penetrates into this gully. The report of a 
small cannon awakens the most deafening reverberations. At the point 
where the path crosses the Trient for the second time, the stream is said 

to Martigny. MARTIGNY. 50. Route. 203 

to be 40' deep ; at the extremity of the gallery it. forms a waterfall, 
30' in height. The gorge itself' is 9 M. long, extending as far as the 
Hotel de la Tete Noire (p. 2251, from which its entrance is visible. At 
the mouth of the gorge is a restaurant. — The interval between the 
arrival of one train at Vernayaz and the departure of the next suffices for 
the inspection of the Pissevache and the Gorge. 

From Vernayaz to Chamouny by S a, 1 v a n , see p. 226. 

Near Martigny, at the extremity of the right angle which the 
Rhone valley here forms, on an eminence to the r. of the line, 
stands La Batiaz (1985'), a castle of the bishops of Sion, erected 
by Peter of Savoy in 1260, dismantled in 1518. The steep 
ascent from the Pranse bridge occupies V4 nr - I* commands 
a *view of the broad lower valley of the Rhone as far as 
Sion , and a part of the Bernese Alps (the Sanetschhorn and a 
small portion of the Gemmi particularly prominent); on the hills 
on the S. side stands the Pierre-a-voir (p. 204) , which resem- 
bles a tower; below are Martigny and Martigny leBourg; through 
the valley to the S.W. runs the path to the Forclaz (p. 227), 
above which rise the peaks of the Aiguilles Rouges; to the N. 
the Dranse, and beyond it the Trient empty themselves into the 
Rhone. The train crosses the Dranse, an impetuous mountain- 
torrent, one arm of which rises on the Great St. Bernard (p. 237). 
It falls into the Rhone, N. of Martigny. The station of Martigny 
is i /-2 M. from the town (Omnibus 50 c). 

Martigny (1387') (Hotel Clerc, expensive; Hotel de la 
Tour, R. 2, I.. i|j, F. l'| 2 , 11. 3, A. 3| 4 fr. ; -'Grand e-M a i son- Pos t e , 
K. 2. B. li|j, A. and L. 1, D. 4 fr. : Bel levue , at the stat. ; Cygne; 
Baths near the Hotel de la Tour, 2 fr.), the Roman Octodurus or 
Civitas Vallensium, capital of the Veragri , is now a busy 
little town in summer in consequence of the great influx of 
tourists , being the point of intersection of the routes over the 
Simplon to the Lago Maggiore (R. 63), over the Great St. Ber- 
nard to Aosta and Turin (R. 58), and (bridle-path) over the Tete- 
Noire and Col de Balme (RR. 55, 56) to Chamouny. The 
monastery of Martigny relieves from time to time the Augustine 
monks who occupy the Hospice of St. Bernard (p. 237). 

Above Martigny , on the road to the Great St. Bernard, lies 
( 3 / 4 M.) Martigny le Bourg (Lion d'Or, tolerable; Trois Cou- 
ronnes, unpretending, good 'Coquempey' wine), in the vicinity of 
which excellent wine (Coquempey and la Marque , with both of 
which the Romans were acquainted) is produced. 

In this angle of the Rhone valley, cretinism in its most re- 
pulsive form was formerly prevalent; but the rising generation 
is happily tolerably exempt from this loathsome malady , which 
has gradually retired before the modern introduction of airy 
dwellings and other sanitary improvements. The brown cotton 
material of which the men's blouses aTe made in this district is 
peculiar. A small kind of gnat with black, gauzy wings is a 
source of great annoyance in the marshy districts of the lower 

204 Route m. I'IKRRK-A-VOIR. From Geneva 

Rhone Valley in Miinmer. especially towards evening; the win- 
dows of bed-rooms should therefore be closed early. 

The Pierre-a-Voir(8124'), a limestone peak in the mountain range which 
separates the valleys of the Rhone and the Bagne, is frequently ascended 
in (i his. from Martigny and the Baths of Saxon (p. 253), or Sembrancher 
(p. 235). The ascent from Martigny, and the descent to Saxon is recom- 
mended. (Guide from .Martigny 8. mule 8 it.) From the Col, >|< hr. below the 
summit, the descent may be made in a rapid, but not very pleasant manner 
hy means of a kind of sledge to the Baths of Saxon in 1 — 1>|j hr., or on foot 
in 3 hrs. This limestone peak, a summit of the chain which separates the 
Valley of the Rhone from the Bagne Valley, commands a beautiful view of 
the Alps of the Valais (from Mont Blanc to the .Matterhorn), the Bernese 
Alps (from the Dent de Morcles to the Jungfrau), of the Rhone, Entre- 
mont, and Bagne valleys, and the glacier of Ge'troz, which occasioned a 
great inundation in 181^ (p. 235). On the wall at the back of the Hotel 
de la Tour at Martigny the height which the water attained is indicated. 

Railway to Sion, see R. 63. 

51. From Geneva to St. Maurice by Bouveret. 
Lake of Geneva (Southern Bank). 

Comp. Map, p. 288. 

Steamboat to Bouveret by the S. Bank (railway in course of construc- 
tion) in 4'|j — 5 hrs. ; fares 5 fr. and 2'/^ fr. The afternoon steamboat from 
Geneva, on reaching Bouveret, starts again for Vevay on the arrival of the 
last train from Sion. From Bouveret to St. Maurice by Railway, 4 trains 
daily in correspondence with the steamboats, in 3 f< hr. ; fares 2 fr. 75, 
1 fi\ 85, 1 fr. 40 c. 

Those who are already acquainted with the X. Bank (R. 50) should 
choose this interesting route by way of variety. Leaving Geneva by the 
lirst boat, they will reach St. Maurice (and also Martigny and Sion) as 
soon as the train by Lausanne and Villeneuve. Excursion-tickets from 
Geneva to Chamouny by Martigny and back by Sallanches (or vice versii) 
see p. 213. Comp. also p. 188. 

The High- roadfro in Geneva to Bouveret, being the first pa rt 
of the Simplon route constructed by Napoleon T. to connect Geneva with 
Milan (comp. R. G3), passes, at a considerable distance from the lake, 
through (()3| 4 JI.) Uouraine, and Thonon (93J 4 M., nearly half way), pos- 
sessing few attractions thus far, excepting the flrst portion as far as 
Vetenu; (p. 186). But from Amphion to Bouveret it skirts the rocky bank 
of the lake, and is replete with interest. 

As the steamboat quits the quay, a tine retrospect of the 
town is obtained. On the E. bank, along which the boat steers, 
are numerous villas, (see p. 180), surrounded by plantations. The 
steamboat passes Cologny and Vesenaz (p. 186), making its flrst 
halt at liellerire. the station for Collonye, which lies at some dis- 
tance from the lake (the village on the opposite bank is Gen- 
thod, p. 17f>). Next station Anihres, opposite Versoix (p. 189); 
then Jiermance (opposite C'oppet, p. 189), near which a rivulet 
of the same name falls into the lake , forming the boundary be- 
tween the Canton of Geneva and Savoy. Opposite stat. Xernier, 
Nyon (p. 190) is conspicuous on the N. bank. 

Beyond Vioi're, with its ancient castle, situated on a promon- 
ton . the lake suddenly expands to its greatest width (between 
Kolle and Thonon 9'/ 4 M.). The N. bank is now so distant that 
its villages are only distinguished in clear weather. A large 

to St. Maurice. EVIAN. 5/. Route. 205 

bay opens to the S. , in which the village of Excenevrex lies on 
the r. The mountains of Savoy here become more conspicuous. 
The steamboat now approaches 

Thonon (1312') (Hdtel de I' Europe, on the terrace; Balance; 
Ville de Geneve) , rising picturesquely from the lake , capital 
(pop. 4825) of the Savoyard province of Chablais , and formerly 
a residence of the Counts and Dukes of Savoy. It possesses 
handsome buildings and a lofty terrace in the upper part of the 
town , the site of the ancient ducal chateau , destroyed by the 
Bernese in 1536. 

About 6 M. to the S. of Thonon is situated the small town of Les 
A Hinges, commanded by the ruins of an old castle (fine view). 

From Thonon a good carriage-road ascends the pretty D r a n s e Valley 
by St. Jean d'Aulph, with the interesting ruins of a monastery : in 8 — 9 hrs. 
to Morzine (Hotel du Chamois). Thence to Samoens and Sixt, see p. 222; 
or to Champery in the Val d'llliez, p. 207. 

Farther to the N., the steamboat passes the ruins of the 
castle of Ripaille on the bank of the lake , formerly the seat of 
Duke Victor Amadeus VIII. of Savoy (p. 192) , who died at 
Geneva in 1451. The promontory round which the steamboat 
now steers , has been formed by the deposits of the Dranse, 
which here flows into the lake (not to be confounded with a 
stream of the same name in the Valais , which falls into the 
Rhone near Martigny). The high-road crosses it by a long bridge 
of 24 arches, l'/ 2 M. from the lake. In the bay, situated on 
the high-road, which here skirts the lake, are the sulphur-baths 
of Amphion, recently much frequented, in the midst of a grove 
of chestnuts. 

The steamboat now stops at Evian (Hotel des Bains; Hotel 
Evian, with garden on the lake ; Hotel de France ; Hdtel du Nord ; 
Hotel de Fonbonne, on the lake) , picturesquely situated, with a 
lofty spire visible from a long distance. High above the lake, 
in the centre of the town, is the Bath-house, with alkaline 
baths; the garden - terraces in the rear afford a beautiful view. 
Most of the summer residents at Evian and Amphion (between 
which an omnibus runs frequently) are French. 

On the lake, near station Tour-Ronde, stands the old castle 
of Blonay with its park (not to be confounded with the castle 
of Blonay near Vevay, p. 195). On the opposite bank lies 
Lausanne (p. 191), picturesquely situated on an eminence ; more 
to the E. the arch of the lofty Paudeze viaduct, on the Oron- 
line (p. 162), is visible. The mountains of the S. bank, which 
the boat now skirts, become more precipitous. In a romantic 
situation close to the lake is Meillerie, or Millerez, where, in 
Rousseau's 'Nouvelle Heloise', St. Preux is represented as taking 
shelter during a storm at the house of Madame Volmar. Napo- 
leon I. caused the rocks to be blown up , in order to provide 
material for the Simplon road. Formerly Meillerie was accessible 

206 Route 51. BOUVERET. From Geneva 

from the lake only. Charming view near Les Vallettes, still more 
extensive from the Dent d'Oche (6009', ascent in hrs.). 

St. Gingolph (1'oste; Lion dOr), on a promontory opposite 
\ evay (p. l'J4), belongs partly to Savoy, partly to the canton of 
\alais, the Marge, which flows through a deep gorge, forming 
the boundary. The grotto of Yiriern , with its springs, may be 
visited by boat. 

A delightful excursion, with a succession of line views, may be made 
ity ascending the ravine of the Moryt and eros.sin^ the mountain to fort 
Vulais (see beluwi (thence to Bouveret or Youvryi. Those who wish to 
extend their walk, may follow the 1. bank of the Mor^e for I'Jy Ur. to 
.\orrl (two poor inns), ascend the Blanchard (3 hrs. there and back, guide 
necessary), and return liy the r. hank of the Morge through beautiful 
forests to St. (lin^olpli. from Novel to Ihe summit of the Dent d'ttc/ir, 
in i hrs. 

Bouveret (Tour; restaurant at the station) lies at the S.E. 
extremity of the Lake of Geneva, ;,, 4 M. to the S.W. of the 
mouth of the Rhone, which converts the neighbouring district 
into a marsh. Its impetuous current {la Battuyliire) may be 
traced for upwards of 1 '/-^ M. in the lake. Travellers here disem- 
bark, and enter the train which is in waiting on the bank. 

The railway enters the valley of the Rhone to the S.E. , re- 
maining on the 1. bank of the river. (Railway on the r. bank 
-ee p. '201. ) Soon after leaving Bouveret, the train parses an 
eminence on the r. , on which stands Port Vatais , the Portus 
Vallesiae of the Romans, in their time on the lake, now l 1 /^ .VI. 
distant from it. Near La Porte du Sex (I'iSSI'J the rock approaches 
so near the river as scarcely to leave room for the high-road, whirh 
passes through a 'Porte' between the precipice and the Rhone. 
In ancient times this entrance was fortified, and formed the key 
of the Canton of Valais on this side. The railway is constructed on 
the bed of the river, which it crones by a wooden bridge to Chessel 
on the r. bank. To the r. the Dent du Midi (p. '20 i) is visible. 

Vouvry (Poste), on the r., is the first station ; beautiful view 
near the church. The (ornettes de Iiise (S002') are frequently 
ascended from this place in -i — :") hrs., guide lU fr. ; admirable 
and extensive view in clear weather. At this point the Rhone 
is joined by the Stockalper Canal , commenced a century ago 
by a family of that name, for the purpose of draining the 
di.-triot and facilitating commerce, but unfinished to this day. 
A> far as Colombey (beautiful view from the convent, the 
vestibule of which merits inspection) it runs to the r. , parallel 
with the railway. To the r. of the line, before Colombey is 
reached, are the villages of Yionnaz (to the 1., on the opposite 
slope of the r. bank, Yvorne, p. 200, to the r. of which rise 
the jagged Diablerets and the snow -clad Oldenhorn) and Muraz 
at the loot of the mountain. A suspension-bridge, 210' in length, 
connects the two bank- of the Rhone between Colombey and 
stat St. Triphon, on the railwaj of the r. bank (p. 200). 

to St. Maurice. CHAMPERY. 57. Route. 207 

On an eminence near stat. Monthey (1453') (Croix d'Or; 
Cerf), is an ancient castle, occupied until 179b by the bailiff. 
About 20 min. walk above Monthey, in a chestnut-grove (guide 
desirable), among a number of boulders (comp. Introd. XIV) is 
the huge Pierre Adzo (pierre suspendue), balanced on a point not 
exceeding a few square inches in area. 

Monthey is situated at the mouth of the Val d'llliez, 12 M. long, which 
winds to the S.W. towards the mountains of Savoy, and is remarkable for its 
fresh green pastures, wild and romantic scenery, rare plants, and robust 
and hardy race of inhabitants. One-horse carr. from Bex (p. 201) to 
Ohampery 13, two-horse 18 fr. and driver's fee. Near Monthey the new 
road ascends through vineyards, and afterwards for about 2 M. through 
a chestnut wood, by numerous windings , which the pedestrian may avoid 
by following the old paved track (the beginning of which had better be 
asked for at Monthey). Beautiful retrospect of the valley of the Rhone, 
Bex and Aigle, the Diablerets and the Grand Moveran. About '| 4 hr. 
above Monthey the old path joins the road, which must now be followed 
to the 1. where the telegraph wires turn in that direction, and not again 
quitted (path to the r. leads to Morgin). A more level district is then 
traversed for l'|j M. to the beautifully situated village of Troistorrents 
(Hotel and Pension), near the church of which is a good fountain. [Here 
to the W. opens the Val de Morgin, in which are situated the baths 
of that name, 3 hrs. from Monthey ; the waters are impregnated with iron, 
and are more adapted for drinking than for external use. Inn tolerable 
and moderate.) The road in the upper part of the Val d'llliez gradually 
ascends the slope of the Dent du Midi, commanding a beautiful view all 
the way, to (2'|2 M.) Val d'llliez (Inn with pension), and 

(2"|2 M.) Champery (4iK)9') (Hdtel de la Dent du Midi, R. 2, B. l'j 2 , D. 3, 
L. and A. 1, pension excl. R. 4'j2 fr. ; Croix Fe'derale, unpretending), the 
highest village in the valley, ~i l \-i M. from Monthey, beautifully situated. 
Pleasant walk of '| 2 day to the summit of the Cvlel (6491'), or to the still 
higher Roc d'Ayerne, commanding a noble prospect, especially towards the 
Dent du Midi. The path to the Col de Couz (see below) is followed for 3 |4hr. ; 
then to the r. by a small shrine where the path divides ; a large chalet 
on the 1. is next passed, and farther up another on the r. ; a pine wood 
is next traversed, beyond which a narrow footpath ascends to the cross on 
the Culet. Chalets and cowherds afford frequent opportunities of enquiring 
as to the route. — From Champery a bridle path crosses the Vol de Covz 
(6504') to the Dranse valley, and thence over the Col de Goleze (6682") 
to Samoens, a walk of 6 — 7 hrs., easy and interesting. Guide un- 
necessary. To the Col de Couz (after 3 |4 hr., to the 1. where the path 
divides) 2 S \\ hr. (refreshm.), frontier of Savoy and Switzerland. The first 
saddle seen hence towards the 1. is the Col de Goleze. In descending, the 
paths leading to the r. to Morzine must be avoided. In l'| 2 hr. more the 
Col de Goleze is attained. Beautiful view in descending, embracing the 
side-valley in which Les Allemandes lies, and a glimpse of the more distant 
valley of the Gitt're. 2 hrs. Samoens (Hotel de la Poste ; Hotel du Com- 
merce, both uninviting). A chapel on the height above the church, 5 min. 
walk, commands a fine view of the valley. Omnibus daily to Geneva at 
4. 30 a. m. in 7 hrs. , fare 4 fr. ; from Geneva at 2. 30 p. m. in 8 hrs. 
From Samoens to (4'|2 M.) Sixt a good road (comp. p. 222). — From 
Champery over the Col du Sageroux (7956') to Sixt 7—8 hrs., by a tolerable 
footpath, which, however, is occasionally lost. Guide necessary (15 fr.). 
This is a more rugged and fatiguing route than the above, and the scenery 
is less pleasing, but it affords nearer and more imposing views of the Dent 
du Midi and the glaciers. — By far the most interesting ways of approaching 
Chamouny are the passage of the Col d'Anterne and Col du Brevent, or 
that of the Col Lechaud and the Buet, both from Sixt (comp. p. 222). 

The "Sent du Midi (10,350') is ascended in 6—7 (descent 4—5) hrs. from 
Champery, guide necessary, fee according to tariff 15 fr. In unfavourable 

208 Route 5->. FORT DE L'ECl.VSK. 

weather the ascent is only made as far as the ('2 Ins., fee B'^ fr.) Chalets 
of Bonavaux (several beds, coffee and milk). The Jast 3 hrs., over rocks 
and loose stones, are very fatiguing, hut without danger to the practised 
walker. In the latter part of summer the path is almost entirely free from 
snow. The view is imposing; Mont Blanc here somewhat resembles the 
.Jungfrau as seen from the Faulhorn ; the background to the S. is formed 
by the Alps of Dauphiny and Piedmont; the Lake of Geneva is visible 
from Vilteneuve to Vevay. In descending, the traveller need not return 
to Champerv, but may cross the Cut de SusaiUd (8019'), the saddle between 
the Dent du Midi and the Tour Salliere (10,469 ft.), to the valley of the 
Sallenclie, and descend by the chalets of En-ean-IIaut to Vernayaz (p. 202), 
or to Salvan (p. 226). 

The line crosses the Vi'eye , which descends from the Val 
d'llliez , by an iron bridge. Near Massonger the mountains on 
the r. and the Rhone on the 1. approach the line. Near St. 
Maurice the railway of the r. bank joins that of the 1. (route 
by Bex. p. 201). 

St. Maurice, see p. 201. 

52. From Geneva by Culoz and Aix-les-Bains to 
Chambery, returning by Annecy. 

Railway to Aix-les-Bains in 3>l 2 hrs. (10 fr. 50. 7 fr. 90, 5 IV. 60 c), 
to Chamberv in 4 hrs. (12 fr. 50, 9 fr. 10, 6 fr. 45 c), to Chamousset 
(p. 211) in 5 3 / 4 hrs. (14 fr. 85, 11 fr. 20, 7 fr. 85 c). The express trains 
to Lyons convey lst-class passengers only ; tickets, however, need only be 
taken to Culoz {7 fr. 50 c), where a change of carriages takes place, and 
a halt of 20 min. Is made. The trains thence to Aix-les-Bains, Cham- 
bery, etc. have 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class carriages. Return-tickets, available 
for the same day, issued as far as Bellegarde. Diligence daily between 
Aix-les-Bains and Annecy, Chamousset and Albertville, Albertville and 
Annecy, Annecy and Geneva. 

The railway (Geneva- Lyons) first traverses an uninteresting 
country, and passes through numerous cuttings. Stations Meyrin. 
Satigny ; on the 1. of the line flows the Rhone. Near stat. La 
Pleine the valley of the London is crossed. Next stat. Chancy (the 
village lies on the opposite bank of the Rhone) and Collonyes. 

The steep declivities of the Mont de Vuache (3704') on the 
Savoy side , and the huge masses of the highest portion of the 
Jura chain are here separated by the Rhone. The lofty Fort 
de l'Ecluse, to the r. , commands this entrance into France. 
The train now passes through the Tunnel du Credo, 2^2 M- '» 
length, crosses the VaUerine Viaduct (to the 1. far below is the 
single-arched bridge of the Toad), and stops at station Bellegarde 
(Perte du Rhone), where luggage is inspected. 

Above the union of the Valserine with the Rhone, about ';•.> M. from 
the hotel, and visible from the high-road to Collonges, is the so-called 
Perte du Rhone. When the river is low, the water disappears for about 
100 paces in a cleft in the rock, which, however, has recently been con- 
siderably widened. 

The train passes through four tunnels before it reaches stat. 
Pyrimont (asphalt-mines in the vicinity), before the last of which 
it crosses a lofty viaduct; on the 1. flows the Rhone. The valley of 

AIX-LES-BA1NS. 52. Route. 209 

the Rhone now expands, and becomes flat and marshy. At stat. 
Seyssel the banks are connected by a double suspension -bridge. 

Stat. Culoz, at the base of the CoLombier (4700'), is the 
junction of the lines to Lyons, Macon (Paris), and St. Michel. The 
carriages of the Lyons railway must here be quitted for those of 
the Victor-Emmanuel line, which diverges S.E. towards Mont 
Cenis. The train now traverses the broad valley of the Rhone, 
crosses the river by an iron bridge, and reaches stat. Chdtillon 
with its old castle, situated on a wooded promontory to the r., 
at the N. end of the Lac du Bourget (702^, which is 12 M. 
long, l'/-2 M. broad, and 250' deep. The line skirts the rocky 
E. bank, passing through a succession of tunnels; to the r. a 
beautiful view of the lake, the monastery of Hautecombe situated 
on the opposite side, and the mountains of the Vf. bank. 

Aix-Ies-Bains (8400 ('Hotel Imperial, nearest the station, R. 
from 3 fr., A. 1, L. 1, D. 5 fr. ; "Venat, with spacious garden; Globe 
and Europe, D. 4 fr. ; Ambassadeurs-, Guilland (Post); Uni vers; 
the three last less expensive. — Pensions : Villa desFleurs, with shady 
grounds, 12fr. ;Chabert, Bossus, etc. — One-horse carr. drive 2 fr., 25 min.), 
known to the Romans as Aquae AUobrogum, or Aquae Gratianae, 
is a celebrated, but not very attractive watering-place with 4000 in- 
habitants, visited annually by upwards of 3000 patients. It pos- 
sesses warm (113°) sulphur springs, the waters of which are drunk 
and used for baths. The extensive Etablissement Thermal was 
erected in 1864. The square in front of it is adorned with a 
Roman triumphal arch, erected by T. Pompejus Campanus in the 
3rd or 4th cent. The other Rom. antiquities still extant (ruins 
of a temple, baths, etc.) are situated in private property , and 
access is only obtained by special permission. 

A pleasant excursion may be made to Haute Combe, a Cistercian mo- 
nastery on the N.W. bank of the Lac dv Bourget, at the foot of the Mont du 
Chat. It was formerly used as the burial-place of the Princes of Savoy, 
until the Superga near Turin was employed (1731) for that purpose. The 
monastery, destroyed during the French Revolution, was rebuilt in 1824 by 
Charles Felix, lung of Sardinia. The church contains the monuments of 
Amadeus V., VI., VII., Humbert III., Louis I., Baron de Vaud, Jeanne de 
Montfort, Count Haymon, Boniface of Savoy (Archbishop of Canterbury) the 
splendid mausoleum of Peter of Savoy, Anna of Zahringen, etc. The view 
from the neighbouring tower of Phare de Oessens has been described by 
Rousseau. About 3 \i M. from the monastery is the intermittent Fontaine 
des Merveilles (see p. 129). On the site of the old Roman road a good 
high-road leads across the Mont du Ghat. The traveller may agreeably 
combine a visit to the monastery with a survey of the country by taking 
a boat from Aix to Haute -Combe, whence it should be sent on to the 
village of Bourdeaux, at the S. end of the road over the Mont du Chat; after 
visiting the monastery and the intermittent spring, he may descend by foot- 
paths to the Mont du Chat road, which leads to Bourdeaux, and thence 
return by boat to Aix. Tariff: boat with 2 rowers, to Haute-Combe, incl. 
stay of 1 hr., 8 fr., for each additional hour 1 fr., to Bourdeaux 4 fr. 50 c. ; 
a previous understanding with the boatmen is recommended. — A Steam- 
boat plies round the lake on Sundays, halting for 1 hr. at Haute-Combe. 

Branch-line from Aix-les-B ains to Annecy (in l'|2hr., fares 4 fr. 
40, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 43 c.) by stat. Grisy-sur-Aix, Alberts, Bloye, Rumilly (where 

Bjepekbr, Switzerland. 5th Edition,. 14 

2i0 Route 52. CilAMBElrt. Prom Oeneod 

the Cliiran i« crossed) ; then through the picturesque valley of the t'ier 
(stat. Marcellaz, Lovagny) tu Awiecy (p. 212). 

Aix being a terminus , the train now returns to the main 
line, which skirts the lake till the S. end is reached. Stat. Vo- 
ylans; to the 1. are the beautifully wooded slopes of Mont d'Ati 
and the Dent de Nivolet (4600'). 

Chambery (866') (hotel de France, near the station; Hotel 
de l' Europe; Poste; Hotel den Princes), formerly the capital 
of Savoy , is now the principal town of a French department, 
with a popul. of 20,000. On the promenade, between the rail- 
way and the town , stands a large monumental Fountain, in 
memory of General de Boiyne (d. 1830), who bequeathed to his 
native town a fortune of about S'/o million fr. which he had 
amassed in the East Indies in the service of the Kajah Scindia. 
The Hue de Boigue, a handsome broad street with arcades, leads 
from the monument to the Palace (at the commencement of the 
arcades is a side-street leading to the cathedral , see below). The 
square tower, and a remnant of the facade belonging to the an- 
cient Castle of the counts and dukes of Savoy (erected in I'lM) 
still remain, and are reached by flights of steps and terraces. 
The chancel of the palace-chapel, to the r. (termed the 'holy 
chapel' from having been the depository of the 'holy napkin 1 , now 
in the palace-chapel at Turin), is a good specimen of late Gothic. 
A fine survey of the neighbourhood, the Dent de Mvolet, and Mont 
d'Azi (see above) , is obtained from the terrace in the palace-gar- 
den (the traveller goes to the 1. round the palace , through the 
gate , and ascends the avenue). The palace is now the residence 
of the prefect of Savoy. The Gothic Cathedral, completed in 
1430, is small , but interesting, although disfigured by later ad- 
ditions. Chambe'ry is the seat of an archiepiscopal see. The 
church of Lemanc , situated on a height near the town , contains 
the tombstone of General de Boigne (see above). Madame de 
Warens , whose name is so intimately connected with the early 
history of Rousseau, is also buried here. She occupied the coun- 
try-house Les Charmettes, situated on an eminence, i'Aj M. from 
the town , where the young philosopher resided with his bene- 
factress for some years. 

The railway from Chambe'ry a picturesque district, 
passing the castles of liatie and Chiynin. The precipitous Mont 
(Jranier (6076'j remains to the r. , forming the boundary between 
the valleys of Chambe'ry and Graisivaudan ; it owes its remark- 
able form to a landslip in 1248, which buried 16 villages, and 
the etlects of which are still visible on the vine-clad hills. A 
branch-line diverges to the r. from stat. Route de Grenoble into 
the beautiful valley of the Isere , here called the Valley of Grai- 
sivaudan, to Grenoble. The railway now turns tu the 1. and reaches 
the river hire close to stat. Mantmelian, where a highly-esteemed 
wine- is produced. The ruined castle, on a wooded height, long 

to Chambery. ALBERTVILLE. 62. Route. 211 

served as a bulwark of Savoy against the French. Geoffrey 
Benso (an ancestor of the able Italian minister Cavour) defended 
it for 13 months against the army of Louis XIII. It was 
destroyed by Louis XIV. in 1705. The line now cros=e^ the 
Isere , passes stat. St. Pierre d'Albigny , and reaches Chamousset, 
at the mouth of the Arc , where the train is quitted. 

The Railway to Mont Cenis (and Turin) ascends the valley of 
the Arc to the r. — Mont Cents Tunnel, see Baedeker's -iV. Italy. 

The High-road from Chamousset to Albertville (diligence 
daily, aUo to Anuecy farther on) crosses the Isere by a handsome 
stone bridge , and then skirts the r. bank of the river , which 
is here converted into a canal. On a projecting rock, opposite 
the bridge, to the K. of the small town of St. Pierre d'Albigny, 
at the foot of the mountains on the r. bank, stand the ruins 
of the castle of Miolans , the property of the Miolans family 
from the 9th to the ibth cent. It was afterwards used as a 
state-prison by the dukes of Savoy , and was Anally destroyed dur- 
ing the French Revolution. The walls of the cells are still covered 
with the names of the prisoners. 

Albertville (1105') (Hotel des Balances) is a small town of 
some importance, with broad streets (popul. 1500). It was for- 
merly called I'HOpital, and received its present name in 1(535 in 
honour of King Charles Albert. On the opposite mountain- 
buttress which separates the valleys of the Isere and the Arly, 
lies the highly picturesque and once fortified village of Conflans 
(1178'), with its green overgrown battlements, only divided from 
Albertville by the Arly , which flows into the Isere a short 
distance below. 

On leaving Albertville, the diligence from Chamousset continued to 
ascend the valley in a S.E. direction to Moutier en Tarentaise. Koad thence 
by Bourg St. .Maurice and the i'etit St. Bernard to Pre .St. Didier and Aosta, 
see p. 234. 

The road to Annecy now ascends the picturesque valley of 
the Arly, which opens to the N. To the 1. , on an abrupt emi- 
nence above the road, stands the church of Palud; on the r. the 
Doron emerges from the Vallee de Beaufort, which extends E. 
towards the Col de Bonhomme (p. 231). At Ugine (1758') 
(Aujc Balances; Grande Maison), a small, badly built town , with 
3000 inhab. , commanded by the ruins of a castle on the N., 
the road quits the Arly valley and enters that of the Chaise to the 1. 

From Ugine to Sallanches, or to the Baths of St. Gervais 
(24>|2JU.). The following is the best route for travellers proceeding from 
Geneva to Ai.v-les-Bains, Chambery, and afterwards to Chamouny. Carriage- 
road through the Arly valley to (9 31. ) Flumet (3123' J (Post), a market- 
town, situated at the mouth of the Arondine, which descends to the Arly 
from a lateral valley on the 1. On a rock stands the ruined castle of the 
ancient barons of Faucigny. Flumet is on the frontier of the Haute- 
Savoie Department. Travellers from Chamouny are here subjected to the 
formalities of the custom-house, as the Hautes A lpes Department is exempt 
from French imposts. (6 Jl. ) Migeve, with two very unpretending inns. 
One mile beyond Megeve, a path to the (2'|s hrs. ) Hat lis of St. Ueivais 
(p. 215) diverges to the r. . traversin g woo ds and pastures on the mountaiu 

212 Route 52. ANN EC V. 

slop.-, affording a charming view of the Arve valley, ami effecting a con- 
siderable saving to pedestrians proceeding to Chamouny, as they reach 
the wad at Chide (p. 215). or may cross the Col de Forclaz, or the Co] 
de Voza I p. 229). On the descent to Sallanches near Cambloux, one of 
the grandest Alpine ''views is enjoyed, opposite the spectator rise the 
Aiguilles de Varens C8956"), to the 1.' the Arve valley is visible as far as 
Magland (p. 215) , to the r. rises the entire Mont Blanc chain , with its 
numerous peaks and glaciers, including the summit of Mont Blanc itself; 
below lies Sallanches and the bridge over the Arve to St. Martin. Sal- 
lanehes see p. 215. 

Beyond Ugine the lower slopes of the mountains to the S. are 
covered with vineyards. Passing Marlens, the road quits the Chaise 
Valley. The culminating point between the Chaise and the Eau 
Morte , by which the road now descends , is hardly perceptible. 
The extensive old castle of Faverges (1925') (Post) is a conspi- 
cuous object in the landscape. 6 M. beyond Faverges the traveller 
reaches the S. end of the Lac d'Annecy (1456'), 93/ 4 M. long 
(steamboat 3 times daily to Annecy in l 1 ^ hr. , pleasant journey). 
The high road skirts the W. bank of the lake , and affords charm- 
ing views. To the r. , on the opposite bank , rise the grotesque 
rocky peaks of Mont Tournette (7536'). On a promontory ex- 
tending far into the lake , stands the Chateau Duing (1476'), by 
which the road passes. Its beautiful situation renders it a fa- 
vourite resort of the inhabitants of Annecy. On the opposite 
bank lies Talloires (1433') , birth-place of the chemist Berthollet. 
and somewhat farther N. , on an eminence above a village of the 
same name, is Chateau Menihon (1873'), birth-place of St. Bernard. 

AlUiecy (1509') ("Hotel de Geneve, on the promenade close 
to the lake, R. 2, D. 3, A. '| 2 fr. ; Hotel cT Angleturre; Aigle), 
a picturesque, old-fashioned town (pop. 9000) with linen manu- 
factories, the oldest in Savoy. In the 12th cent, it was the capital 
of the Duchy of Genevois, and bore the name of Anneciacum 
Novum, to distinguish it from Anneciacum Vetus , which was 
situated in the neighbourhood to the N.E. , on the slope of a 
beautiful hill , where numerous Roman remains have been found. 
The old Castle rising above the town , once the residence of the 
Genevois-Nemours family, is now used as barracks. The Gothic 
Cathedral with modern tower, and the ancient episcopal palace 
deserve mention. In the modern church of St. Francois, to the 
r. at the end of the principal street leading from the lake through 
the town, rest the bones of St. Francis de Sales (Bishop of Ge- 
neva, d. 1622). The avenues and grounds by the lake afford 
delightful walks and beautiful views of the lake and mountains. 
N. of the town, shaded by old trees, is a bronze statue of the 
eminent chemist Berthollet (d. 1829). In front of the modern 
Hotel de Ville, situated in the vicinity, is a handsome fountain. 
Annecy, with its delightful environs, is recommended as a very 
pleasant and not expensive resting-place. 

From Annecy to Geneva dilicence in 4'/'> hrs., railway 
projected. About l'/-j M. beyond Annecy the high road crosses 

CAROUGE. 52. Route. 213 

the Fier by a handsome stone bridge , and ascends the Mont des 
Homes. Several chateaux are situated on the hill to the 1.; fine 
retrospect of Annecy and its environs. The road now traverses 
a picturesque, undulating district, and crosses the *suspension- 
bridge of La Caille , or Pont Charles Albert , 698' above the river, 
and 079' in length, constructed in 1839. It spans the Ussen, 
thus avoiding the long circuit described by the old road. Far 
below, in the ravine to the 1. lies a small sulphur bath (inn un- 
pretending but good), to which rocky paths descend on both sides 
of the bridge. (Travellers in the reverse direction , from (ieneva 
to Annecy , are subjected to the formalities of the French custom- 
house near this bridge. J 

12 M. Cruseilles (2589'), a small town (pop. 1300) with the 
ruins of an old castle, is situated at the S. base of Mont Saleve. 
The road now skirts the mountain , high above the picturesque 
landscape which extends to the 1. ; in the distance to the W. 
rises Mont de Vuache (3704', p. 208 J. The pass (2106') between 
Mont Sion (2330'j and Saline (p. 187) is now ascended, beyond 
which a magnificent prospect is obtained as the road descends: 
to the r. rises Mont Saleve , in front lies the rich plain of Geneva 
with the town, lake, and Jura chain. 

9 M. St. Julien (1538') is the frontier town of Savoy. Carouge 
(1260') (Balance; Ecu de Savoie), the Swiss frontier town, once 
threatened to become a rival of Geneva. King Victor Amadeus 111. 
of Savoy attracted a number of workmen from Geneva hither (in 
1780), by oilVrs of superior advantages; this plan was , however, 
frustrated by the union with France in 1792, and subsequently 
with Geneva in 1816. Horse-railway (p. 178) between Carouge 
and Geneva 10 c. 

The road now crosses the Arve by a bridge constructed under 
Napoleon I., and reaches (1 M.) 

6 M. Geneva (see p. 17?). 

53. From Geneva to Chamouny. 

Distance -ISt'la 31. : Bonneville 15, pluses 21, Sallanches 33 31., theme 
to Chamouny IB'J-j 31. more. The road is uninteresting as far as Bonne- 
ville (p. 214), beyond which the attractions of the landscape continually 
increase. Good walkers should take the diligence only as far as St. Gervais- 
les-Bains (p. 215), which they reach about 1. 30, and proceed thence on 
foot over the Col de la Forclaz (p. 227). 

Diligence to St. Gervais in 5'|z hrs., to Chamouny in T'/-^ hrs. The 
return -journey to Sallanches occupies 2 l \t hrs., and from Sallanches to 
Geneva 4 hrs. only. Coups' 25, ordinary seats inside, or on the banquette 
outside 21 fr. — Excursion - tickets from Geneva to Chamouny and back by 
Martigny (It. 55 or R. 56 ) and Bouveret ( RK. 50, 51), or vice versa, are 
issued. Second class tickets entitle ladies only to a mule between Cha- 
mouny and 3Iartigny. These tickets, however, are not recommended, as 
little or no saving is effected. Travellers who purchase them should satisfy 
themselves as to the respectability of the agent who oilers them for sale. 

Carriages (p. 178). The ordinary charge for a one-horse carr. from 
Geneva to St. 3lartin or Sallanches is 30 fr., thence to Chamounv 15 fr. 

214 Route 53. CLUSES. From Geneva 

Of late years the traveller has been charged 40 fr. to St. Martin, and 20 fr. 
fnr the return-iournev on the following day : one-horse carr. from St. Martin 
to rhamouny 25 fr.. return -journey on the following day 15 fr. ; for the 
entire journey to Ohamotiny and back the exorbitant sum of 100 fr. is 
charged, with 5 fr. additional for the driver. — Those who return to 
Geneva by a hired conveyance should make an arrangement with the 
driver for" the entire journey; if the agreement be only to Sallanches or 
St. Martin, the driver can exact what he pleases for the second half of 
the journey. 

The high-road to Bonneville traverses the new suburbs, pass- 
ing villas and well-kept grounds in almost uninterrupted suc- 
ression as far as the large village of Chene ("1355'). The Foron 
separates Geneva from Savoy. Annemasse (1384') , 3% M. from 
Geneva, the first Savoyard village, is the seat of the French 
custom-house (no examination of luggage , as the Department of 
the Hautes Alpes is exempt from imposts). Beyond the village, 
in the distance to the r. , the castle of Etrambiere with its 
four towers, is visible at the base of the Petit-Salive, and then 
.Vomer (p. 187). The road approaches the Ar»e, and crosses the 
Menage by a handsome bridge. 

The country now becomes more picturesque. In the back- 
ground the pyramid of the Mole (61*28') bounds the landscape. 
Beyond Nangy, on a low fir-clad eminence, stands the Chateau 
de Pierre, the property of an Englishman ; near Contamines sur 
Arve (1361') . to the 1. on the slope of the hill , is Chateau Villy ; 
beyond the village, on a rocky height, are the two ruined 
towers of the ancient castle of Fauciyny , from which the pro- 
vince derives its name. 

15 M. Bonneville (1460') (Couronne; Balance), a small town of 
some importance (21*27 inhab.), the capital of the province, is pictu- 
resquely situated in a fertile valley, flanked by the rugged limestone 
rocks of the Brezon (6059') on the r., and the slopes of the Mole 
on the 1. A handsome bridge here crosses the .-1rt>e, and beyond 
it. is a Monument, 95' high, in honour of King Charles Felix 
of Sardinia. 

The road now traverses low meadow-land . frequently in- 
undated , beyond which it enters a broad and fertile valley 
bounded by lofty mountains. Opposite Ynugy the Oiffre falls into 
the Arve, on its r. bank. Sriomier, a village where horses are 
'hanged , lies at the entrance of the romantic Reposoir valley. On 
a hill to the 1. which is crossed by a road to Tanninges (p. 222), 
i* the castle of ChQtillon (view). The high-road crosses the Arve. 

9 M. Cluses (1624') (Hotel des Balances; Union at the far- 
ther end of the village), a little town, rebuilt since the Are of 
1*44, chiefly inhabited by watchmakers; 1. near the entrance 
the tcole d'Horloaerie. Beyond Balme (1624*), li/ 2 M. from 
Cluses. two cannons planted by the roadside near an inn make 
a rude assault upon the nerves and the echoes for a fee of 
I fr. In the precipitous bluish-yellow limestone rock , 800' above 

to Chamouny. RALLANCHKS. 53. Route. 215 

the bank of the river , the entrance to a stalactite - grotto is 
visible on the 1. ; it is however difficult of access, and possesses 
no very remarkable features (3 fr. each pers.). 

Before Magland is reached , a large stream issues from the 
rocks at the side of the road, which Saussure conjectured to flow 
from the small Lac de Flaine , on the height. There is a fine 
echo here. On the 1. the rugged precipices of the Aiguilles de 
Varens (8960'}- The cascade of Arpenas, which after rain as- 
sumes imposing dimensions, is visible for a long distance, and 
bears some resemblance to the Staubbach. 

The valley now expands. The road traverses a district de- 
vastated by torrents of mud and detritus (comp. Introd. XTTI). 
As the village of St. Martin (Hotel du Montblanc) is approached, 
the dazzling peaks of Mont Blanc become visible. Its stupendous 
dimensions seem to annihilate the intervening space, which is no 
less than 12 M\ in a straight line. Above the broad' bed of the 
Arve, in the same direction, rises Mont Forctaz (4921'), with its 
fir-clad slopes. Beyond it are the Aiguilles du Gouter and the 
D6me du Gouter. A handsome bridge crosses the Arve to 

9 M. Sallanches (1793^) (Bellevue, where diligence pass- 
engers dine ; Chalet Suisse) , a small town ( 1981 inhab.) , re- 
built since the fire of 1840, where the new high-road, con- 
structed by the French Government on the 1. bank of the 
Arve, begins, enabling the diligences to run the whole way 
to Chamouny. About l'/ 4 hr. later these vehicles stop at the 
Baths of St. Gervais (2066') (*ffitei), a small, but much 
frequented watering place with sulphureous springs , situated 
on the Bon- Nant (all mountain streams are termed 'Nant' in 
Savoy) , which forms a picturesque waterfall at the back of 
the bath-establishment, termed l La Cascade de Cripm. 

The Village of St. Gervais (H6tel du Mont Joli, * du Montblanc, de 
Geneve) lies on the road to Contamines (p. 2301 550' higher than the baths. 

Pedestrians may quit the diligence at St. Gervais and walk thence 
over the Col de la Forclaz (5134'), a pass between the TSte Noire, men- 
tioned below, and the Prarion (6497'), direct to Le Fouilly and Les /touches 
in 6—7 hrs. ; guide desirable, 6 fr. (comp. map p. 216). 

The road again approaches the Arve, and skirts the base of the 
Ttte Noire (5800'), a mountain not to be confounded with the 
Tete Noire between Martigny and Chamouny. On the opposite 
bank lies the village of Chide, then Serroz, villages on the old 
road on the r. bank of the river. (A path from Servoz to Sixt 
ascends the valley of the Dioxa , uniting with the bridle-path 
from Chamouny at the foot of the Col d'Anterne, p. 221 .) Beyond 
(4 M.) the hamlet of Le Lac the road ascends Les Montets, a rocky 
ridge separating the lower from the upper region of the valley. 
From the summit the vast proportions of Mont Blanc , now in the 
immediate vicinity , are strikingly imposing. The hamlets of 
Les Chavatits, Le Fouilly, and Lts Trubots are next passed. 

216 Route 54. CHAMOUNY. 

Lea Ouches, or Les Houches (3143') (two poor auberges), the 
first village in the valley of Chamouny , half-way between Servoz 
and Chamouny, celebrated for its honey, lies on the old road, 
on the opposite bank of the river. The glaciers gradually 
become visible, but the nature of the surrounding objects is so 
stupendous that the mind ran hardly at first comprehend the vastness 
of their proportions. The first are the Glaciers de Gria and die 
Taconay ; then the Glacier des liaisons near the village of that 
name , with its lofty pyramids of blue ice , which , as it extends 
farthest into the valley, is apparently the mo4 extensive. In 
the distance is the Glacier des Bois , the lower part of the Mer 
de Glace. 

b M. Chamouny (3445'). 

54. Chamouny and its Environs. 

Hotels. Hotels Imperial, Royal, I'nion, Angleterre and 
Londres, Oouronne, and Palais de Cristal all belong to a com- 
pany; Hotel du Slontblanc. Charges in all: 11. from 2, I.. '|2, A. 1, 
B. i l ji — 2, table d'hote at 5 and 8 o'cl. 4 fr. Hotel Pension Couttet, 
new, R. 2—3, B. li| 4 , D. 3>/j fr. — H o t e 1 d e France, moderate, R. 2, B. l'! 4 , 
pension 5 fr. Hotel des Alpes; Hotel de la Paix, unpretending, 
well spoken of. — Aux Balances, A la Reunion des Amis, both 
unpretending. — As much is usually charged for a slight meal as for the 
table d'hote dinner. — Cafe de la Terrasse, near the bridge. 

Guides. A guide is unnecessary for the ordinary excursions to M on- 
tan vert and the Flegere. The paths are so minutely described in the 
following pages that it is almost impossible to mistake them, whilst they 
are so much frequented that opportunities of making inquiries constantly 
recur. Should a guide be considered necessary for the Chapeau one may 
he engaged at Les Tines, where a boy may also be hired for 1 — 2 fr. The 
following extract is made from the " Reglement et Tarif. des Guides de 
C/iamonix", of March 8th, 1862. Travellers are provided with guides by 
the Guide C/ief, who is bound to employ each in turn, the traveller having 
no choice except in four cases: (1). When a Course extraordinaire (see 
below) is contemplated) (2). When an excursion is made for scientinV 
purposes; (3). When the traveller speaks no French, and the guide is 
unacquainted with the language of the traveller; (4). When travellers 
have previously employed a certain guide and desire to re-engage the 
same, or when ladies alone wish to engage a particular guide. - Each 
guide must be furnished with a batlge, with his number and the words : 
*Compaynie. des Guides de Chat/io/tix . Hotel-keepers, waiters, etc. are for- 
bidden to recommend particular guides. A guide who loses his way in 
favourable weather is excluded from the 'compagnie'. Complaints to be 
made to the ' Guide Chef". 

The excursions are divided into Courses Ordinaires and Courses Extra 

Courses Ordinaire*: Flegere and Source de l'Ar- 

O lacier des Bossons 3 fr., ditto 
incl. Cascades du Dad and 
du I'elcrin 4'|b fr. 

Source de TArveiron 3, ditto 
incl. Jloutanvei't . Jler de 
Glace, Mauvais l\is, and 
Chapeau ... ... 8 fr. 

veiron u tr 

Brevent by Plampraz. 8, by 
the FUgere and desc. by 
Plampraz ...... 1(1 fr. 

Montanvert, Jler de Glace, 
Chapeau , and Flegere in 
one day . . 12 fr. 


54. Route. 217 

Pierre de l'Echelle . . 10 fr. 

Jardin, back by the Chapeau 12 fr. 

Col de Balme, incl. Cascades 
de Berbarine and de Berard 
in one day 9, in two days . 12 fr. 

Buet and desc. to Sixt, incl. 
return-fee, in one day 23, in 
Mo days ' 2S fr. 

Martigny by Col de Balme 
or T£te Noire (incl. return- 
fee • . . 12 fr. 

Sixt by the Brcvent and Col 
d'Anterne in one day (incl. 
return-fee) 14 fr. 

Sixt by Servoz and Col d'An- 
terne 1G fr. 

Pavilion de Bellevne, Col de 

Yoza or Prairion .... G fr. 

Contamines by the Col du 

Tricot 15 fr. 

Courses Extraordinaire* : 

Mont Blanc 1(111 fr. 

Grands Mulcts and back in one 

day 15, in two days . . . 25 fr. 

Courmayeur by the Col du 

Geant 51) fr. 

Col du Tour and back . . 20 IV. 

Glacier - excursions on the 
Mont Blanc chain , above 
the zone of vegetation, per 
diem 10 fr. 

The guides are bound on the Courses ordinaires to carry baggage of 
12 kilogr. (24 lbs. )j in weight; on the Courses extraordinaires , 7 kilo^r. 
(14 lbs.) only. 

Guides from Martigny are prohibited from acting as such at Chamouny ; 
but the prohibition does not extend to guides from German Switzerland 
and Courmayeur. The majority of the Chamouny guides are well-informed 
and respectable. 

HLules. With the exception of the excursion to the Montanvert and 
Chapeau (9fr. ), and to the Montanvert for the purpose of visiting the 
Jardin, returning to Chamouny in the evening (7 fr. ), the same charges 
are made as for the c courses ordinaires ' of the guides. 

The Collection of Pictures of M. LoppC, a talented painter of Alpine 
scenery, eituated at the back of the Hotel Royal, on the path to the 
Montanvert, merits a visit. Admission gratis. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Travellers intending to spend one day only at Chamouny, should ascend 
the Montanvert (p. 218) in the morning (2 hrs.), thence cross the Mer de Glace 
(p. 219) to the Chapeau (p. 219) (l'|4 hr.), then descend to Tines (p. 219) 
(3| 4 hr.), and from ( 'J 2 hr.) Les Praz (p. 220) ascend the Flegere (p. 210 I 
(2'J'i hrs.), and descend in 13| 4 hr. Early in the morning the path to Mon- 
tanvert is in the shade, in the afternoon that to the Flegere is at least 
partly so, and by this arrangement the traveller reaches the Flegere at 
the time most favourable for observing Mont Blanc. If time and strength 
permit, the traveller may visit the Source of the Arveiron (p. 221, '|2 hr. 
from Praz, 1 hr. from Chamouny), on his return from the Flegere. 
For this excursion a guide is only necessary across the Mer de Glace (sec 
p. 219). Those who ride must send their mules round from Montanvert to 
Les Tines or the Chapeau. The excursion to the Flegere alone occupies 
about 5 hrs. (ascent 2'|«, rest i| 2 hr., descent 1 3 | 4 hr.), to the Montanvert 
or the Chapeau and the Source of the Arveiron also 5 hrs. — It is, how- 
ever, needless to say that one day cannot possibly suffice for the thorough 
appreciation and enjoyment of these excursions, which, moreover, will 
somewhat too severely tax the strength of the ordinary traveller. Those 
who come from the E., and have spent the night at Argentiere, should 
leave the high-road near l.avancher (p. 224) and proceed by way of the 
Chapeau, the Mer the Glace, and Montanvert to Chamouny. Those who 
have spent the night at the Col de Balme (p. 227) or Tete Noire (p. 225), 
and arrive at Chamouny about noon, may quit the road before Lavaneher 
is reached, and proceed by La Joux on the r. bank of the Arve to the 
Flegere (comp. p. 224). , 

An excursion to the Glacier des Bossons itselt (p. 21b) is an agree- 
able mode of spending a cloudy afternoon , when the views from the 
heights are concealed. There and back 4 — 4'|a hrs. -. by the old road to 
the Pont de Perralotai, then to the 1. to the Hotel des Pi/ramides (a chalet 
visible from a lonf distance), thence across the glacier (with guide), and 

218 Route 54. CHAMOUNY. Montanvert. 

hack by the picturesque Cascade dn Ptltrin. — - The Jardhi (p. 220), 
9 — 10 hrs. there and hack, occupies an entire day. Travellers wishing to 
economise their strength, or intending to descend hy the Chapeau to 
Argentiere or farther, should spend the night on the Montanvert. — The 
ascent of the Brtrenl (p. 224) requires 6—7 hrs. from Chamouny (there 
and back), ascent or descent by the Flegere 2 hrs. more. 

The Valley of Chamouiiy (3445'), 15 M. long, 3/ 4 M. wide, 
is traversed by the Arve , and stretches in a direct line from 
N.E. to S.W. towards Les Ouches (p. 216); it is bounded on 
the S.W. by the chain of Mont Blanc, with its gigantic ice- 
cataracts, the Glacier du Tout, d' Argentiere, des Boh (Mer de 
Glace), and des Bossons; on the N T .W. by the Aiguilles Rouges 
and the Brevent. i 

A Benedictine priory first, hrougit the valley into cultivation at the 
beginning of the 12th cent. So had was its reputation in those early davs 
that travellers came armed, and spent the night in tents which were 
strictly guarded, rather than trust themselves under the roofs of the in- 
habitants, who were little better than a horde of bandits. The sobriquet 
of Les Montagues Sfanditei acted as a ban upon the district. On one 
occasion -S7. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva (1602 to 1622), visited the 
then pathless wilds on foot, which was considered an act of the greatest, 
temerity ; indeed had the saintly man come with his mitre and crozier. it 
is doubtful if his visit, would have been so free from disastrous con- 
sequences. The valley became better known in 1740. when the celebrated 
traveller Pococke, and another Englishman named Wvndham visited and 
explored it in all directions, and published the result of their observations 
in the Mercure de Suisse. An impulse was thus given to the curiosity and 
enterprise of the public, which was still further stimulated hy the publi- 
cations of the Oenevese naturalists de Saussure, de Luc, Bourrit, Pictet. 
and others. Since that time Chamouny, like the Bernese Oberland (R. 29). 
has become a great central point of attraction for travellers, especially 
English, Americans, and French, upwards of 15,000 visitors visiting it an- 
nually. Chamouny is inferior to the Bernese Oberland in picturesqueness of 
si-enery, but superior in the grandeur of its glaciers; in the latter respect 
Zermatt (R. 68) alone can vie with Chamounv. 

The *Montanvert (6302') (ascent 2, descent l</ 4 hrs.), an 
eminence opposite the Fleg?re , on the K. side of the valley , is 
visited solely for the view it affords of the immense sea of ice 
which fills the highest gorges of the chain of Mont Blanc with its 
three arms (Glacier du Giant or du Tacul , Glacier de Lechaud, 
Glacier de Taltfre), and, at length uniting in the form of a 
stream of ice about 13 M. long and l'/a to -i'/j M- wide, extends 
into the valley of Chamouny. The upper portion of this stream 
is termed the Mer de Glace, the lower the Glacier des Bois. From 
Montanvert the motionless billows, for so they may be called, of 
the Mer de (ilace are visible for a distance of 6 M., but the huge 
pinnacles of the Olacier des Bois are concealed from view. The 
footpath from Chamouny passes the Hotel de l'T'nion , crosses by a 
bridge to the 1. bank of the Arve, and runs diagonally across the 
meadows (the middle track preferable) tn a house ('/4 hr.), 
where it turns to the r. towards the mountain. The broad and 
easy bridle-path ascends from the hamlet situated at the foot of 
the mountain, to which a carriage-road leads past, the English 
Church on the 1. bank in a straight direction up the valley, It 

Mer de Glace. CHAMOUNY. 54. Route. 219 

then traverses a pine-forest , somewhat steep at places , passing 
numerous tracks of avalanches. Half-way is a spring of fresh 
water, the Caillet, formerly shaded by'trees; hut these have been 
swept away by avalanches (refreshments at a hut"). The path 
turns to the r. about 8/4 hr. farther , and the *Mer de Glare 
and the mountains enclosing it are now immediately opposite to 
the spectator. 

The surface of the Mer de Glace, de Saussure observes, ' resembles 
that of a sea which has become suddenly frozen , not during a tem- 
pest, hut at the instant when the wind has subsided, and the waves, 
although very high, have become blunted and rounded. These great waves 
are nearly parallel to the length of the glacier, and are intersected by 
transverse crevasses, the interior of which appears blue, whilst the ice is 
white on its external surface 1 . 

In 1779 the illustrious Goethe visited this magnificent scene. 
He mentions in his journal the fact of an Englishman named 
Blaire having erected a convenient hut upon the spot , from the 
window of which he and his guests could survey the sea of ice. 
This hut still exists, and affords accommodation for the guides. 
Adjoining it is an Inn (240' above the glacier), where tolerable 
refreshments and accommodation may be procured. The path 
descending directly to the Source of the Arveiron (p. 221) is 
precipitous and difficult, and therefore scarcely suitable for ladies. 
7 From Montanvert it is usual to cross the *Mer de Glace (in 
1 Y4 hr.) to the CTwpeau (see below), which lies opposite. The route 
across the glacier ('/■> hr. , guide 2 fr. , to the Chapeau 4 fr.), 
practicable for ladies , is annually rendered easy and safe by 
the guides by means of steps hewn in the ice , waymarks , etc. 
The services of a guide are, however , very desirable , as the 
route varies with the direction of the crevasses , which are always 
changing their form. The Mauvais Pas, where for a short dis- 
tance the path is hewn in the rock on the N.E. side of the 
glacier in the form of steps . near the Chapeau . was formerly 
a giddy and hazardous point , but the iron rods now attached to 
the rocks afford perfect security to the traveller. The excursion 
is easier in the reverse direction (from the Chapeau to Montanvert), 
but in this case the traveller cannot rely with certainty on rinding 
a guide for the passage of the Mer de Glace. 

The *Chapeau (5082') (auberge), a limestone precipice on the 
N.E. side of the glacier, nearly opposite the Montanvert . at the 
base of the Aiguilles du Boc.hard, is considerably lower than the 
Montanvert, but commands fine views of the Aiguilles de Charmoz 
(11,293') and de Bletiere as far as Mont Blanc, the beautiful 
Glacier des Bois with its innumerable ice-pinnacles, and the valley 
of Chamouny below. The route from Chamouny diverges from 
the high road near (3 M.) Les Tines (p. 224), and then ascends, 
traversing part of a former moraine , in 1 hr. to the inn. This 
path can hardly be mistaken. Across the Mer de Glace to the 
Montanvert , see above. 

220 Route 64. CHAMOl'NY. Ftegere. 

The Jardin (9143'; guide necessary, 12 fr.) is a triangulaf 
rok rising from the midst of the Glacier de Talefre, and walled 
in by its moraine on all sides. In August several species of 
(lowers bloom on the brink of this oasis in the wilderness of ice. 
From the Montanvert or the Chapeau the moraines and glaciers 
(Mer de Glare) must be traversed for 'i'/j — 3 hrs. as far as the 
foot of the Sentrn de 'J'uli/'re , the precipitous S.W. slope of the 
Glacier de Talefre (or the traveller may proceed from the Chapeau 
across rocks and moraine, without descending to the glacier , but 
ladies are recommended not to attempt this route). Here the 
guides formerly turned to the 1. , and skirted the base of the 
Couvercle (SS;Y2') and the Aiguille du Maine [11, '214'), but they 
now prefer to ascend the moraine to the r. , on the S. side of 
the Seracs (3| 4 hr. j a stone hut half-way up). Finally there re- 
mains a walk of '2f> min. across the Talefre Glacier to the Jardin. 
This excursion, which affords an imposing survey of the icy wilder- 
nesses of the Mont Blanc group, although somewhat fatiguing, is 
now frequently undertaken by ladies. 

The *Flegere (5957') (ascent from Chamouny 2 3 / i ; descent l 3 / 4 , 
or including a visit to the Source of the Arveiron 2'/> hrs.), an 
eminence to the N. of Chamouny, is a buttress of the Aiguille 
de la Floria (9543'j, one of the highest peaks of the Aiguilles 
Rouges. The road from Chamouny ascends the valley to (I'/gM.) 
Les Praz (p. 224) , and here crosses the Arve by a bridge (the 
footpath on the r. bank is often marshy , and should therefore 
be avoided , especially as the saving effected is inconsiderable). 
In the village the road divides , to the r. to the Source of the 
Arveiron (l 1 /^ M.), to the 1. to the Flegcre; on arriving at a 
small fir-wood C/2 M.) the road is quitted, and the path to 
the 1. followed, which recrosses to the r. bank (5 min.) , at the 
base of the mountain ; the barren and stony slope is then ascended 
by a good bridle-path. After % hr. the wood is entered to 
the r. ; S min. , the (Jrand .Wuil , a mountain torrent , is crossed,' 
and in i ' ,'4 hr. more the Croix de la Flegere ((>'2(i0') is reached 
(poor inn, higli charges). The *vie\v embraces the entire chain 
of Mont Blanc, from the Col de Balnie (the inn on which is 
clearly discernible), to the Glacier des Bostons , which extends 
into the valley to the S. ; Mont Blanc with its vast snow-neld» 
is visible from summit to base. From no point of view do the 
jagged pinnacles which surround the Aiguille Ytrte (13, 540') appear 
so striking as from here ; the rugged summits of the Aiguilles 
Rouges also have a singular aspect. A great portion of the (Jlacier 
des Hois (Mer de (Hare) is surveyed. The view is seen to the 
best advantage by e\oiiing light, Comp. Panorama. ■ — Travellers 
approaching Chamouny from Argentii're may ascend by La Joux 
(pp. 217, 2'24 ) to I' res Hauls (guide not absolutely necessary), 

*/.Mf° M3SS- 

JZ030- -/ieor' tssfr - ww wee- 

7A;<, ■ 

Brevent. CHAMOUNY. 54. Route. 221 

and walk along the brow of the hills opposite the Mont Blanc 
chain in the direction of the cross on the Fle'gere. 

For the descent from the Fle'gere to the foot of the moun- 
tain 1 hr. amply suffices. After the Arve is crossed, a path to 
the 1. , before the village of Les Praz is reached, leads by the 
village of Les Bois and a fir-clad moraine of the Glacier des 
Bois , in 3/ 4 hr. to the Source of the Arveiron , which here issues 
from the Glacier des Bois through an arch of ice (illumination 
'/ 2 fr-)> usually closed in winter. During some seasons this spot 
hardly merits a visit. It is dangerous to venture under the 
ice-arch, as blocks of ice frequently become detached. In 1868 
a young English lady lost her life in this manner. On the road 
near the glacier is an inn, l Au Touriste'; carriage with four seats 
to (3 M.) Chamouny 5 fr. 

The Brevent (8284'), the S. prolongation of the Aiguilles 
Rouges, affords nearly the same view as the Fle'gere (see above); 
hut Mont Blanc is here disclosed to the spectator in all its gran- 
deur , whilst from the Fle'gere the Mer de Glace and the Aiguille 
Verte are the most conspicuous objects. From this point the 
direction of the usual route to the summit of Mont Blanc may 
be distinctly traced; and with the aid of a telescope the Chalet 
de la Pierre Pointue (6722'), and the two stone huts on the 
Grands Mulets (10,007'), the two stations for spending the night, 
may al^o be seen. The new bridle-path to the Brevent leaves the 
village on the W., and passes the church ('Chemin Muletier de 
Chamonix h Sixt'). In 2'/2 hrs. the chalets of Plan Praz, or 
Plambraz (6772') (Inn, poor and dear) are reached. From this 
point a tolerable path to the 1. ascends to the trigonometrical 
signal on the summit (l'/2 nr -)i the latter portion ('La Cheminee') 
steep and stony. Guide, not necessary, but agreeable from Plan 
Praz upwards. — The ascent of the Brevent may also be combined 
with that of the Fle'gere. The 'Route du Planpraz' diverges to 
the r. (S.W.) from the Flegere path, about 20 min. below the 
Croix de la Flegere , and leads in 2 hrs. to the chalets of 
Plan Praz, which are visible from the Flegere. At places, however, 
the path is not well marked. 

From Chamouny to Sixt by the Col du Brevent and the 
Col d'Anterne (21 M.) in 9 — 10 hrs.; mule 18 fr., return-fee included; 
guide (unnecessary) 18 fr. The route is by the well-defined Cliemw Muletier 
already mentioned, and can hardly be mistaken. From Chamouny to the 
chalets of Plan Praz (dear auberge) 2'|2 hrs., thence to the summit of the Col 
du Brevent (8078') 1 hr. ; then down a slope richly clad with bilberry, rasp- 
berry, and many other plants, into the valley of the Biota (5413') (path from 
Servoz, see p. 215), which is crossed by a wooden bridge (1>|2 hr.). [If at- 
tended by a guide, the traveller may here turn to the r. and proceed by the 
chalets of Silly and the Col de Salenion (8277') in 6 — 6 ! |2 hrs. to the sum- 
mit of the Buet , see below.) The path to the Col d'Anterne ascends to 
the 1., turning afterwards to the r. : 2 l /a hrs., summit of the pass (7428'), 
whence a magnificent retrospect of Mont Blanc is obtained. Then a descent 
by the Chalets des Fonds (milk), above which the path unites with the 
usual Mont Buet route. The picturesquely situated house which here 

222 Route 5d> CHAMOUNY. Mont Bland, 

overlooks the lower pal't of the valley, is the summer-residence °f(gl 
Englishman. The bridle-path now descends the picturesque Vallee op 
Fonda, watered by a tributary of the Gillre (sue below}. Before (l l |j KKj 
Salvayny is reached, a line cascade may be seen descending from the moun- 
tain on the 1. Then t'^hr.) Sixt (2434') (Hotel du Fer a Cheval, established 
in an old monastery, K. and L. 3, D. S'Ja fr., sometimes crowded towards 
evening). In spring, when the brooks are swollen by the melting of the 
snow, the environs of Sixt abound in magnificent waterfalls, which are 
precipitated from the mountains in every direction. In the upper part of 
the valley alone, termed Yallie da Fer a Cheval from its resemblance to 
a horse-shoe, there are as many as 30 of these cascades. In summer and 
autumn, however, the number dwindles down to live or six, and a visit 
to the falls does not repay the fatigue. Near Fond de la Combe, at the 
extremity of the valley, 6 hrs. from Sixt, there is a vault of snow, 100 
paces long, containing another waterfall, to which travellers may drive. 

The above route is far preferable in the reverse direction : Sixt to the 
Chalets des Fonds i 3 |4 hr. ; a few min. farther the bridle-path turns to the 
r. and crosses the brook (the path to the 1. ascends to the Col Lichaud, or Col des 
Fonds, whence the Buet may be ascended; by this route from the chalets to the 
summit of the Buet and down to Ohamouny 'J — 10 hrs., guide from Sixt 
necessary, 15 fr.) ; 3 hrs. Col d^Anteme, whence in clear weather a most 
striking view of Mont Blanc is obtained. At the foot of the Col the path 
turns to the 1. (that to the r. leads to Servoz) ; i hr. bridge over the 
Dioza; 2 hrs. Col du Brivenl, where another superb survey of the Mont 
Blanc chain is enjoyed; 3 J4 hr. Chalets de Plan Praz; I 1 /* hr. Chamouny. 
In line weather this route, or still better that of the Col des Fonds and 
the Buet, is by far the most impressive way of approaching the chain of 
Mont Blanc. — A path leads from Sixt to the X.E. over the Col du Sageroux 
(7911') to Champery, see p. 207. 

In the valley of the Giffre, I'l-i M. below Sixt, is situated Samoeni 
(H6tel de la Poste ; Hdtel du Commerce, cuisine tolerable ; both uninviting), 
a small town with 3000 inhab. , whence the traveller may either cross the 
Col de Jourplaine (5675'), or the Col Goleze (546b') to (4 hrs.) Morzint 
(Hotel du Chamois), and thence descend the valley of the Dranse to Thonoii 
on the Lake of Geneva (p. 2U5). Or from Sainoens by omnibus through 
the valley of the Gillre (once daily in 7 hrs., fare 4 fr.), via Tanninges and 
8t. Jeoire, to Geneva (where the omnibus stops at the small and indifferent 
Hotel de Savoie, Kue de Rive 13). From Samoens to Geneva at -i. 30 a. m., 
from Geneva to Samoens at 2. 30 p. in. — From Samoens by the Col de 
Goleze and the Col de Couz to Champery in 6 — 7 hrs., see p. 207. 

From Chamouny to Sixt by Argentiere and the Mont 
Buet, an interesting, but fatiguing route 11 — 12 hrs. (guide necessary). 
2 hrs. Argentiere, see p. 224. Thence 3 \ t hr. on the Tete Xoire route as 
far as the entrance to the Berard Valley, up which the path leads to the 
Pierre a Bhard chalets (refreshm. and beds ; those who desire to reach 
the summit early should sleep here; or the previous night may be passed 
at Argentiere). Then over the snow for 2 l \-z hrs. to the summit of the 
Buet (10,197'); magnificent prospect over the Chain of Montblanc, Monte 
ltosa, the Matterhorn, the Bernese Alps with the Finsteraarhorn and Jungl'rau, 
the Dent du Midi, and the Jura as far as the mountains of Dauphine. De- 
scent of 2 3 |4 hrs. by the Col Lichaud or Col des Fonds to the Chalets des 
Fonds (milk). Bridle-path hence by Salvagny to Sixt in l'| 2 hr. 

Mont Blanc (15,781'), the monarch of European mountains 
(Monte Ko-a 15,217', Finsteraarhorn 14,026', Ortler 12,812', the 
IV de Nethou, or Maladetta, the highest of the Pyrenees, 11, 233'), 
whii h since 18(30 has formed the boundary between France and Italy, 
is composed chiefly of Alpine granite or protogine. It was ascended 
lor the tirst time in 1786 by an intrepid guide named Jacques 
rialuiut. On his return a serious illness attacked him, caused by 
the fatigue and exposure which he had undergone and he was 

Cot du Qcani. CriAMOUN^ 64. Houie. 223 

skilfully attended by a local physician, Dr. Paccard , to whom he 
made known his discovery. On the recovery of Balmat he accom- 
panied the doctor to the summit , which they reached after a 
succession of perilous adventures. Jacques Balmat, whose name 
is a household word amongst the fraternity of guides , lived 49 
years after his iirst ascent, and at the advanced age of 70 met 
his death whilst in pursuit of the chamois. In 1787 the ascent was 
made by the celebrated naturalist De Saussure , accompanied by 
17 guides, and the results of his expedition were received with 
great interest by the scientific world. In 1825 the summit was 
attained by Dr. K. Clarke and Captain Sherwill , and in 18'27 by 
Mr. Auldjo, who published a highly interesting account of his 
ascent. These may be considered the principal pioneers of a 
route now annually trodden by numbers. The ascent is now 
made about 40 times annually , and in nne weather is attended 
with no very serious difficulty or danger. Travellers are however 
earnestly cautioned against attempting the expedition in foggy or 
stormy weather. A party of eleven persons perished in a storm 
during the ascent in 1870 , and a young English lady and a guide 
were precipitated into a crevasse near the Grands Mulets the same 
year in consequence of having neglected the important precaution 
of attaching themselves together by a rope. 

On the first day the travellers generally ascend via the Chalets de la 
Pierre Pointue (6(22'), which may be reached on the back of a mule, to the 
Grands Mulets (10,007'), where the night is spent at one of the two stone huts ; 
on the second they proceed to the summit, and back to the Grands Mulets, and 
on the third Chamouny is regained (or the entire descent may be made on 
the second day). Those who make the ascent from *S*. Gervan (p. 215), by 
the Pavilion de Bellevue (p. 229), spend a night on the Aiyuille du Gotlter, 
where the guides of St. Gervais have erected a hut. The two routes, 
from Chamouny and from St. Gervais, unite on the Grand Plateau (about 
12,300'), an ice-valley forming the source of the Glacier des Bossons (p. 216) 
and the Glacier de Taconay (p. 216), which separate near the Grands Mulets 
(see above). The view from the summit is not commensurate with the fatigue 
necessary to reach it; in consequence of the great distance, all objects appear 
indistinct ; even in the most favourable weather only the outlines of the 
great chains, the Swiss Alps, the Jura, and the Apennines are distinguishable. 
The ascent is, moreover, very expensive ; one traveller requires 2 guides 
(ILO fr. each) and a porter (40 fr.) and for each additional person one guide 
or porter more is desirable, but experienced mountaineers require com- 
paratively fewer. Besides this there are other expenses for provisions, 
wine, etc., so that the ascent of Jlont Blanc can seldom be made under 
3j0 to 400 fr. for each person. 

Tour du Mont Blanc, see R. 57. 

From Chamouny to C o u r in a y e u r (p. 232) direct by the Col du 
Geant (11, 027'), a difficult and fatiguing glacier-pass, not to be attempted 
except by experienced mountaineers. This pass was long considered the 
highest among the Alps, and although recent discoveries have deprived it 
of this rank, it continues to be one of the grandest and most interesting. It 
traverses the Jler de Glace on the \V. side of the lofty Tacul, the Glacier 
du Geant between Rognon on the r., and the Aiguille du Geant on the 1., 
and then descends almost perpendicular rocks into the Val d'Kutreves; 
altogether 12— 13 hrs. This excursion is no longer attended with serious 
danger, as most of the guides are now thoroughly acquainted with the 
route. The fatal accident, by which three Englishmen lost their lives on 

221 Route 55. AIMJKNTIEKE. 

this pass in 1861, occasioned by their neglect of Hie necessary precaution 
of binding themselves together with the rope, instead of which they merely 
held it with their hands. 

55. From Chamouny to Martigny by the Tete-Noire, 
or to Vernayaz by Trinquent and Salvan. 

Comp. Map, p. 216. 
To Le Chatelard 4'|j hrs., thence over the Tete Noire to Martigny 4>| ( , 
or by Salvan to Vernayaz 3'|2 — 4 hrs. Carriage-road as tar as Argentiere , 
thence a bridle-path to the Hotel de la Tete Noire, beyond which there 
is a carriage road to Martigny. If a carriage be taken as far as Argentiere 
(one-horse fi, two-horse 10 — 12 fr.), the remainder of the distance can easily 
be accomplished on foot in one day, even by ladies, if they are good walkers. 
At the hotels of Barberine (p. '325). or Le Chatelard, half-way, guides with 
horses returning to Martigny offer their services for a few francs. The 
following directions render a guide unnecessary. Those who leave Chamouny 
early can reach Geneva on the same day by taking the railway at 
Martigny (or by steamboat from Bouveret or Villeneuve, see RR. 50, 51); 
they may also reach Vispach (R. 63) by railway (as far as Sierre) and 
diligence, or the Baths of Leuk (on foot from Sierre, s. p. 225). — By 
making a digression of 2 hrs. (with a guide), the view from the Col de 
Balme may be combined with the Tete-Noire. The guides (p. 227) by 
this longer route are entitled to an additional pay of 3 fr. 

Three Bridie-Paths connect the valley of Chamouny with the Valais 
viz. those described in the present and the following route. The path by 
the Tete-Noire to Martigny and that leading via Salvan to Vernayaz are by 
far the most interesting and beautiful, as well as less fatiguing, whilst the 
third, traversing the Col de Balme, commands a superb view of the Valley 
of Chamouny and Mont Blanc, which are not visible from the Tete-Noire 
route. These, however, are familiar to persons quitting Chamouny, who, 
therefore, will do well to select the Tete-Noire route, while those who 
come from Martigny should choose the Col de Balme, if the weather he 
favourable. In misty weather all hope of a view from the Col de Balme 
must be abandoned. 

The road ascends from Chamouny (3445') by the- Arve, 
which it crosses by a bridge near ("1 '/._, M.) Les Praz. The village 
and Glacier des Bois (Source of the Arveiron , p. 221, a digression 
of 20 min.) are left on the r. ; (l'/ 2 M.) Les Tines (Au Touriste, 
tolerable); ( 3 / 4 M.) Laoancher (3848'). A little farther, on the 
opposite bank of the Arve, are the groups of houses of La Joux, 
whence the Fle'gere may be ascended by travellers coming from 
Argentiere. Then Les lies and Grasonet. (2'/o M.) Argentiere 
(4236') (*Couronne, R. l'/ 2 — 2, B. 1 , D. 2i/ 2 , A. »/ 2 fr. ; 
*Bellevue) , the third largest village in the valley , near which 
the huge glacier of the same name descends into the valley 
between the Aiguille Verte (13,450') and the Aiguille de Chardonnet. 

Beyond the village the road to the r. follows the course of 
the Arve to Tour and the Col de Balme (2'/ 2 hrs. , see p. 227 ; 
the inn on the Col is visible almost all the way) ; the path to 
the 1. traverses a wild ravine, which, like that on the W. side 
of the valley (p. 215), bears the name of ],es Montets. Be- 
yond the ('/ 4 hr.) hamlet of Trclerhamp , the (2(1 min.) summit 
of the pass ( <>>l de* Montets, 48 19';, indicated by a cross, is 

TETE NOIRE. 55. Route. 225 

reached. From this point flow tvro streams, one to the N. which 
tails into the Rhone, another to the S. which joins the Arve. 
A number of large boulders afford indication of the glaciers 
which once occupied the bed of this valley (comp. Introd. XIV). 
Near Poyaz (to the r. of which the path afterwards passes) a 
wild and barren valley opens (Vallee de Berard), from which the 
Eau-Noire descends. This stream forms a *cascade, !/ 2 hr. higher 
up. At the end of the valley the snow-clad summit of the 
Buet (p. 222) is visible to the r. , by the side of the Aiguilles 
Rouges. The path traverses this desolate and stony gorge , and 
follows the course of the Eau-Noire. The first chalets are near 
the ('/•) hr.) bridge over the Eau-Noire ; V 2 hr. beyond it is the 
church of Valorcine (4232'), protected from avalanches by walls. 
This village, the largest in the valley (640 inhab.), consists of 
a long row of chalets. Immediately beyond the church a finger- 
post indicates the path to the 1. which leads direct to the fall of the 
Barberine mentioned below, and thence to the Hotel Barberine. 

The valley now contracts, and the path descends to the stream 
which rushes foaming over the rocks. The scenery becomes 
grander ; ( 25 min.) confluence of the Barberine and the Eau-Noire ; 
the former forms a beautiful waterfall , '/j hr. from the *H6tel 
Barberine, or de la Cascade, an inn by the roadside, halfway be- 
tween Chamouny and Martigny. (5 min.) Bridge over the Eau- 
Noire (3684'), the boundary of Savoy and the Canton of Valais ; 
(10 min.) Hotel Royal da Chatelard (R. iy 2 . B. 1 1/2 &■)■ The 
two routes to the valley of the Rhone diverge here. To the r. 
is the well known route by the Tete Noire to Martigny, to the 
1. the new and still more attractive path via Trinquent and 
Sal van to Vernayaz (p. 226). 

From he Chatelard to Martigny 4'/ 4 hrs. The now 
abandoned Mapas (mauvais pas), a path of dangerous character, 
descends to the 1., whilst the new route penetrates the rocks and 
leads to the ('/ 2 hr.) Tete-Noire (Lu Roche-Percee). (The Summit 
of the Tete-Noire, 6595', lies to the S., and is a peak of the 
chain which extends to the N. of the Col de Balme, terminating 
in the Croix de Fer, p. 228. ) On the opposite side of the stream 
rises the Bel-Oiseau (8612'), N. of which are the Dent de Morcles 
(p. 201) and Grand Moveran (10,043'). About 10 min. beyond 
the Roche-Percee, 3 hrs. from Argentiere, the Hotel de la Tete- 
Noire (4003') is attained. (Path to the Col de Balme, see p. 228.) 
The road here turns suddenly to the r. into the dark and beau- 
tiful forest of Trient, and winds round the Tete-Noire. Deep in 
the valley below , the roar of the Trient (which joins the Eau- 
Noire a little farther on) is audible. When the forest is quitted, 
the valley widens, and (!/ 2 hr.) Trient (Inn) is reached, not far 
from which the present route unites with that from Chamouny 
over the Col de Balme (see below). 

B.SPEKER, Switzerland. 5th Edition, 1 5 

226 Route 56. COL DE LA FORCLAZ. 

From this village the road ascends to the (■'>:'> mill.) Col de 
Trient, better known as the Col de la Forclaz (4997') (two 
small inns). The view from the summit is limited, but >/ 2 hf. 
lower a celebrated prospect is di-clo-ed, embracing the valley 
of the Rhone as far as Sion, extended like a map beneath the 
eye of the spectator, with Martigny immediately below. The 
road to Alartigny (de-cent 2, ascent 2'/ 2 hrs.) at first traverses 
pastures and forest , and then meadows planted with fruit and 
chestnut-trees. Good walkers may reach Martigny in l'/ohr. by 
following the steep and stony road, which cuts off the windings 
of the new. Martigny le lioury and Martigny see p. 203. 

From Chatelard to S'ernayaz , 'S'/o hrs. (several new inns 
on the route). The new bridle-path to the 1. ascends partly by zig- 
zags for 3 / 4 hr. ; then to the r. where the path divides , in the 
direction of Finhaut, which is visible; next 3 / 4 hr. nearly at the 
same level, commanding views of the valleys of the Eau-Noire 
and the Trient (p. 202), the Glacier de Trient, and behind the 
traveller the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc. From Finhaut 
(3986') the path at first ascends slightly, then descends in easy 
windings to the small village of Trinquent ( 32S3 ' ) , and the 
(l'/ 4 hr.) gorge of Trinquent with the beautiful * Falls of the 
Trieve, surrounded by pines; ('/ahr.) Salvan (29f>'2') (two small 
inns). 40 rain. N. of Salvan, near the hamlet Leu Oranges, is 
the beautiful *('asi , ade de Dailly. 

The Cascade du Dailly near Salvan merits a visit. A good path leads 
to it in 40 niin. by the hamlet of Les Granges, situated on the slope lacing 
the valley of the Rhone. The finest points of view are above and opposite 
the fall respectively, and if these be visited the excursion occupies abont 
3 hrs. from Salvan. In returning to Salvan a fine view of the snow 
mountains of the Great St. Bernard is enjoyed, Cuide from Salvan 1 — 2 fr. 
according to the duration of the excursion, not absolutely necessary. 

The path finally descends by numerous windings, shaded by 
chestnuts, to (50 min.) Yernayaz (rail, stat., p. 202). 

56. From Martigny to Chamouny. Col de Balme, 

('ow]>. Map, p. 216. 

8'/ a hrs. (emiip. pp. 188, 224). Cuide (12 fr.) unnecessary, if the follow- 
ing directions be observed. Horse or mule by the Col de Balme or Tcte 
Noire to Chamouny 12 fr. ; if both are combined (which may be done b> 
a circuit of 2 hrs.) the guides are entitled to 3 fr. additional; e. g. from 
Martigny to Chamouny by the Tete Xoire , with digression to the Col de 
Balme, horse and guide 27 fr. For the excursion to Cliamomiy by the Col 
de Balme and back by the Tete Noire (3 days) the same guide may be 
employed (0 fr. per day, or mule with guide 12 fr. per day). Carriage- 
road from Chamouny as far as Tour. 

The road leads S. to Martigny le lining (p. 203), crosses 
the Dranse, which flows from the Great St. Bernard, and ascends 
gradually through vineyards, orchards, and meadows. The new 
road, though somewhat longer, is preferable to the old, and is 
practicable for light vehicles as far as Trient. From Martigny 
:, / 4 M. to Martigny le liourg , '/•_> M bridge over the Dranse, 

COL DE BALME. 56. Route. 227 

4 inin. a cross, opposite to which a tablet on a house indicates the 
road to Chamouny to the r. , and that to the great St. I'ernard 
to the 1. At the (10 mill. J first village the excellent new road 
diverges to the 1. and ascends the hill in windings, which the 
rugged old path cuts oft; 20 min. La Fontaine. Immediately 
above the village the old and new routes coincide and lead to 
the 1. (the steep path to the r. ascends into the woods only). 
Then 10 min. Surmieux, 55 min. Chavans en Haut (refreshments ; 
extensive view of the Rhone valley) ; '25 min. Col de la Forclaz 
(see p. 226). A road here leads to the 1. to the Glacier du Trient, 
the most N. arm of the ice-fields of Mont Blanc, but not visible 
hence, while the Chamouny road descends in a straight direction. 
Opposite the traveller, slightly to the 1. , the valley is visible, 
along the 1. side of which lies the route to the Col de Balme. 

After '/4 hr. the path to the Col de Balme diverges to the 
1. from the road to the lower part of the village of Trient and 
the Tete Noire (fine view of the Glacier de Trient in descend- 
ing), and in 10 min. cros-es a bridge opposite the upper houses 
of Trient. The meadows to the 1. are now traversed; 12 min. 
the Nant-Noir ('Nant', probably from nature, is the Savoyard 
word for a mountain stream), which descends from the Mont des 
Herbagires, is crossed. The path ascends the r. bank for about 
200 paces, and then , turning to the 1. , winds upwards by zig- 
zags through the Forest of Magnin , considerably thinned by 
avalanches. The path is steep and fatiguing for 3 / 4 hr. , but 
afterwards becomes more level , and traverses green pastures and 
slopes carpeted with the rhododendron ; y.> hr. the poor VhaleU 
des Herbagires, or Zerbaziere (6G63'), where milk may be pro- 
cured. A fine retrospective view of the Col de Forclaz and the 
Bel-Oiseau to the 1. 

After a gradual and winding ascent of '/2 nr - more the path 
attains the summit of the pass, the *Col de Balme (7231') [Hotel 
Suisse, tolerable, charges high), the boundary between Switzerland 
(Valais) and France (Savoy). In favourable weather the entire 
chain of Mont Blanc is visible from summit to base, surrounded 
by the Aiguilles de Tour , d'Argentiere , Yerte , du Dru , de 
Charmoz, du Midi, etc., with its mighty glaciers extending like 
frozen cataracts down to the green valley of Chamouny. The 
latter is also visible as far as the Col de Voza. On the r. are 
the Aiguilles Rouges, and beside these the Brevent, by which the 
valley is bounded; in the rear, the snow-clad Buet (p. 222) is 
visible to the r. The retrospective view over the Forclaz embraces 
the Valais and the gigantic mountains which separate it from the 
Bernese Oberland, the Gemmi with its two peaks, the Jungfrau, 
the Finster-Aarhorn, Grimsel, and Furca. 

The *view from . a second eminence to the r., with a white 
boundary stone, about '/4 nr - N.W. of the inn, is still more e\- 


228 Route 56. COL DE BALME. 

tensive. To the N. extends the Croix de Fer, or Aiguille de Balmt 
(7680'), the extremity of the precipitous chain which rises above 
the Col de Balme. Mont Blanc appears still more grand and distinct 
than from the Col , and the entire chain of the Bernese Alps is 
visible to the N.E., rising like a huge white wall with countless 
battlements. The descent may be commenced immediately from 
this point. The ascent of the Aiguille itself is difficult, and not 
to be recommended. The cross erected on it is to the memory 
of Escher von Berg , a native of Zurich , who lost his life in 
attempting the ascent, contrary to the advice of the guides. 

In descending from the inn, the Arve (which rises on the Col 
de Balme) lies to the r. Several small brooks are crossed, and 
the route then passes ( 3 / 4 hr.) a heap of stones , the Homme de 
Pierre, which serves as a landmark when the paths are hidden 
by snow; l / t hr. a heap of stones, resembling a hut without a 
roof, is passed ; 1 / i hr. Tour, to the 1. of which is the beautiful 
glacier of that name ; carriage-road hence to Chamouny. On the 
banks of the Arve lie numerous fragments of black slate, brought 
down by the river; these are carefully collected and piled up in 
heaps by the peasants. In spring they cover their fields with 
these fragments, and the rays of the sun, acting on their black 
surfaces, engender a heat which melts the snow beneath them 
several weeks earlier than would otherwise be the case. 10 min. 
from Tour , the road crosses the Buisme , which flows from the 
Glacier du Tour, and in 25 min. Argentiere is reached, where 
the road joins Route 55 (p. 224). The traveller should prefer to 
spend the night here, and proceed the following day by the Chapeau 
and Montanvert to Chamouny, as the distance from the base of the 
Glacier des Bois to Chamouny is thus traversed but once. From 
the Col de Balme to Chamouny 4 hrs. (ascent 4'/ 2 hrs.) 

Excursion from Chamouny to Trient by the Tete-Noire, and back by 
the Col de Balme, 12 to 13 hrs. A carriage may be taken from Chamouny 
to Argentiere (comp. p. 224). 

The Col de Balme and TSte Noire routes are also connected by means 
of a footpath (2'|2 hrs.), which is especially recommended to the traveller 
who is desirous of visiting these points in one day from the valley of the 
Rhone. A guide may be dispensed with in fine "weather. To the W. of 
the Col, behind the above mentioned eminence with the boundary stone, 
a narrow, but well defined path leads nearly to the (10 min.) brink of the 
Tete Noire Valley, and then becomes indistinct. The traveller must not 
descend to the valley, but turn to the r. (N.) and follow a slight depres- 
sion for a few min. until a number of heaps of stone become visible. The 
path soon re-appears and passes to the r. of these (10 min.) heaps ; 10 min. 
a group of chalets, before quite reaching which the path crosses a small 
stream and descends rapidly to the 1. on its bank ; '|a hr. another group 
of chalets (paths descending I. to be avoided) ; 20 min. a third group of 
chalets. Delightful view during the descent, embracing the entire Tite 
Noire valley, which presents an agreeable contrast to the Col de Balme 
route. The path, now well constructed and much frequented, passes several 
more chalets and farms , and at length reaches (1 hr.) the Hotel de la 
Tete Noire (p. 225). The views are less striking if the excursion be made 

in the reverse direction. From JIartigny and back by this route 10 11 hrs., 

from Chamouny and back about 12, from Chamouny to JIartigny 10 11 hrs. 


57. Tour du Mont Blanc. 

From Chamouny to Aosta by the Col da Bonhomme and the 

Col de la Seigue. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 216, 236. 
Bridle-path, well trodden, and not easily mistaken except after a 
fall of snow. An easy walk of three days to Courmayeur : Jst, to Contamines 
G hrs. ; 2nd, to Mottet 63/ 4 hrs. ; 3rd, Courmayeur 6 3 J4 hrs. ; 4th, drive to 
Aosta, 2S M. — Good walkers may reach Courmayeur from Chamouny in 
2 days, spending the night at Xant-Borant (p. 23(1), La Balma (p. 230), 
or Chapiu (p. 231). This may also he accomplished by taking a mule. 
Pedestrians whose time is limited may drive as far as Les Ouches. — From 
Courmayeur to Aosta a good carriage-road ; one-horse carr. 18, two-horse 
30 fr. Guides at Chamouny, see p. 216. Tolerable mountaineers may 
dispense with a guide in favourable weather. The tour of Mont Blanc 
is reckoned as 5 days 1 journey, and costs 30 fr. 

The *Tour of Mont Blanc, as this expedition is termed, is 
frequently undertaken, especially by travellers from Chamouny to 
Aosta, or those who desire to visit the Great St. Bernard without 
retracing their steps. Unless the rare good fortune of an unin- 
terrupted view from the Col du Bonhomme and Col de la Seigne 
is enjoyed, the traveller will probably find that the interest of the 
excursion hardly repays the fatigue. The Allee Blanche and the 
neighbourhood of Courmayeur, however , rank with the grandest 
portions of the Alps. 

About 3 3 /4 M. from Chamouny the traveller quits the new 
road, crosses the Arve, and reaches C/4 -^'J Les Ouches, recognis- 
able by its picturesquely situated church. Two paths ascend 
hence to the 1. : the first (preferable) by the brook, a few paces 
beyond the church, hardly to be mistaken, ascends in 2 hrs. to 
the *PaviUon de Bellevue, a small inn situated about '/4 " r - above 
the Col de Voza , and commanding a magnificent *view (best by 
evening-light) of the valley of Chamouny as far as the Col de 
Balme , Mont Blanc , the valley of the Arve , St. Gervais , Sal- 
lanches, etc. The other path diverges from the road l / t M. 
farther on, and ascends in 2 hrs. to the 

Col de Voza (5979') (Pavilion de Voza); but this route may 
more easily be mistaken, and the view from the pass is less ex- 
tensive than from the Bellevue (situated '/4 h r - to the N., higher 
up, and not visible hence). 

From the Col de Voza and from the Bellevue paths descend 
in 1/4 hr. to the village of Tiionnassay. 

The longer route (4 hrs.) hence to Les Contamines leads to 
the r., and descends to liionnay (3191'); the more direct route 
( 2 1 /-2 hrs.) to the 1. leads by Champel. At the small chapel of 
Bionnassay the footpath descends to the 1. , crosses the brook, 
and soon unites with the longer bridle-path. In 1 hr. the village 
of Champel is reached, where the path turns to the 1. by the 
fountain and rapidly descends the hill ; '/4 hr. La Vitlette, where 
the path leads to the r. by the fountain and soon reaches the 

230 Route 57. LES CONTA MINKS From Clfimoimy 

carriage-road from St. (iervais. The Montjoie Valley, which the 
road traverses , watered by the Bon Sunt . resembles that of 
Chamouny, hounded on the K. by the vast grey (ilnrier of 
Bionnassay, a wild waste of rock and snow. On the Hermance, 
the N. slope of Mont Joli (S37(>'), which bounds the view on 
the W., stands the picturesque village of St. Nicolas de Veroce. 
In 1 hr. more Les Contamines is reached. 

Instead of the direct route from the Pavilion or from the Col 
to Contamines through Bionnassay, the digression by the Prarhn 
(route to St. Gervais) , about 300' higher (3865'), is recom- 
mended by some (romp. p. lib). It commands a beautiful view 
towards Sallanches. 

Les Contamines (6857') {('ol du Bonhomme , at the lower 
end; Union, in the village, both tolerable), a large village with 
picturesque church , lies on the E. slope of the valley. The 
Mont Joli (see above) is frequently ascended hence in 4 — 5 hrs., 
as well as from St. Gervais; admirable view from the summit; 
guide 6 — 8 fr. (guide to the Col du Bonhomme 6, Cnl des 
Fours 8, Chapiu 10, Mottet 12 fr.). 

Beyond Contamines the road descends , commanding a view 
of the entire valley as far as the peaks of the Bonhomme, and 
crosses the brook near the hamlet of Pontet. The valley then 
contracts, and, near the chapel of Notre Dame de la Gorge, 
terminates in a deep ravine at the foot of Mont Joli. Numerous 
pilgrims resort to this chapel on Aug. 15th. Wrestling-matches, 
see Introd. W. 

The road terminates here. The footpath now ascends to the 
1., passing frequent traces of glacier-friction (see Introd. XIV), 
and then traverses a wood; 40 min., by a stone bridge to the 1. 
bank of the Nant-Borant; 7 min., Chalets of Nant-Borant (4700 r ), 
4'/o hrs. distant from the Baths of St. Gervais ; tolerable inn. 
mule to the summit of the Col du Bonhomme 5 fr. The traveller 
now crosses the wooden bridge to the 1., and traverses the pastures 
by a rougli and stony path, crossing the brook several times. 
Magnificent view hence of the (Uaeier de Trelatete, which descends 
from the Aiguille (12,900') of that name; opposite to the specta- 
tor rises the Bonhomme , to the r. the beautiful mountain La 
Rosalette. Farther down, the view embraces the entire Montjoie 
Valley as far as the Aiguilles de Varens (p. 215). A spring 
of excellent water bubbles up by the side of the path a few 
minutes below La Balma. 

1 hr. Chalet de la Balma, or liarmaz ( f>!100') , a small and 
tolerable inn. In unfavourable weather a guide should be taken 
as far as the summit of the pass (3 fr.). 

The path , indicated by stakes now aM-ends precipitous and 
wild stony slopes. Vegetation disappears, and the Alpine rose 
alone finds a scanty subsistence. 55 min.. Plaine des Dames (6543'), 

to Aosta. CHAPIU. 57. Route. 231 

where a conical heap of stones is said to mark the spot where a 
lady once perished in a snow-storm. The guides perpetuate the 
tradition by adding fresh stones to the pile , and invite the 
traveller to follow their example. The path now ascends in 
windings on the slope to the r., and in 40 min. reaches a saddle, 
sometimes termed the Col du Bonhomme, but not the real summit 
of the pass. Two rocks, the Pic du Bonhomme (10,138') and the Pic 
de la Bonnefemme (9908'), here tower aloft, like two ruined castles. 

The desolate and barren valley into which the traveller looks down 
on the opposite side of this saddle is that of the Gitlt. A path, at first ill- 
defined , descends into this basin, passes the lonely Chalet de la Source, 
turns to the r. and crosses the brook, and finally reaches the chalet of 
La Gitle in 2 hrs. ; thence to Beaufort (p. 211) 3 hrs. This route is un- 
interesting, but convenient for travellers proceeding to the Tarentaise. 
Guide not absolutely necessary. 

Beyond this first saddle the traveller follows the slope of the 
mountain to the 1., the rocky path being indicated by stakes, 
and in 3 / 4 hr. more attains the ridge of the Col du Bonhomme 
(8091'), which commands a. magnificent panorama of the moun- 
tains of the Tarentaise (p. 234). 

The traveller may now reach the valley by one of the 
following routes: either to the 1. , continuing to ascend by the 
posts to the (>/■_> hr.) Col des Fours (8894') , then descending 
to (2 hrs.) Mottet (see below). This pass is rarely entirely free 
from snow. On the N. side especially, where the posts cease, 
a considerable quantity of fresh snow frequently conceals the 
path as early as the beginning or middle of September, in which 
case a guide is desirable. The path descends at first across 
stony slopes, parses (l'/4 nr a group of chalets, and reaches 
the O/4 hr.) Hameau du Otac.ier at the bottom of the valley. 
The path here descends by the chapel , crosses the bridge, and 
in 20 min. more reaches the inns of Mottet. 

Or the traveller may descend from the Col du Bonhomme 
in a straight direction, partly over loose stones, to (l 3 /4 hr.) 

Chapiu (4973'), properly les Chapieux, an Alpine village 
(Hotel du Soleil; Le Pavilion), 1 1/ 2 hr. lower down the valley 
than Mottet. 

From Chapiu to Pre St. Didier over the Little St. Bernard 
(11 hrs.; preferable to the route over the Col de la Seigne in doubtful 
weather) , the very stony path as far as Bourg St. Maurice (3 hrs.) after- 
wards improves, and commands a beautiful view of the upper Isere valley 
(Tarentaise) the whole way , until at length it unites with the high-road. 
From Bourg St. Maurice to Pre St. Didier, see p. 234. 

Mottet (6187') possesses two small inns (Repos des Voyageurs, 
and Ancien Hotel, adjacent) which afford tolerable accommodation. 
A well trodden, and in many places carefully constructed bridle- 
path ascends hence to the (2 hrs.) *Col de la Seigne (8307 r ). 
The summit of the pass , where a cross indicates the frontier of 
France and Italy , commands an extensive and imposing survey 
of the Allee Blanche, a lofty valley several miles in length, 

232 Route 57. COURMAYEUR. From Chamouny 

bounded on the N. by the precipices of the Mont Blanc chain, 
upwards of 10,000' in height, and on the S. by the Cramont, 
or Gramont (8970'). De Suussure not inaptly compares Mont 
Blanc, as seen from the Col de la Seigne , to an artichoke sur- 
rounded by its leaves. The eminent German geographer Hitter 
(d. 1859) asserts that the view from the Col surpasses any other 
in the entire Alpine chain, and that a parallel can only he found 
among the Himalayas. The view from the Gramont is however 
superior (p. 233). 

On the descent a chalet is soon reached , where Alpine fare 
may be procured; '/j hr. farther a group of chalets (milk). The 
path traverses fields of snow (which, however, disappear in warm 
summers), rocky debris, and afterwards flowery pastures, and 
passes the (l a / 4 hr.) Luc de Combal (1)3-41'). At the (E.) lower 
end of the lake the traveller crosses to the 1. bank of the Doire, 
which is formed by the discharge of glaciers , and for i j i hr. 
skirts the base of the lofty moraine of the Glacier de Miage. 
The brook is then recrossed. After 1 hr. more the beautiful 
Glacier de Brenva is reached , which with its huge moraine 
occupies the entire breadth of the valley , compelling the path 
to follow the abrupt slopes of the Cramont. Opposite the glacier, 
and immediately above the path , rises the white Chapelle du 
Glacier, most picturesquely situated , and occupied by a hermit. 
At the hamlet of Entrtves f-i'2 LO') the Doire is joined by a stream 
descending from the Ferret Valley, and below this point assumes 
the name of Dora Baltea. Opposite the small Baths of La Saxe 
( :i / 4 hr.) the brook is again crossed, and in 25 min. more the 
traveller reaches 

Courmayeur (3986') (Hotel Royal, R. 2, B. 1>|*, D. 3'|*, I.. ',-.•, 
A. 1 fr. ; "Angelo, l'Union, and 31 ontBlanc, similar charts, the latter 
'J2 JI. from the village, on the way to the Col de la Scignc. Diligence in 
summer to Aosta in D'|'2 hrs., fare 6 fr., coupe 6 fr. One-horse carriage I*, 
two -horse 30 fr. , return vehicles generally two-thiids of the full fare. 
A society of guides has recently hcen constituted at Courmayeur. 
Charges, regulations, etc. similar to those of the guides of (hainnuny), 
a considerable village at the upper extremity of the valley of 
Aosta, with baths much frequented in summer. Those who do 
not intend to scale the Mont de Saxe or the Cramont (see below) 
from Courmayeur, should not fail to ascend the Ferret Valley 
(see below) for 1 .VI. in order to obtain a view of Mont Blanc 
(not visible from Courmayeur) in all its magnificence. In the 
Alle'e Blanche the spectator is too near to enjoy an effective, view 
of the different groups. 

Kmm the Mont de Saxe (830O'| (ascent 2'|j —3 hrs.; guide (i fr. , un- 
necessary) the view embraces the entire E. side of Jlimt Blanc with its 
numerous glaciers, from the Col de la Scignc to the Col de Ferret, the Oil 
du (leant and the Jorasscs being in the immediate vicinity. Those who 
come from Aosta n,.d not ascend to the point, as" a view of t he 

Aosta Valley only is Ihns obtained: tin' chain nf Muni Hhinc is » equallv 

well from the last chalets (milk). 

to Aosta COL DE FERRET. 57. Route. 233 

The Cramont (9028') , the finest point of view in the neighbourhood 
of Courmayeur, is ascended in 4 hrs., guide (6 fr.) advisable. It commands 
an admirable survey of the Allee Blanche and the remarkable rocky 
pinnacles by which Mont Blanc is surrounded. 

From Courmayeur to Chamouny by the Col du Geant 
(comp. p. 223) in 14 hrs., guide 45, porter 25 fr. ; to the summit and back 
12, porter 8, in two days 15, porter 10 fr. — The Pavilion du Fruitier 
(7191* ft.), situated on the route to the Col du Geant, commanding a fine 
view of Mont Blanc, and the Alps of the Tarentaise towards the S. , is a 
pleasant object for an afternoon's excursion. Ascent 2 1 |a hrs., guide un- 
necessary, 6 fr. 

From Courmayeur to Martigny. Those who wish to avoid the 
digression by Aosta and the Great St. Bernard on their return-journey, 
may prefer the following route : through the narrow : Valley of Ferret (with 
numerous glaciers), bounded on the W. by the enormous masses of the 
Geant (13,133'), the Jorasses (13,786'), and the extensive Glacier of Triolet; 
then across the Col de Ferret (8183') , the frontier of Italy and Switzer- 
land (Mont Doletit, 13,572', to the N.W. of the Col, has since 1860 formed 
the boundary of France, Italy, and Switzerland), which commands a most 
striking view, especially when reached from the direction of Martigny; 
thence by Orsieres (p. 236) , where the valley of Ferret descends to the 
valley of Entremont, and the Great St. Bernard route; Martigny is thus 
reached in 14 hrs. : 6 hrs. Col de Ferret, 5 hrs. Orsieres, 3 hrs. Martigny. 
A guide should be taken as far as the Chalets de Ferret (6 fr. , to Orsieres 
12 fr.), and provisions carried, as milk and cheese only are to be obtained 
until Orsieres is reached. 

Beyond La Saxe (see above) a well-beaten path leads into the valley 
of Ferret, crosses the brook which tlows through it, and remains on the 
r. bank as far as the Chalets of Pre Sec, where it recrosses to the ]. 
bank. (The path along the r. bank is soon lost among the huge rocky 
fragments of a moraine.) After 3 hrs. walk the upper extremity of the 
valley is reached, facing a series of steep heights which are connected on 
the 1. with the last snow-peaks of the Mont Blanc chain. Xeai* the last 
of these the path crosses the ridge. By keeping to the 1. a mistake can 
hardly be made , but towards the r. it is possible. The traveller must be 
especially cautious to avoid the two following paths, which are well trodden 
and likely to mislead. From the highest chalet in the valley (Baljoan), 
a chalet of considerable size is visible exactly in front, apparently half- 
way up the mountain; past this runs a well-beaten path, which leads to 
the Hospice of St. Bernard. The other path, which diverges farther on, 
leads to the same destination. 

From the Col de Ferret (steep ascent of V\z hr. from Saljoan) the 
path skirts the moraine of the Glacier du Mont Dolent, which descends to 
the N. portion of the valley of Ferret, and leads to the Chalets de 
Ferret , whence the path to Orsieres (4 hrs. , see p. 23G) cannot be 
mistaken. During the ascent in the S. valley of Ferret, the retrospective 
view of the S.E. side of the chain of Mont Blanc as far as the Col de la 
Seigne is very fine. From the summit of the Col de Ferret, the view ex- 
tends to Martigny and the W. portion of the Bernese Alps, the Diablerets, 
the Oldenhorn, and the Sanetsch. 

The direct route from Courmayeur to Aosta is the most beau- 
tiful and interesting. The vegetation, which becomes more luxu- 
riant as the road descends, the picturesque waterfalls, the magnifi- 
cent view of Mont Blanc and other snow-peaks to the W., the S., 
and afterwards to the N., all combine to render an excursion 
through the Valley of Aosta highly attractive even to those who 
have already had experience of the finest scenery of Switzer- 
land. Cretinism appears nowhere in a more repulsive form than 
in this valley. This afflicting malady is by some ascribed to the 

234 Route 57. PR£ ST. DIDIER. 

nature of the water, but there is little doubt that the squalid 
habits of the natives contribute materially to its intensity. At 
Martigny, where the inhabitants have gradually become more pros- 
perous , and have adopted a more healthful mode of life , the 
disease is on the decrease, whilst in the Aosta valley the reverse 
is the case, the proportion of cretins being now 2 per cent of 
the whole population. No certain light, however, has as yet been 
thrown upon this loathsome, and at the same time capricious dis- 
ease. No good inns between Pre St. Didier and Aosta. 

Passing (2>/4 M.) Palesieux, the road crosses to the r. bank of 
the Doire to ( 3 / 4 M.) Pre St. Didier (Rosa; Posta), a village with 
baths , where the road to the Little St. Bernard diverges to the 
S.W. Near the hot springs C/4 M. lower down) the stream 
forces its way between perpendicular rocks towards the Dora valley. 

From Pre St. Didier to Bourg St. Maurice, 8 hrs. ; this route 
is preferred by many to that over the Col de la Seigne (p. 231), especially 
in doubtful weather. The carriage-road is now nearly completed, and the 
pass will probably ere long be traversed by a diligence. It traverses the 
valley of the Thuille , passing through La Thuille (accommodation , if ne- 
cessary, at Brigadier Morel's), and Serran, near the Cantine del Faux Rougti 
( 3 ji lir- below the summit of the pass , Alpine fare) , and ascends to the 
ridge of the Little St. Bernard (7240' ; the summit is indicated by a granite 
pillar), whence the view of the chain of Mont Blanc is very grand. Since 
1860 this pass has formed the boundary between France and Italy. On the 
S. side of the pass, 5 hrs. from Pre St. Didier, 3 hrs. from Bourg St. Mau- 
rice, is a hospice similar to that on Great St. Bernard (p. 237), and adjoining 
it an inn. 

From this point the descent is long and gradual, commanding a beautiful 
view of the upper valley of the Isere (La Tarentaise) and the mountains 
of Savoy the whole way ; the road then passes through St. Germain (be- 
coming steeper) and Seez , and reaches Bourg St. Maurice ("Htttl da 
Voyageurs) , a little town on the Isere , whence a diligence runs daily in 
4'Ja hrs. to Moutier (en Tarentaise) , a small town with salt-works , and 
thence through Albertville (high-road from this to Geneva by Annecy, see 
p. 211) in about 6 hrs. to Chamousset (p. 211), stat. on the railway from 
Geneva to Mont Cenis by Chambery ; from Chamousset to Chambery (p. 210) 
in 1 hr., to Geneva in 4 to 4 3 |4 hrs., see K. 52. 

From Bourg St. Maurice to Chapiu, see p. 231 . 

The high-road from Pre" St. Didier passes Morgex (two water- 
falls beyond the village") , and reaches La Salle (with ruined 
castle), where it descends into the valley and crosses the stream. 
It then ascends the steep r. bank of the Doire , which dashes 
over the rocks far below. Opposite is Avise, picturesquely situated 
on a rocky eminence and overtopped by an old tower. Liverogne, 
a small and dirty village. Arvier (Cantine des Voyageurs) pro- 
duces a good wine. The road then traverses a plantation of 
walnut-trees, and crosses to the 1. bank near Villeneuve, the most 
beautiful point in the valley. On a lofty rock above the village 
stands the ruined Castle of Argent. The castle of St. Pierre is 
another picturesque feature in the landscape; the same call 
hardly be said of the castles of La Sarra and Aimaville, situated 
on the r. bank of the Doire. 

Aosta (p. 240) is 28 M. distant from Courmayeur. 


58. From Martigny to Aosta. Great St. Bernard. 

171/2 hrs. : from Martigny to the Hospice ll'|i: lirs., thence to Aosta 6 hrs. 
(from Aosta to the Hospice 8 hrs., from the Hospice to Martigny 9 , j.: hrs.) ; 
carriage-road as far as the Oantine de Proz (p. 237), thence to St. Remy 
(4 hrs.) bridle-path; carriage-road again to Aosta. Guide unnecessary. An 
far as (12 M.) Orsieres the ascent is slight, so that this long journey 
may conveniently he accomplished in one day by taking a carriage as far 
as Orsieres (one-horse carr. 8 — 10 fr.), walking thence to St. Remy, and 
again driving from St. Uemy to Aosta. A post-conveyance for 3 persons 
leaves Martigny every morning for Liddes, returning in the afternoon ; fare 
7 fr. ascending, 4 fr. descending; fixed charges, and better carriages than 
the usual chars-a-bancs. Carriage (for 1 to 3 pers.) from Martigny to the 
Oantine de Proz, 7'|a M. from the Hospice, with a mule attached which 
may be ridden thence to the Hospice, 30 fr. One-horse carr. from Mar- 
tigny to Liddes 15 fr. ; mule from Liddes to St. Remy over the St. Bernard 
10 fr. •, one-horse carr. from St. Remy to Aosta, 1 pers. 10, 2 pers. 12, 
3 pers. 15 fr. 

The Great St. Bernard is, of all the Alpine passes, the least 
interesting, with the exception of its two extremities towards Aosta and 
Martigny. Those who have to choose between the Simplon , St. Gotthard, 
Spliigen, Bernardino, and St. Bernard, should not be misled by the repu- 
tation of the latter. If the traveller has followed the road from Aosta to 
Orsieres he should, for variety, take the footpath which diverges to the W. 
of the road, passing near the Lac de Champeii on the W. of Mont Catogne, 
and rejoining the road at Vallette. He may also leave the road at Sem- 
brancher , ascend Mont Chemin (5040') (beautiful view of Martigny and 
the valley of the Rhone, extending to Geneva), and descend to Martigny, 
passing through a forest of beeches. These two routes are longer, but 
more interesting than the main road. 

Martigny (1387'), see p. 203. Beyond ( 3 / 4 M.) Martigny le 
Bourg (p. 203) the road crosses the (72 M.) Dranse; a lew 
minutes' walk farther the road to Chamouny diverges to the r. 
(R. 56). The St. Bernard road winds through a narrow valley, 
watered by the Dranse, passes through Brocard and Vullttte, and 
reaches (3 3 /4 M.) Bovernier. The Dranse forces its way through 
a narrow gorge; enormous blocks impede its course, especially 
near the (i 1 ^ M.) Gallerie Monaye (2362'), a tunnel 200 long, 
hewn out of the solid rock. In 1818 a gre"at fall of rocks was 
occasioned by the bursting of a lake in the Val de Bagne. 
Comp. p. 242. 

Detached blocks of the Glacier de Gitroz had intercepted the course 
of the E. branch of the Dranse, which traverses the Val de Bagne. A lake 
was thus formed, 2900' long, 700' wide, and 190' deep ; the bank burst, and 
the water rushed into the valley, which it entirely devastated. Bovernier 
owed its safety to a projecting rock. In 1595 a similar catastrophe occurred. 
Beautiful excursion to the Val de Bagne (R. 59). 

The two streams which form the Dranse unite at (l'/2 M.) 
Sembrancher (2605') [Inn at the Juge's; mules and guides to 
the Pierre-a-Voir (p. 204) 5 fr.], one descending from the Val 
de Bagne , the other from the Val d'Entremont. 1 In a hill are 
the ruins of a castle, said once to have accommodated the emperor 
Sigismund with a retinue of 800 nobles, so vast were its dimen- 
sions at that period. To the S.W. of Sembrancher rises Mont 
Catogne (6510'). 

236 Route 58. ORSIERES. From Martigny 

(4> / 2 M.) Orsieres (:il;")(i'J {*H6tel ile.i .U/<c*. moderate), .it 
the junction of the valleys of Kerret and Entremont (p. '233), 
possess* a remarkable and very ancient tower like that of 
St. Pierre (see below). The channel of the Dranse is so deep 
that the stream is rarely visible. The view obtained beyond the 
village is the most picturesque on this route ; the background is 
formed by the snowy pyramid of Mont Velan (p. 237). Large 
cultivated fields extend over the undulating country which slopes 
towards the Dranse ; the landscape becomes grander when the 
forest of St. Pierre is reached. 

(o : 74 M.) Liddes (4o88'J (Hotel d' Anyleterre , Union, rustic 
inns with hotel prices) is a considerable village. One-horse 
carriage to Martigny 10, mule to the Hospice f> fr. The new 
road to St. Pierre winds along the slope of the mountain; the 
old road is shorter for pedestrians. The wooden frames, which 
are observed here, are used for drying the corn. 

(33/ 4 M.) St. Pierre Mont Joux (5334') (Cheval Blanc; Croix, 
both very unpretending ; Au Dejeuner de Napoleon , tolerable), 
a dirty village , possesses an ancient and interesting church, 
dating from 1010. In the wall near the tower is a Roman 

An agreeable excursion may be made from St. Pierre to the V a 1 s o r e y 
Valley (I'h ^- ' n length) , through which a good path leads on the r. 
bank of the Dranse de Valsorey. A short distance above its intlux into 
the Val d'Entremont the river forms a picturesque waterfall. In 2 hrs. the 
traveller reaches the Chalets de Valsorey, in a grand situation. The back- 
ground is formed by the Glacier de Valsorey , and others uniting with it, 
(1.) the Sonadon, descending from the Graml-Combin, and (r.) the Tzeudet. 
Beautiful view of the dazzling snows of Mont Velan and the serrated rocks 
of the Aiguilles de Valsorey. — The night is passed at the chalet by those 
who are about to cross the Col de la Maison Blanche (11,212' ( , or the Col 
de Sonadon to the Val de Bagne (U. 59), or the Aiguilles de Valsorey to 
the Val Ollomont (p. 242). or by those who propose to ascend the Urand- 
Combin (see below). 

Beyond St. Pierre a deep gorge is crossed; beautiful water- 
fall to the 1. above the bridge. The celebrated passage of the 
Alps by Napoleon was commenced May 10th, 1S00, and occupied 
four days. The St. Bernard had been reported by Mareseot. chief 
of the engineers, as barely passable' for artillery. 'It is pos- 
sible : let us start then,' was the energetic reply of Napoleon. 
The part which most severely tried the troops was from St. Pierre 
to the summit. The artillery carriages were taken to pieces and 
packed on mules, the ammunition was also thus transported, 
whilst the guns themselves, placed on the trunks of trees hollowed 
out, were dragged up by main force, the soldiers receiving 
I '200 fr. for each cannon. At the Hospice each soldier partook 
of the hospitality of the brethren. 

The new road, hewn in the solid rock, avoids the worst parts 
of the old. It traverses the forest of St. 1'ierre and the Difili 
de rimrreire; the scenery is picturesque , miiiI several waterfalls 
are passed 

to Aosta, CANTINK DE PROZ. 58. Route. 237 

The f.33/4 M.) Cantine de Proz (5912'). .1 solitary inn 
(moderate), is situated at the commencement of the Plan de Proz 
(5866') , the highest portion of the valley. A one-horse carr. 
to Liddes or Martigny , and a mule to the Hospice or St. Remy 
may be obtained here. The carriage-road now terminates; some 
glaciers, especially the Olacier de Menouve , descend to the 1. 
as far as the lofty brink of the valley. 

The Mont Velan (12,352'), a white pyramid rising in the background, 
to the E. of Great St. Bernard, commands a magnificent view, especially 
of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa. It is best ascended from the Cantine 
de Proz (in 6 hrs.) : two guides necessary, each 20 fr. ; Dan. and Emman. 
Bailey at St. Pierre, and Serapliin Dorsal , son of the landlord of the 
Cantine de Proz, are recommended. — The Grand Combin , or Graffeneire 
{ 14,163'), the N.E. neighbour of Mont Velan, was ascended in 1801 for the 
first time. 

The bridle-path crosses the pastures of the Plan de Proz 
(20 min.), and ascends the wild Defile de Marengo (6312'). 
After I1/4 hr. two stone huts are reached; one of them is a place 
of refuge for cattle, the other is the old Morgue, or receptacle for 
the bodies of travellers who had perished in the snow. The path 
next crosses the Dranse by the bridge of Nudri (7336'), skirts 
the W. slope of the mountain, traverses the Vallee des Morts, and 
(P/i hr.) reaches the Hospice. The iron cross on the way- 
side , 20 min. from the Hospice , was erected to the memory of 
P'ere Francois Cart, who perished at this spot in November 1845. 

The Hospice of St. Bernard (8996'), a monastery situated 
at the summit of the pass, consists of two large buildings. One 
of these contains numerous apartments with wooden partitions, 
for the reception of travellers ; the other and smaller (Hotel de 
St. Louis) is a refuge, in case of lire, and serves also as a granary 
and lodging for poor travellers. On arriving, strangers are re- 
ceived and welcomed by one of the brethren, who conducts them 
to a room and provides refreshments ; should they arrive shortly 
before dinner or supper (at 12 and 6), a place is assigned them 
at the brethren's table, who are for the most part intelligent and 
well-educated men, and afford every information in their power. 
French only is spoken. The table is simply but amply furnished ; 
Fridays and Saturdays are fast-days. Travellers are accommodated 
gratuitously, but few will deposit in the alms-box less than 
similar accommodation would cost at an hotel. Liberality should, 
however, be shown, in consideration of the difficulty and expense 
attending the transport of provisions, fuel, etc., to such a distance. 

Various accounts are given of the origin of the name of St. Bernard 
as applied to this pass ; the most generally received is that Bernard de 
Menthon, a pious ecclesiastic who was canonised after his death, founded 
the convent in 962. The brotherhood consists of from 10 to 15 Augustine 
monks and 7 attendants (maroniers) , whose office it is to receive and ac- 
commodate strangers gratuitously , and to render assistance to travellers 
in danger during the snowy season, which here lasts nearly nine months. 
In this work of benevolence the inferior creation is taught to lend its 
assistance. The breed of dogs employed at the Hospice is universally 

238 Route 58. GREAT ST. BERNARD. From Martigny 

known and admired ; their keen sense of smell enables them to track and 
discover travellers exposed to peril by heavy falls of snow, numbers of 
whom have been rescued by these noble and sagacious animals. The stock 
is believed to have come originally from the Spanish Pyrenees. The number 
of dogs is now exceedingly limited. 

The Monastery of St. Bernard comprises a society of about 40 mem- 
bers. Some of the brethren minister in the Hospice on the Simplon 
(p. 259) ; others perform ecclesiastical functions. The sick and aged have 
an asylum at Martigny. St. Bernard is the highest winter habitation in the 
Alps. Humboldt in his 'Kosmos' mentions that the mean temperature at 
the Hospice of St. Bernard (45° N. latitude) is 30° Fahr. (in winter 15°, 
spring 25°, summer 48°, autumn 32") , and that such a low temperature 
would only be found on the sea-level at a latitude of 75° (the S. Cape of 
Spitzbergen). Like the St. Gotthard (p. 80), the St. Bernard is not a single 
mountain, but a group. 

Mention has already been made (p. 236) of Napoleon's famous passage. 
It is an historical fact that the Romans made use of this route, B. C. 100. 
From the time of the foundation of the Augusta Praetoria Salatsorum 
(Aosta, B. C. 26) it was much frequented. Caecina (A. D. 69) crossed it 
with his legions and the Gallic and German auxiliaries , when marching 
against Otho, in order to bring speedy succour to the fortified towns of 
Cisalpine Gaul, Milan, Novare, etc., which had already declared in favour 
of Vitellius. Constantine caused the road to be improved in 339. The 
Lombards made the passage about 5-47 ; an uncle of Charlemagne marched 
an army of 30,000 men by this route into Italy in 773 , and , according to 
some, gave his name to the pass ; a part of the army of Frederick Barbarossa 
also crossed in 1166, under the command of Berthold of Zahringen. 

The monastery has undergone various vicissitudes , but the 
beneficence of its design was widely recognised by extensive 
grants of lands and property from various parts of Christendom. 
At one period it possessed no less than 80 benefices , but its 
resources subsequently became greatly impoverished, and at the 
present time it is said only to possess a small portion of 
landed property in the Valais and in"the Canton de Vaud. The 
30 — 40,000 fr. required for its annual support are derived from 
subsidies from the French and Italian governments , as well as 
from annual collections made in Switzerland; the gifts of tra- 
vellers , it must be said with regret , form a very insignificant 
portion of the sum. Of late years 16 — 20,000 travellers have 
been annually accommodated , but it is painfully evident from 
the gross sums collected that the vast majority of these contribute 
little or nothing. The expenses of the establishment are not only 
heavy, but augmenting; provisions are generally brought from 
Aosta ; during July, August, and September, about 20 horses are 
daily employed in the transport of fuel from the valley of Ferret 
(j>. 233), 12 M. distant. 

- The present massive edifice dates from the middle of the 
16th cent. , the church from 1680. The large rooms are heated 
during the whole year; on the ground floor are the stables and 
magazines, above which are the kitchen, refectory, and sleeping 
apartments for the poor; in the upper story the cells of the 
monks , and 70 to 80 beds for travellers. The walls of the re- 
fectory are hung with engravings and pictures, the gifts of grateful 

to Aosta. GREAT ST. BERNARD. 58. Route. 239 

travellers. The small room adjoining contains a collection of 
ancient and modern medals, portraits, relics found in the environs, 
and fragments of votive brass tablets offered to Jupiter Penninus 
after escape from danger. The original name of the mountain is 
supposed to have been Mons Jovis Pennini. and the foundations 
of a temple erected to that deity are still pointed out. Another 
room in the upper story contains philosophical instruments and 
a small natural history collection. The visitors' books contain 
many well known and celebrated names. The monument erected 
by Napoleon I. to General Desaix ('h Desaix , mnrt a la batailte 
de Marengo') is on the 1. side of the chapel; the bas-relief, 
representing the death of Desaix, is by Moitte (1806). 

A short distance from the hospice is situated the Morgue, or 
charnel-house , a depository for the bodies of persons who have 
perished in the snow. The extreme cold retards decomposition 
so remarkably that the features of the deceased are sometimes 
recognisable a year after death. 

The traveller will hardly quit the Hospice without a feeling 
of veneration and compassion for this devoted fraternity. They 
generally commence their career at the age of 18 or 19 ; at 33 or 
34 the severity of the climate has undermined their constitutions, 
and they are compelled to descend with broken health to the 
milder climate of Martigny or some other dependency. The 
thoughtless traveller, in the pleasure and novelty of the scene, is 
too apt to forget the dreariness of the wintry portion of the 
year, when all the wayfarers are poor, when the cold is intense, 
the snows of great depth , and the dangers from storms or 
'tourmentes' frequent and imminent. It is at this period that 
the privations of these heroic men are most severe , and their 
services to their fellow-creatures most invaluable ; all honour to 
their self-denial and devotion ! 

Instead of returning to Martigny by the same route, the traveller may 
proceed to the Col de Fenfire (8855') , and through the N. (Swiss) portion 
of the valley of Ferret (p. 233), which runs parallel to that of Entremont, 
and is little longer; guide necessary. The Chenaletta and the Mont Mort 
(9403'), both of which may be ascended from the Hospice (with guide) in 
1 — 2 hrs., afford a magnificent view of .Mont Blanc and its glaciers. 

The path which descends on the S. side passes to the W. 
of the lake , between it and the Plan de Jupiter , on which are 
traces of the foundation of the temple previously mentioned. At 
the end of the lake, (about 500' long) stands the frontier pillar 
between Switzerland and Italy. The path next traverses La 
Vacherie, a green pasture , where the cattle of the Hospice graze, 
with some chalets, and the Cantine, the abode of the 'cantonnier' 
or road-mender. To the W., above the Col de Fenetre (see above) 
rises the Pain de Sucre (9505') [not to be confounded with 
Mont Velan (p. 237), also called Pain de Sucre by the Vaudois]. 
To the 1. of the road is a stone in memory of M. Martinet of Aosta, 

240 Route 5«. ST. REMY. 

a member of the Italian chamber of deputies, who perished here 
in 1858. The road follows the E. slope, and descends gradually 
to St. Remy. 

In ascending from St. Remy to theHospice, the pedestrian should 
keep to the r. on the slope of the mountain *, at the (1 3 |« hr.) Cantine 
mentioned above, the direction of the ridge of the mountain must be pursued. 
The culminating point is indicated by a pole on a rock, soon after passing 
which the lake and the monastery are seen. The ascent occupies about 
2* (4 hrs., guide (i'|j fr.) superfluous. 

(1 hr.) St. Remy, the first Italian village, entirely fills the 
narrow gorge. The custom-house is the first building on the r. 
(The first house on the a tolerable inn, Hotel des Alp es Pennine s, 
R. 2, B. l'|2 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Aosta (3 hrs. drive) 1 pers. 10, 2 per». 
12, 3 pers. 15 fr. ; mule to the Hospice 3, to Liddes 10 fr. ; guide to the 
Hospice l'|2 fr.) 

From St. Remy to Courmayeur. The path , which crosses the 
brook beyond the village leads by the W. side of the valley over the Ool 
de Serena (7389') in 9 — 10 hrs. to Courmayeur (p. 232), to which it is the 
shortest route from the St. Bernard, but somewhat uninteresting. 

The descent from St. Remy is by a good carriage-road. The 
general cultivation of the two sides of the valley begins at (2^4 M.) 
St. Oyen, and becomes richer at (1 M.) Etroubles. The road here 
crosses the Buttier , and soon enters a wide valley , watered by 
the Buttier, which flows far below. The solitary inn of La Chue 
(3 M.) affords poor accommodation; iy 2 M. farther, near two 
houses, is an excellent spring. The defile (2'/4 M.) of Gignod 
(2390') was formerly defended by a square tower, erected by the 
Romans, and still standing. The scenery now becomes more pleas- 
ing, the villages more picturesque, and the southern character of 
the Italian side of the Alps more perceptible. To the 1. the Vol 
Pellina opens, through which a path leads to the Val d'Herens over 
the Col de Colon (a glacier-pass, see p. 246). The eye rests on 
a scene rich in corn, wine, and oil ; the murmuring of brooks is 
heard in every direction, and at every step white summits hitherto 
unseen are revealed. Beyond (l'/ 2 M.) Signaye the extensive 
vineyards of (2'/4 M.) Aosta begin; to the 1. is seen Monte Rosa, 
and to the r. Mont Blanc. This prospect, combined with the 
view of the handsome town of Aosta and its fertile valley, is an 
appropriate termination to the excursion. 

Aosta (1962') ('Hotel du Montbl an c, at the upper end of the 
town, on the road t<i Courmayeur, i| 2 M. from the post-office, R. 2 fr. and 
upwards, B. 1>|j, D. 3>| 2 , A. 1. fr. ; "Couronne in the Place Charles 
Albert, next door to the post-office, conveniently situated for diligence 
travellers, less expensive. Carriages may be hired at both these hotels. 
Opposite the latter is a reading-room, provided with English and_ other 
newspapers. Travellers admitted gratis. — One-horse carr. to Ch&tillon 
12—15, two-horse 25 fr., to Courmayeur 18 and 30 fr. — No supplementary 
carriages are provided for diligence passengers as in riermany and Switzerland), 
the Augusta Praetoria Salassorum of the Romans, capital of the 
Italian province of the same name, with 7760 inhab., is beauti- 
fully situated at the confluence of the Buttier and the Doire 
(p. 232). The Emperor Augustus gave his name to it, and 

A0STA7 55. Route. 241 

garrisoned it with 3000 men of the pnetorian cohorts. The 
Town Walls, flanked with strong towers, a double Gateway 
somewhat resembling the Porta Nigra of Treves, a magnificent 
Triumphal Arch, constructed of huge blocks of hewn stone, and 
ornamented with ten Corinthian half-columns, the arch of a 
Roman bridge , and the ruins of a Basilica are the most inter- 
esting antiquities. The walls are reached in a few min. by one 
of the streets leading N. from the Place Charles Albert. The 
other relics may be inspected in about i/ 2 hr. The traveller 
follows the principal street towards the E. from the Place and 
soon reaches the Roman Gate, and a few min. farther the Trium- 
phal Arch. In a straight direction, 200 paces beyond the latter, 
the narrow Rue du Pont Romain crosses a brook by means of 
a Roman Bridge , the massive construction of which is seen by 
descending a few yds. to the 1. The Place may now be re- 
gained in i/ 4 hr. — The modern Cathedral possesses a singular 
portal, with some frescoes , and the Lord's Supper in terracotta, 
gaudily painted. Near the church of St. Ours are cloisters with 
interesting early-Romanesque marble columns. Modern Town Hall 
in the Place Charles Albert, or market-place. A French patois 
is spoken in the entire valley from Courmayeur to Aosta and 

The Becca di Nona (10,384'), which rises to the S. of Aosta, commands 
an extensive view of the Alps. A good bridle-path ascends to the summit 
in 6 — 7 hrs., passing a small inn two-thirds of the way up. 

From Aosta to Coitrmayeiir and Chamouny , and tour of Mont Blanc, 
see R. 57 ; over the Matter jock to Zermatt , and thence to Vispach in the 
valley of the Rhone, see R. 65; to Turin, see Baedeker's N. Italy; one- 
horse carr. to St. Remy 15, to Chatillon 12 — 15, to Courmayeur 18 fr. 

The shortest route from Aosta to Zermatt (p. 270) is through the 
Val Pellina, and over the Col de Valpellina (11,687') ; a magnificent glacier- 
expedition , hut only practicable for those who are thoroughly accustomed 
to the ice, attended by experienced guides. From Aosta to the chalets of 
Prirayen (p. 246) 9 hrs., thence to Zermatt 12 — 14 hrs. 

59. From Martigny to Mauvoisin (Val de Bagne), 
and over the Col de Fenetre to Aosta. 

Comp. Map, p. 236. 

From Martigny to Mauvoisin 8'lnhrs. (Sembrancher 2»/ 2 , Chables l'| 2 , 
Champsec 1 , Lourtier 1 ^, Mauvoisin 3 hrs.). To Chables a good road, 
thence to Champsec bad , beyond Champsec a bridle-path. — Travellers 
about to proceed to Aosta by the Col de Fenetre should pass the night 
at the Hotel du Gietroz, or better on the Alpe Chermontane (see below), 
where they will be provided with a mattress and blankets (provisions for 
the journey must be brought), 3 hrs. from Mauvoisin. From Chermontane 
to the summit of the pass 2i| 2 , Valpellina 4, Aosta 3'| 2 hrs. — From Cher- 
montane over the Col de Fenetre (unattended with danger) with guide 
only (20—25 fr. ; Justin, Benjamin, and Maurice Felley at Lourtier, recom- 
mended), who should be engaged at Chables or Lourtier. From Valpellina 
to Aosta a good carriage-road. 

From Martigny to "Sembrancher, see p. 235. Inundations in 
theJVal de Bagne, see p. 235. At Sembrancher the road into the 

B&deker, Switzerland. 5th Edition. 16 

242 Route 59. VAL DE BAGNE. 

Val de Dagne diverges to the 1., and immediately beyond the 
village crosses the Dranse. The lower part of the valley is well 
cultivated. Chables (Hotel Perrodin), 4'/.> M. from Sembrancher, 
is picturesquely situated. In the background, the snow-clad 
Ruinette [12,727'), to the 1. Mont Pleureur (12,159'), and tfce 
Glacier de Getroz. 

Beyond Chables the road takes a more '■•. direction to Pra- 
rayer, Montagnier, Versegere, Champsec (3 M. from Chables), and 
Lourtier (3657'). Between Lourtier and Mauvoisin the Drans» 
forms several considerable waterfalls ; at Granges Nenves (4843' J, 
•y t hr. above Lourtier , it receives a considerable contribution 
from the Glacier de Corbassitre , which descends from the Grand 
Combin (14,252 r ). About 3 / 4 hr. farther, i j i hr. beyond Fionnuy, 
a difficult pass leads N.E. over the Col du Cret and the Glacier 
des Ecoulaies into the Val d'Heremence (p. 245). High above 
the stone Pont de Mauvoisin, opposite the Glacier de Ge"troz, is 
situated the poor Hotel du Gietroz (712S') in the midst of impos- 
ing scenery. 

Beyond Mauvoisin the bridle-path intersects the bed of the 
lake mentioned p. 235. The- Glacier de Tireney now soon 
becomes visible, and to the r. the Glacier du Mont Durand, 
both descending to the bottom of the valley, and occasionally 
extending across it. The most beautiful and extensive glacier 
in the valley is the Glacier d'Hautemma, or de ( 'hermontane, at 
the base of which are situated the Chalets de Chermontane 
(731C), an Alpine farm of some importance (refreshments, etc., 
see above). The background of the valley is encircled from W. 
to E. by the Tour de Houssiiie, Gr. (Jombin, Mont Avril, Mont 
Gele, Trouma du Bouc, and Piz llautemina. 4 

The Col de Sonadon is a glacier-pass which leads \V. from the Chalets 
de Chermontane over the glaciers of Mont Durand and Sonadon , passing 
the S. slope of the Gr. Combin, into the Valsorey Valley, in which the 
path descends to Bourg St. Pierre (p. 23b). — To the S. , besides the Col 
de Fenetre (see below), the Col de Crete fi'rlie crosses the lower extremity 
of the Ulaeier d'JIaulemma and the Glacier de Cri'le Si'c/ie, and leads to the 
Valpellina (p. 240). — From Chermontane over the Col de Chermontane 
and (llacier de Piece, or by tin' Col iln Mont ltonge and I'as de Clievrei 
to Evolena in the Val d'Hriens, see p. 247. 

From Chermontane to the summit of the Col de Fenetre (9140'), 
the route lies along, afterwards across, the Glacier de Fenilre, and 
presents no difficulty, l'leasing glimpse of the Val d'Ollomont. 
The S. slope is somewhat precipitous as the Chalets de Porchery 
are approached ; descent fatiguing. Thence a bridle-path by Les 
Vaux and Ollomont to (4 his.) Valpellina (Inn at the baker's), 
from which a good carriage-road leads to (lO'/., M.) Aosta (see 
p. 240). 

60. From Bex to Sion. Col de Cheville. 

Comp. Map, p. lid. 

12 krs. From Bex to Gryon, 7'|s 31. by a carriage-road ; beyond Gryon 
a bridle-path. Guide as far as Avent (p. 214) desirable ; one may generally 
be procured at the chalets of Anzeindaz for a few francs. Path bad at 
places. Horse 20 fr. 

The route over the Col de Cheville cuts off the right angle which the 
valley of the Rhone forms at Martigny, and presents an uninterrupted 
series of wild and rocky landscapes, especially on the Valais (S.) side; 
extensive panorama of the Valley of the Rhone towards the end of the 
excursion. If the journey be considered too fatiguing for one day, the 
traveller may pass the night at Gryon. 

A new road ascends from Bex to Gryon in zig/.ags, which the 
pedestrian may avoid by following the old path. Beautiful view 
of the vast snow-fields of the Dent da Midi; on the latter portion 
of the road a pleasing glimpse of the village of Freni'ere in the 
valley, and the waterfalls of a glacier - brook which here unites 
with the Avencon. 

Gryon (3711') is a village of considerable size (*Mad. Sauzet's 
Pension). Guides from Gryon to Sion demand 12 fr. 

From Gryon by the Pas de la Croix to the I/dtel des Diablerets in the 
Ormonts Valley, see p. 155. 

Near the last house of the village (10 min.), the path to the 
r. must be taken ; opposite rise the four peaks of the Diablerels, 
the precipitous S. slopes of which are skirted by the path in the 
valley of the Avencon, which is crossed by the road several times. 
To the r. is the Argentine (see below), and on the extreme r. the 
snowy summit of the Grand Moveran (10,043'). In the vicinity 
of the (1 hr.) chalets of Scernemin (4237'j is the villa of the 
poet Juste OUivier. For a short distance, a forest extending along 
the precipitous and rugged slope of the Argentine (7675') is tra- 
versed; ('/2 hr.) chalets of Solalex (4821') on the upper terrace 
of the valley. The path now ascends to the 1. in zigzags, then 
to the r. on the precipitous and stony ridge of the Poraretaz, 
which connects the W. spur of the Diablerets with the Argentine. 

Ascent to the chalets of (1 hr.) Anzeindaz (6224'; refreshm.) 
from Gryon 3 hrs. , from Bex 5l/ 2 (descent 4) , descent to Sion 
6!/ 2 (ascent 8) hrs. The Glacier de Paneyrossaz, which descends 
from the Tete du Gros - Jean , extends to the vicinity of these 
pastures. On the N. rise the rugged limestone precipices and 
peaks of the Diablerets (10,731'). The path crosses the pasture 
towards the E., afterwards inclining towards the r., and in 3 / 4 hr. 
the Col de Cheville (6718'), which here separates the cantons of 
Vaud and Valais , is reached. In the distance are the Alps of 
Valais, over which towers the Weisshorn. The path now skirts 
the mountain to the 1., and reaches a wall and gate which mark 
the frontier of Valais. It then descends the steep and stony 
slopes, passing (20 min.) a cascade, and in 10 min. more the 
Chalets de Cheville (5755'), where the brook must be crossed, and 


244 Route 60. CONTHEY. 

the slope of the mountain to the r. followed. The path then 
descends by numerous zigzags, passing a few chalets, to C/2 hr.) 
the Lac de Derborence (4711'), situated in a gloomy basin, and 
skirts its S. bank. 

This lake is surrounded by a wilderness of rocks and debris, the scene 
of two landslips , traversed by the Lizerne. In the language of the people 
this spot is not inappropriately termed the 'Vestibule de TEnfer'. The 
mountain is composed of calcareous strata, worn into rugged and deep 
hollows. The lower strata, being soft, become saturated by the waters of 
the great glaciers to the N. E. ; large masses are thus detached and preci- 
pitated into the depths below. Convulsions of this kind, which give notice of 
their approach by subterraneous noises , last took place in the years 1711 
and 1749. By the latter the course of the Lizerne was obstructed, and 
the two Lakes of Derborence formed, one of which no longer exists. Three 
of the five rocky peaks of the Diablerets have already given way, and the 
other two will most probably share the same fate. Profound abysses are 
seen on all sides, and an hour rarely passes without a fall of stones in some 
direction. High above tower the icy walls of the great Sanfleuron Glacier. 

3 / 4 hi. farther the Lizerne is crossed; the path keeps to 
the 1. bank, and passing near the chalets of Besson, ascends the 
slope of the mountain, which on theE. descends perpendicularly 
into a profound gorge , where, far below , the Lizerne forces its 
passage ; 10 min. from the chalets of Besson , at the Saut du 
Chien , the pathway , only 4' wide, is supported by poles , and 
partly hewn in the rock , 1600' above the Lizerne. This pass 
may occasion unpleasant sensations if the traveller be inclined 
to giddiness, but is unattended with real danger. The path main- 
tains nearly the same elevation along the wooded slope as far as 
(l 3 / 4 hr.) the ChapeUe St. Bernard (3691'), at the extremity of 
the Lizerne-gorge , where an extensive view of the valley of the 
Rhone suddenly opens. 

The path now descends to the 1. to (10 min.) Avent, an 
Alpine village (no inn), surrounded by fruit-trees. In about 
20 min. Erdes is reached; at the last house, descent to the r. ; 
at the cross -way the path turns to the 1., pursuing the same 
direction as far as (25 min.) St. Severin , a picturesque village, 
surrounded by luxuriant vegetation , and belonging to Conthey, 
one of the most renowned wine -growing villages of the valley 
of the Rhone ; the houses of the latter extend as far as (30 min.) 
the bridge over the Morge. A few fragments of the ancient castle 
of Conthey, formerly the property of the barons of Thurn , still 
exist. Vetroz (accommodation at the cure's) , mentioned p. 254, 
is l'/ 2 M. to the W. , on the road in the valley of the Rhone, 
about halfway between Conthey and the railway-station of Ardon 
(p. 254). 

At the Morge bridge the high-road in the valley of the Rhone 
is reached, and 2>/ 2 M. farther Sion (see p. 254). On leaving 
St. Severin, instead of following the dusty high-road, the pedes- 
trian should traverse the vineyards of the hill of Muraz by a 
path which commands a fine view. 


61. The S. Valleys of the Valais between Sion and 

(Val d'Herens, Val d'Anniviers, Valley of Tourtemagne). 

Comp. Maps, pp. 146, 238, 270. 
The dusty and sliadeless high road in the broad valley of the Rhone 
oilers no attraction to the pedestrian, who may, if disposed, proceed from 
Bex (p. 201 j by picturesque mountain-paths (guide necessary for the differ- 
ent passes) in 6 or 7 days to Zermatt (R. 6G). — The lirst evening from 
Hex to Gryon, V\* 31. (p. 2-13). 1st day, over the Col de Cheville to Sinn, 
9'|» hrs. (R. GO). — 2nd day, by the Val d'Herens to Evolena, lin /-_. 31. — 
3rd day, over the Col de Torrent to St. Luc in tin- Val d'Anniviers, 12 hrs. 
— 4th day, to the Bella Tola, and by the Pas du Bumf to Jleiden in 
the Valley of Tourtemagne, 8'Ja hrs. — 5th day, over the Augslliordpass 
to St. Nicolaus in the Valley of Zermatt , 7 hrs. — Gth day, to the Ritlel 
above Zermatt, 8 hrs. (RR. 65, 66). — Jlap: Nos. 17, IS,' 21, and 22 of 
Dufour's 3Iap will be found useful. 

a. From Sion through the Val d'Herens to Evolena, and over the Col de 
Torrent into the Val d'Anniviers. 

To Evolena 16'|a M., by a new carriage-road completed in 1868. Over 
the Col de Torrent with guide in 11 — 12 hrs. 

The road from Sion to Evolena quits the high-road beyond 
the Rhone bridge (1024'), and, gradually ascending in a straight 
direction, passes La Crete; then on the 1. bank of the ISoryne, 
which flows far below, to (^2'/ 4 M.J Vex (Inn, good red wine), at 
the isolated church of which the view first opens. On the op- 
posite (E.) side of the valley is the hermitage of Lonyeboryne. 
In the foreground rises the Dent de Veiniri; somewhat farther, the 
Dent Blanche becomes visible , and adjacent to it , the Dent 
d'Herens (13, 714'), which remains in view the whole way. 

The road is now nearly level as far as the entrance of the 
Val d'Heremence (Orsiera- Valley) , as the W. portion of the Val 
d'Herens is termed , from the upper extremity of which glacier- 
passes lead to the Val d'Herens to the E. , and to the Val de 
Bagne (p. 242) to the S.W. The Val d'Herens and the adjacent 
Val d'Anniviers are remarkable for the prosperity of their in- 
habitants; almost every peasant possesses one or more mules, 
employed in the cultivation of corn-fields in apparently inaccess- 
ible situations. 

After traversing the Val d'Heremence, the road follows the 
E. arm of the valley, the Val d'Herens, properly so called (on 
the 1. curious hillocks, each surmounted by a flat stone), and 
leads by Vseiyne to the (7 1 /.) M.) Chalets de Prajean. Here the 
road crosses the Borgne, ascends 3 M. more, and then gradually 
descends to (6 M.) 

Evolena (4522') (*Hutel de la Dent Blanche, at the S. end 
of the village ; Hotel du Mont Colon), the principal place in the 
valley. In the churchyard repose the remains of M. (Juensell, a 
Hanoverian gentleman who was murdered in 1863. 

246 Route 61. VAT7"I»'HlSKKINr*. 

The Guides of Evolena, who arc inferior to those of Zermatt, frequently 
demand fees in excess of their tariff, which is as follows: Glacier de Fer- 
pecle or Glacier de Vonassnn 3, Coiironne de Brdona 5, Sasseneire 6, Dent 
de Veisivi 7, Glacier de l'Arolla 5, Cascade des Ignes 4, Aiguille de la Za 6, 
over the Col de Torrent 5, to Vissoie (unnecessary) 10 fr. — Over the Col 
de Colon to Biona* 20, Col d'Herens to Zermatt 20, Col du Mont-Rouge to 
Chcrmontanc 18 fr. — Porters 5 fr. pur day. 

An interesting point of view is at the chalets of Forclaz (S. 
of Evolena, 2 hrs. there and back), whence the Ferpecle Glacier, 
Pigiie d'Arolle, Pent. Blanche, etc. are surveyed. 

The Pic d'Arzinol (9849'), a pointed mountain W. of Evolena, ascended 
hy a tolerable path in 4 hrs. (with guide), commands a line panorama, 
especially towards the S. 

The Val d'Herens divides, 1 hr. S of Evolena, at Haudhes 
(4747'). The S.E. branch, which retains the name of the main 
valley, is terminated by the Glacier de Ferpecle , 2'/ 2 hrs. from 

A visit to the Glacier de Ferpecle , thong hsomewhat. laborious, will 
repay the fatigue ; guide not absolutely necessary. The path follows the r. 
bank of the Borgne. The Alp Bricolla (refreshments), which is attained in 
3 hrs., is the best point of view. The Mont Mine" divides the upper portion 
of the glacier into two arms, that to the W. hearing the name of Glacier 
du Mont Mine". Imposing mountain scenery. 

The 8. branch of the Val d'He'rens is called Val de l'Arolla, 
and terminates in the Glacier de l'Arolla. 

Glacier de V Arolla. At (1 fr.) Ilauderes (see above) the Borgne is 
crossed to the r., and the 1. bank of the glacier brook ascended. Beyond 
( I hr.) the Chapel of St. Barthelemy, to the r. the Cascade des Ignes, which 
here emerges from the Glacier des Ignes. In li|jj hr. more the Chalets de 
V Arolla (6571') (at J. Anzelii^r. two beds , wine, and coffee) are attained. 
They are surrounded by Alpine cedars, and magnificently situated opposite 
the imposing Mont Colon (11,955'), whose base is encircled by the Glacier 
de TArolla on one side and the Glacier de Vvibez on the other, which 
unite their masses in lofty ice-cascades. 

Ascent of the Sasseneire, see below. The Couronne de Breona (10,382'), 
more to the S., commands a view similar to that from the Sasseneire. 

Several magnificent Glacier Passes lead out of the Val d'Herens, 
but all arc difficult, and should not be attempted except hy the most ex- 
perienced mountaineers. 

Over the Col d'Herens (11,417') to Zermatt (12—13 hrs.). Unless the 
night be passed on the Bricolla Alp (see above), Evolena should be left at 
midnight, in order that a great portion of the glacier may thus be traversed 
before 9 a. in., after which the surface of the ice softens. From the Bri- 
colla Alp the glacier is reached in 8 |4 hr. ; lo the summit of the Pass be- 
tween the T<'tr-/llanche (12,304') and Wandflvh 3 his. on the ice and snow. 
The huge Matterhorn rises to the E. The descent is then made to the 
Stock Glacier, the most difficult part of the route, and then to the Stockje 
(10,161'). Hence either to the Tie/cnmatteii Glacier (said not always to he 
passable; the Editor found no difficulty in Sept., 1863), or by the base of 
the Stockje (somewhat fatiguing) to the Z'Mnlt Glacier, from which the 
traveller descends to the Stafi'el Alp (4 hrs. from the summit of the pass), 
and regains a firm footing. Thence to Zermatt in l'la hr. 

Over the Col de Colcin (10,269') to Prcrayen (6598') in the Valptllina 
Vallcij (Piedmont), and thence in 7 hrs. to Aosta (p. 240), a mute affording 
a succession of the grandest, snow-scenes, skirling the base of the almost 
perpendicular rocky slopes of Moiit Colon (11,055'j, remarkable for 'their 
echoes. From the Chalets de TArolla (see above) to the summit of the pass 
4—5 hrs., descent to Vreranen 2 — 3 hrs. (toleiable accommodation at some 
chalets), or in 3 hrs. more to Bionaz (aceomin. at the cure's). 

0«fc«U*Wttij«rKNT. 61. Route. 247 

Tii the W. three passes, two of them close together, lead from the 
upper extremity of the Val de VArolla: the Col de Riedmatten (9354', to 
the N.) and the Pas de Chevres (9793', to the S.), traversing the Glacier de 
Durand or Seillon (not to be confounded with the Glacier Durand in the 
Valley of Zinal, p. 248). The first leads N. into the Val des Disc, the upper 
part of the Val d'Heremence (p. 245), the second (dangerous) to the S.W. 
across the Olacier de Getroz and the Col du Mont Rouge (10,958') into the 
Val de Bagne (p. 424). The third, grand, but difficult, crosses the Glacier 
de Piece, Glacier de Vuibez, Serra de Vuibez (10,118', also termed Col de 
Piece , or de Chermontane) , and Glacier d*Hautemma (de Chermontane) 
(p. 242), and also leads into the Val de Bagne. From the Chalets de l'Arolla 
to those of Chermontane 9 — 10, to the Hotel du Gietroz 12 — 13 hrs. (see 
p. 242). From the summit of the pass beautiful view of the W, portion of 
the Bernese Alps, the Aiguille de la Za, Dent Blanche, and Mont Colon. 

A bridle - path over the Col de Torrent (9584') , the summit 
of which is reached in 5 hrs. , leads from Evolena to the Val 
d'Anniviers (or Einfischthat), a valley parallel with the Val d'He- 
rens. The culminating point is indicated by a cross and pyramid 
of stones. 

The :: Sasseneire (10,692'), which rises to the N.W. above the Col de 
Torrent (6 hrs. from Evolena), may be safely ascended from this point; 
but its rugged sides are somewhat difficult of access near the summit. A 
superb panorama is enjoyed of the Bernese Alps, which stretch away to 
the N. ; the Jura looks like a blue band beyond the Col de Cheville (p. 243), 
which, as it were, forms an immense frame to the picture. To the S. the 
attention is especially arrested by the colossal pyramid of the Dent Blanche 
(14,327'), the Glacier deFerpecle (s. p. 246), and the masses which surround it. 

On the N. side of the Sasseneire a very interesting bridle-path crosses 
the Pas de Lona (8760') into the Val d'Anniviers ; from the Chalets de 
7 irajean to Grimence 8 hrs. From the culminating point the summit of 
the Bees de Bosson (10,367') may be attained in 2 hrs. ; view strikingly 

The path which descends from the Col de Torrent to the 
Val d'Anniviers skirts the little Lac Zozanne on the N. side, and 
passes by the Torrent -Alp into the Val de Moiry (or Val de 
Torrent'), the upper S.W. branch of the Val d'Anniviers, termi- 
nated to the S. by the great Olacier de Moiry. [From this point 
the traveller may proceed direct to Zinal (see p. 248) by remount- 
ing to the E. the somewhat precipitous slope on the other side 
of the valley, over the Col de Sore-Bois (9262') ; the ground con- 
sists chiefly of pasture-land, forming an easy descent; but as a 
mountain 9000' high has already been crossed, it may be consi- 
dered too considerable a digression for one day's journey , and a 
direct route through the valley preferred.] Below Orimence (5193), 
the two upper branches of the Val d'Anniviers (Val de Moiry to 
the S.W., Val de Zinal to the S.E.) unite. 

From the summit of the Col de Torrent to Grimence 3'/ 3 hrs., 
descent by St. Jean (4626') to Vissoye (see below) 2 hrs. ; 
thence to St. Luc 3 / 4 hr. (see below). 

b. From Sierre through the Val d'Anniviers to Zinal (and over the Col 
de Zinal to Zermatt). 
To Vissoye @i\v hrs.) a well constructed path, thence to Zinal (2 3 |4 hrs.) 
tolerable; guide unnecessary. Over the Col de Zinal (11 — 12 hrs.), with 
guide, steady head indispensable. 

248 Route 61. ZINAL. 

In the valley of the Rhone, beyond the (3/ 4 M.) bridge, tie 
path , -which is easily recognised , diverges to the r. It then 
ascends rapidly towards the 1. through a -wood; far below lies the 
village of Chippis, with its picturesque white cottages, where the 
Navisanche precipitates itself into the Rhone through a gloomy 
ravine. After 1 hr. the ascent terminates , and the snow-moun- 
tains which enclose the valley, the Cornier, Dent Blanche, Pic de 
Zinal, Gabelhorn, and Weisshorn, become visible. 

At Nioue ('/a hr.) the first of the wild rocky ravines is en- 
tered , the path skirting the precipitous slopes , and afterwards 
leading through three galleries. To the r. (40 min.) the village 
of Fang. 

[Those whose destination is St. Luc (p. 249) here follow the 
narrower bridle-path to the 1. , and reach the village after an 
ascent of l'/2 hr. — A. footpath, which also diverges to the 1. 
before the rocky gorges are entered, leads to the lofty village of 
Chandolin (6000'), whence a good path, traversing pine -forest, 
and commanding a beautiful view of the Val d'Anniviers, the 
Rhone Valley , and the Bernese Alps , descends to St. Luc in 
I 1 /-' hr.]. The main path continues in the valley and passes 
several ravines; on the opp. slope lies Puinsee. (1 hr.) Vissoye 
(accommod. at the curb's , good Vin du Glacier) , the principal 
village in the valley, with a handsome church, lies on the r. 
bank of the Navisanche. 

St. Luc, Bella Tola, Pas du Boeuf, Meiden-Pass, see R. 61 c. 

Beyond Vissoye (5 min.) the path leads towards a saw -mill 
(not to the 1.); 25 min., towards the lower cross (not to the r.). 
At (20 min.) Mission, the path returns to the r. bank, at the 
point where the Val d'Anniviers divides; to the W. the Val de 
Torrent (Col de Torrent to Evolena, see p. 247) , to the E. the 
Val de Zinal. The path now leads to (^4 hr.) Ayer (4777') 
in the latter valley , beyond which it winds upwards and passes 
a stony wilderness. The Navisanche is (!/ 2 hr.) crossed; the 
path passes a chapel on the 1. bank , and ('/2 hr.) recrosses to 
the r. bank; 40 min. Zinal (5505') (*H6tel du Durand, the land- 
lord Bapt. Epiney is an experienced guide). The valley termi- 
nates towards the S. in the magniticent Olacier Durand or Zinal, 
1 hr. from Zinal, which descends from the Ober-Qabelhorn (13,363 f ). 

The Alp l'Allee (7178') CMontagne de la LM) (to the W. above the 
lower extremity of the glacier, 2 hrs. from Zinal), which is crossed by the 
path to the glacier-passes mentioned below , commands a noble prospect of 
the background of the valley, of the entire chain from the Dent Blanche 
to the Weisshorn, overtopped by the pyramid of the Afatterhorn, and of 
the glaciers of Durand and Morning, separated by the graceful double- 
peaked pyramid of to Besso (' L Obeche' ; ii,()57'). The path may be found 
without a guide. Beyond the hotel (10 min.) by a bridge to the 1. bank, 
straight towards the wood ; >fo Ur. fragments of rock , where the path 
gradually ascends; 20 min., a ravine with waterfall in the background; 
3 min., a stone chalet on the llrst mountain terrace. Thence a somewhat 

ST. LUC! 61. Route. 249 

steep ascent ; 3 j4 hr. , to the 1. ; 10 min., the chalet on the Alp. Descent 
in l'la hr. 

The Alp l'Arpitetta, opposite the last -mentioned, towards the N.E., 
affords another imposing scene, and overlooks the W. side of the Weisshorn 
and the entire Morning Glacier, the S. extremity of which is bounded by 
the Rothhorn. — By crossing the lower portion of the glacier (with guide), 
both the above points of view may be included in the same excursion. 

The Roc Noir (see below) is another grand point of view ; ascent some- 
what difficult, never without guide. 

From Zinal over the Col de Sorebois into the Torrent valley, and over 
the Col de Torrent to Evolena, see p. 247. 

Those who desire to proceed from Zinal to St. Luc return by the 
above-described path to Ayer, where they diverge to the r. and ascend the 
hill, crossing the meadows ; guide desirable. 

From Zinal to Zermatt two passes traverse the Durand Glacier. The 
shorter is the Col de Zinal, or Triftjoch (11,6U') and the Trift Glacier 
(12 — 14 hrs.), of late years rendered more practicable at the expense of gov- 
ernment. Although probably known in remote ages, this pass had not been 
traversed within the memory of man , until an Englishman accomplished 
the passage in 1855. It now presents no unusual difficulty, but the walk 
over the glacier is in some seasons more fatiguing than in others. The glacier 
is reached below the Alp TAllee (sec above) and ascended as far as the S. 
slope of Lo Besso (3>|2 hrs. from Zinal). Then W. across the upper part of 
the glacier to (1 3 J4 hr.) the base of the rocky precipice of the Trifthorn 
(12,261'), part of which is ascended (without danger) by means of a ladder 
and rope attached to the rock. Towards the summit of the Pass (1 hr.) an 
iron chain affords still greater security. Magnificent prospect of Monte Rosa, 
the Saasgrat, etc. The descent (4 hrs.) to Zermatt across the Trift Glacier 
presents no difficulty. 

The route across the other pass is longer, but less laborious and equally 
imposing. On the summit of the Durand Glacier it leads (not E. like the 
former) in a straight direction towards the S., passing the Roc Noii\ a ridge 
of rock rising from the midst of the ice, similar to the Jardin at Cliamouny 
(most favourable point for surveying the ice scene) over the Col Durand 
(11,398'). In descending, a straight direction to the S. across the Glacier 
Hochwiing to that of Z'JIutt must not be taken , as the lower part of the 
former is full of crevasses; the only safe route is E. (1.) to the Arbeit 
Glacier. — For both passes two experienced guides are indispensable. 

c. St. Luc , Bella Tola ; by de Pas du Boeuf into the Tourtemagne Valley, 
and over the Augstbord Pass to the Valley of the Visp. 

From Sierre to St. Luc, see p. 255. From Vissoye (p. 248) to St. Luc 
an ascent of 3| 4 hr. , thence to the Bella Tola 4 hrs. , and by the Pas du 
Boeuf in 8, or the Meiden Pass in 7 hrs. to Meiden. From Jlciden 
over the Augstbord Pass to St. Nicolaus 7 hrs. 

St. Luc (5462') (*ffitel de la Bella Tola, R. 2, D. or S. 3, 
B. and L. l'/ 4 fr.) lies on a steep and shadeless slope, consisting 
of meadows and fields. The view from this elevated village over 
the profound gorge beneath, and the snow-mountains at the ex- 
tremity of the valley, where the peak of the Matterhorn towers 
above the white ridge of Mout-Diirand, is very remarkable. St. Luc, 
was almost entirely destroyed by tire in 1845, 1847, and 1858. 
The houses erected since are massive, but badly built. The 
huts which escaped the flames are easily distinguished by their 
peculiar 'construction. To the N. , about 400' above the village, 
is the 'Druid's Stone', termed in the local patois 'Pierre des 
Servagios' (stone of the savages), a rock projecting from the turf, 

250 Route til. BELLA TOLA. 

the E. side of which is said to have been u«ed for sacrificial pur- 

The *Bella Tola (10,197 r ), the most S. peak of a group of 
mountain- (the N. point, 9062', is termed Sehwarzhorn; the E. 
peak, 9744', ! iorttrhorn) , an admirable point of view, is easily 
ascende'. in 4 hrs. from St. Luc. Guide (4, mule 6 fr.) tinne- 
ci'ssiry 'I lie new bridle-path begins to ascend behind the hotel ; 
after 90 min. , to the 1., then in zigzags by 3 chalets (10 min.); 
then to the r. skirting a wood of pines and larches; after 5 min., 
inclining to the 1. , the path traverses a clearing, ascends a 
meadow, passing by a hut, and in 3 / 4 hr. reaches a chalet; next 
towards the 1., and, on the next mountain terrace where the view 
of the Bella Tola is disclosed, again to the r., ascending in l 1 ^ 
hr. to the base of the mountain ; after a steep ascent of 1 hr. 
more , a ridge is attained , whence the spectator overlooks the 
Glacier of Bella Tola, furrowed with crevasses; a hut, a little 
below the ridge , affords shelter in unfavourable weather (key at 
the hotel at St. Luc). The summit affords standing-room for 
scarcely more than a dozen persons. The view embraces the 
entire chain of the Bernese and Valais Alps ; the eye ranges over 
a circle of 220 M. and a distance of nearly 90 M. in a direct 
line from the Furca to the Buet. Ritz's panorama comprises 200 
peaks of mountains distinctly visible from this point. Opposite, 
to the N. , is seen the whole extent of the gorge of the Dala 
as far as the Baths of Leuk and the Gemmi. The most imposing 
part of the panorama is to the S., extending from Monte Leone 
(p. 259) to the group of Mont Blanc. 

In order to reach the valley of Tonrtemagne, the traveller 
again descends S. to the Pas du Boeuf. Then an ascent of at 
least >/2 nr - to tne culminating point (91f)4'); in descending, 
a direction (indicated by stones) to the 1. must be taken. In 
o hrs. (from the Bella Tola) the chalets of the Alp Meiden 
are reached (milk) , and after another hour through forests 
of larch and 'Alpine cedars', the village of Meiden, or (iruben 
(Hotel du Weisshorn K. 2, B. l'/. 2 , S. 2 fr.). — From Meiden 
to Taurtemayne, see p. 2:16. 

Farther to the S. the Meiden Pas3 (9154') and the Pas de la ForcMta 
(9S09') hail into the Tonrtemagne Valley. The former lies to the N. of too 
abrupt Tounot, and is somewhat shorter than the Pas du R<Euf. The paths 
unite on the Meiden Alp (see above). IVs de la Forcleda, see below. 

The Valley of Tom lemasne is terminated 3 hrs. from Gruhen by the 
superb and extensive II lacier de Tourtemagne , or Barr , which is im- 
bedded between the Weisshorn (14,803'), the Briineckhorn (12,628'), and the 
Barrhorn (11,919'). I'mm the chalets of Kaltberg, after an ascent of'|jhr. 
on the \V. slope of the valley, the entire glacier is visible, as well as the 
above mentioned mountains, which tower above it on the E., and to the 
N. as far as the Zehntenhorn. — The foot of the glacier is reached in 
'2 his. from r.rubeii. and without difficulty in '-' hrs. more the Pas de la 
Foreletta |!)S'.I!1'|, which leads to Aycr'(|>. '»iS) i„ the Val d'Anniviers. 
Striking view from the summit, especially of the Weisshorn which towers 

LCETSCHENTHAL. 62. Route. 251 

in the immediate vicinity, to the 1. the Bruneckhorn and Barrhorn , to the 
r. the Morning and Diablons. To the N. the entire Bernese chain is visible. 

From Meiden to Stalden or St. Nioolaus in the valley of the 
Visp a bridle-path (7 hrs. ; descent from the pass to St. Nico- 
laus not recommended for riding) ascends the abrupt E. slope of the 
valley, passing the chalets of the Oruben-Alp , to the (3 hrs.) 
summit of the Augstbord Pass (9570') , between the Weissegg 
(10,467') on the S. and the Schwarzhorn (Zehntenhorn, 10,522') 
on the N. Ascent of the latter from the summit of the pass fati- 
guing, but free from danger ; view scarcely inferior to that from 
the Bella Tola (p. 250). Descent to Stalden in the valley of the 
Visp by the Augstbordthal , to (3'/2 hrs.) St. Nicolaus by the 
Jungalpen and Jungen. 

Another route from Meiden so St. Nicolaus lies farther S. T>y the 
Jung Pass, but affords less view than the above, and is considerably more 

St. Nicolaus, and thence to Zermatt, see p. 268. 

62. From Gampel to Kandersteg. Lotschen Pass. 

Comp. Map, p. 146. 

12 hrs. This route should only be undertaken by good walkers in 
fine weather. Guide neceessary from Kippel or Ried to Kandersteg. Carriage- 
road as far as Kippel. 

Near Gampel (Hotel Lotschenthal), which is reached in 2 hrs. 
from Leuk or from Vispach, situated on the r. bank of the Rhone, 
where the Lonza descends from the Lotschenthal, the path ascends 
a steep slope (view of the valley of the Rhone) and enters a 
narrow gorge, much exposed to avalanches. 

1 hr. lugein, and i/ 2 hr. Koppistein (4068') are two chapels 
periodically swept away by avalanches , and religiously restored 
by the inhabitants of Ferden and Kippel. 1 / i hr - beyond Koppi- 
stein the Lonza is crossed by a wooden bridge. The valley here 
becomes broader and more fertile , and possesses mines of some 
value. 1 hr. Ferden ; inn at the lower end of the village (wine 
and cheese); (i/ 4 hr.) Kippel (4659'). 

From Kippel by the Lotschenliicke to the Eggischhorn , see p. 142. — 
By the Wetterliicle to Lauterbrimnen (12 hrs.)'a very difficult and fatiguing 
expedition , especially the descent across the numerous crevasses of the 
Breithorn Glacier. — By the Peters or Lotschenthal Grat to Lauterbrimnen 
(11 hrs.), route from the Mutthorn the fame as that described at p. 146 (from 
Kandersteg to Lauterbrunnen), an interesting expedition, requiring, like 
the above, thoroughly trustworthy guides. 

Then a gradual ascent at first through a forest of larches, 
afterwards across meadows ; in the distance several groups of 
huts are visible at the upper extremity of the valley, which is 
terminated by the Lotschen Glacier. 1 hr. beyond Kippel, Ried 
(*H6tel Nesthorn), where a guide for the pass may generally be 
found. Beyond the last huts the path crosses a rocky slope, 
then small snow -fields which seldom yield to the sun's rays, 


and in 3 hrs. more reaches the summit of the L6tschen~Pass 
(!">?%'), commanded on the W. by the Balmhom (p. 147J, on 
the E. by the Srhildhorn, or Hockenhorn (10, 817'), whence a 
glacier , in the form of an arch , descends to the valley of Ga- 
stern. The *vie\v towards the S. from the summit of the pass 
is limited , but becomes strikingly grand lower down ; to the 
S.E. rise the Nesthorner with their glaciers; to the S., above the 
lower mountains which bound the 1. bank of the Rhone, towers 
the magnificent group of the Mischabel, the Weisshom, and Monte 
llosa ; to the N. are the precipitous snowy slopes of the Dolden- 
horn and the Kliimlisalp ; to the N.E. the vast Kander Glacier, 
the E. part of which is called the Tschingel Glacier, surmounted 
by the Multhuni. 

In the descent to the wild valley of Gas tern , the traveller 
passes a field of snow and reaches the glacier which descends 
from the Lbtschenberg into the valley. The 1. side of the glacier 
is followed , along the slopes of the Balmhom ; in some places 
the guide precedes the traveller and hews a path with his axe. 
At the end of the glacier, the Valley of Gaslern opens ; near the 
chalet a magnificent mountain view , especially of the extensive 
Alpetli (jlurier, which descends from the Kander Glacier (p. 146) 
and is overtopped by the Mutthom or Miltelhorn (9!I;W_). 

l :, / 4 hr. Gasterndorf or Im Seldeu (f>044 ft.), a group of 
miserable cabins . near which some slight attempts at cultivation 
are seen. Alpine fare and accommodation at the chalet of the 
brothers Kuenzi. 

A magnificent forest, which for many ages has resisted the 
avalanches of the Dolde nhorn , is now traversed. The Kander here 
flows through a chaos of rocks. In 

1 hr. Gasternholz (44:S:S') is readied. As the traveller 
descends, the traces of avalanches become more perceptible. The 
valley forms a curve, and expands, bounded on the S. by the 
Altel's fll,!l'2:V) and on the N . by the Fhintork ('J'JOO'). The valley 
of Gastirn was far more populous GO years ago than it is now ; 
the wholesale and indiscriminate removal of trees has so exposed 
it to the ravages of avalanches, that from the month of l'ebruary 
to the hay-harvest it is abandoned by its inhabitants. The Kan- 
der has forced itself a passage through the 

1 hr. Klus, a narrow gorge, beyond which the valley of the 
Kander and the (ieinmi route are reached. 

] /o hr. Eandersteg [see p. 146). The ascent from Kander- 
steg to Eastern occupies '2 ] /-, hrs. The path is frequently injured 
by the inundations of the Kander, rendering considerable digres- 
sions necessary. 


63. From Martigny to Arona on Lago Maggiore 
by the Simplon. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 14b\ 138. 

By Railway from Martigny to Sierre in 1 hr. 20 min. ; fares 5 fr. 
5, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 55 c. (from Lausanne to Sierre in 4'la — 5 hrs., fares 12 fr. 
35, 8 fr. 40, 6 fr. 20 c. ; from Geneva to Sierre in b 3 \i— 7 hrs., fares 18 fr. 
25, 12 fr. 70, 9 fr. 25 c. ; see RR. 50, 51). Comp. Introd. X. — Diligence 
from Sierre to Brieg twice daily in 4'Jz hrs. (to Tourtemagne in 1 hr. 
55 min., to Vispach in 3>|2 hrs.). From Brieg to Domo d'Ossola twice daily 
in 9'la hrs. From Domo d'Ossola to Arona twice daily in 6 hrs. Diligence- 
seats , see Introd. IX. — Steamboat from Baveno or Stresa to Arona and 
Sesto Calende, see R. 95. — Those who travel hy private conveyance 
should arrange to pass the night at Brieg (or Vispach), and at Iselle (or 
Domo d'Ossola), so that the mountain may be traversed by day. One-horse 
carriages (generally without springs) may be hired of the postmasters in 
the Valais at 5 fr. per post (9 M.), and 1 fr. fee. — Good Muscatel wine 
may be obtained at moderate prices in all the villages in the Rhone Valley. 
The 'Heidenwein' is more highly prized. 

Martigny (1387 r ), see p. 203. (From Geneva or Lausanne 
to Martigny, see RR. 50, 51.) 

The Rhone Valley from Martigny to Brieg presents few objects of in- 
terest. The valley, averaging 3 M. in width, exhibits many traces of the 
disastrous inundations of the river, the B/iodan, or Rotten (p. 137), as it is 
generally termed in the patois of the Valais. Often during severe storms 
large masses of rock and debris are precipitated by torrents from the sur- 
rounding mountains, devastating the banks for a considerable distance. 
The bed of the valley is in many places marshy, and only produces grass 
and reeds, with here and there an oasis of corn and maize. The inhabit- 
ants find the river a constant source of peril and labour; even the high 
road is frequently considerably damaged by its overflow and rendered 
impassable. As yet no permanent measures have been adopted in order 
effectually to avert such disasters. — The scenery of the Valais , though 
imposing in its character, is less picturesque than that of many other districts 
in Switzerland. Vines flourish on the base of the heights on the r. (N.) bank 
of the Rhone, above which the eye generally encounters masses of barren 
yellow-grey rock. The lateral valleys (R. 61) opening to the S., through 
which extensive glaciers and snow-fields are visible, offer far greater 
attractions to the pedestrian. — The villages and dwellings in the Valais are 
still less inviting than the country. The standard of hotel-accommodation 
is exceedingly low ; good water is scarce, and the eye is constantly offended 
by the sight of the 'goitre', so prevalent in this region. Gnats are here 
frequently a source of great annoyance, especially in the evening (p. 203). 

At Martigny the Rhone valley forms a right angle. The rail- 
road proceeds from Martigny in a straight direction, not far from 
the 1. bank of the Rhone, to the iodine Baths of Saxon (several 
hotels and pensions), particularly efficacious in cutaneous diseases, 
and possessing a small 'Casino', built in the Swiss style with the 
customary adjuncts of a promenade, orchestra, reading-room, and 
the seductions of the rouge et noir , which are met with in no 
other part of Switzerland. The railway - station is somewhat dis- 
tant, at_,the hamlet of Gottfrey [(1560') (Pierre a Voir; Hotel 
Suisse). Picturesque ruins of a castle on a hill ; similar remains 
are to be seen farther on , near Saillon , at the base of the 
mountains on the r. bank. From Saxon the Pierre U Voir (p. 204) 
may easily be ascended in 3 — 3 l /% hrs. 

254 Route 63. STOW. Trom Martigny 

The railway crosses the Rhone (lfxi'J beyond stat. Riddes. 
and the IAierne at stat. Ardon. ( From Riddes over the Col dt 
Verbier to (Viable* in the Val do Bagne , see p. 242. J Ardon 
with its iron-foundries at the mouth of the Lizerne valley, and 
Vetroz and Conthey , where excellent wine is produced (see 
p. 244), lie to the 1. of the railway, at the base of the moun- 
tains rising on the N. Opposite the last-named place the line 
crosses the Morge , approaches the heights on the r. bank , and 
reaches the station of Sion. Fine view of the surrounding 

Sion (l?09'j, Ger. Sitten ( : ' l'osle It. U/ 2 , B. i'A, I>. 3 fr. ; 
Lion d'Or, R. l l /.>, B. 1 '/._,, A. '/2 fr- > Amiyne and Glacier are 
palatable wines; beer at the Ca/'e du Commerce), with 489.) 
inhab. (295 Prot.), situated on the Sionne, which flows through 
the town in an artificial channel , covered with wooden beams 
( (Jrand-pont, forming the principal street), the Roman Sedunum, is 
the chief town of the Canton (Valais); it was annexed in 1810 to 
the French empire, as the D&partement du Simplon, but in 1815 
regained its original constitution. In the distance Sion has a 
handsome appearance , with its two castles situated on isolated 
eminences. On the N. are the ruins of the episcopal Castle of 
Tourbillon (21U5') , erected in 1294 and destroyed by tire in 
li88; it may be reached in 20 min. (ascent to the r. by the 
town-hall), and commands an extensive view as far as Martigny, 
;>nd in the opposite direction as far as Leuk. On the lower 
height to the r. , on the site of an ancient Roman fort, stands 
(lit- old Castle of Valeria, now a seminary for priests, surrounded 
by towers and other buildings, with the Church of St. Catherine, 
founded in the 9th cent., and not devoid of architectural interest. 
A third, likewise an episcopal Castle (Majoria, so named from 
the majors or ancient governors of the Valais, its first occupiers), 
is close to the town in front of Tourbillon; it was destroyed by 
lire, together with a portion of the town, in 1788. 

Except the Cathedral (mixed Gothic and Romanesque) and 
the elegant Church of St. Theodule , there are few objects of 
interest in the town. Near the S. entrance to the choir in the 
cathedral is seen a Roman inscription in honour of Augustus; the 
towei is the oldest portion of the building. The ascent to 
Tourbillon is the best excursion for a short stay. The environs 
of Sion are the most beautiful in the entire valley of the Rhone. 
The head-dress worn by the women of all classes of society is 
very peculiar. 

By the liatet/l to Thun, see R. 37. — By the Sanetsch to Gesseney, see E. 
.10. — By the Col de Chiville to Bex, see R. 60; horse to Bex 20 fr., guide 
to the Col. 6 fr. — Through the Val d'llfiens hy the Col de Torrent to St. 
Luc. in the Val dWnniviers, anil by the Bella Tula and the Pas du Born/ to 
Meiden in the Tourtemagne Valley, and hy the Augslbordpass to St. A'ieolaut 
in the valley of Zennatt, see R. 61. — Through the Val de Nendar to 
Lourtier in do Val de Bagne, see H. 59. 

to Aronu. SIERRE: 63. Route. 255 

E. of Sion the Borgne descends from the Val d'He'rens (p. 245) 
to the Rhone. At St. Leonhard the road crosses the Riere, 
the source of which is on the Rawyl (p. 151). Farther on; the 
ruins of the castle of Granges and the adjoining church are seen 
beyond the bank of the broad and gravelly bed of the Rhone. 
The railway terminates at 

9 3 / 4 M. Sierre (1775'), Ger. Siders [BelLevue, near the station, 
and adjoining the post-office , established in an old chateau ; 
Hotel et Periston Iiaur, well situated at the E. end of the town, 
3 /4 M. from the station; Poste, in the principal street), with 
1302 inhab., picturesquely situated on a slight eminence, clothed 
with luxuriant vegetation, and the seat of the nobility of the 
upper Valais, who own estates in the vicinity. The town con- 
tains a number of handsome, but dilapidated mediaeval buildings. 
Several ruins in the neighbourhood. At a foundry near the 
town the ore obtained near Ayer in the Val d'Anniviers (p. 248) 
is smelted. Good wine is produced in this district. 

Post-Omnibus to the Baths of Leuk from July 1st to Sept. 15th, twice 
daily in 7 Urs. , fare 8 fr., coupe 10 fr. ; one-horse carr. for 2 pers. to 
Vispach in 3 hrs. 15 — 20 fr., two horse carr. 30 fr. 

From Sierre to St. Luc (4 1 |s, back in 3'[2 hrs.) in the Val (TAnniviers, 
Ziiial, the Bella Tola, and the passes to Evolena in the Val d'Herens, and 
; 1 Meiden in the valley of Tourtcinagnc, see It. 61. 

Diligence (comp. p. 253) beyond Sierre, where the railway 
at present terminates. The road crosses the Rhone f/4 M. beyond 
Sierre, aril then traverses a chain (l 1 /^ M". long, S | 4 M. broad) 
of numerous rounded pine-clad hills, 100' to 200' high, which 
■ xtend from the river to the base of the mountains , formerly a 
haunt of brigands, an important military point, and in 1798 
defended by the troops of Valais against the French , who took 
it only by stratagem. These hills (Forest of Pfyn) are composed 
of schistous and calcareous debris, often mingled with huge masses 
of rock. 

On the E. side of these hills lies Pfyn (1853'), Fr. Finye 
(ad fines), the boundary between the two languages. From this 
point to the somv- of the Rhone, German villages only are passed. 
A number of the inhabitants of Sierre and Sion speak German, but 
French is the predominant language of the entire district. The 
road crosses the broad natural canal, 15 ft. deep, which in rainy 
weather conducts the water and mud from the '-'lUgraben or 
HiUlengraben, into the Rhone. This lUgraben is a deep basin, 
or more properly speaking, a vast semi-circular crater, 3 M. in 
length, the bleak, precipitous sides of which are visible to the r. 
from the road. During heavy falls of rain the water rushes from 
the steep and barren sides into this cavity , conveying masses of 
rock and stone down to the Rhone. 

The handsome old market-town of Leuk (pop. 1123), with its 
castle and towers (p. 150), lies on the r. bank, high above the 

256 Route 63. From Martigny 

Khone. To the 1. , on an eminence above the ravine of the 
Dala, which here opens, glistens the church tower of Varen 
(p. 150; to the 1., on the rocky wall above, a waterfall is 
formed on hot afternoons); high above, on the r. beyond Leuk, 
on an extensive shelving pasture, is the Alpine village of Alhi- 
nen (p. 149). 

On the 1. bank of the Rhone lies the small village of Susten 
(Hotel de la Souste), through which the road leads. (Diligence 
in summer twice daily to the Baths of Leuk , 5, coupe" 6^2 fr.) 

On the 1., above the covered bridge of Leuk, are two pillars 
of an ancient aqueduct. On the plain , rendered fruitful by the 
alluvial deposits from the Ulgraben, the castle of Baron de Vena 
rises to the r. 

9 M. Tourtemagne (2086') , Ger. Turtman (*Poste or Lion; 
*Soleil). The 'Turris Magna , from which the village derives 
its name, now serves as a chapel. To the S. opens the Tourte- 
magne Valley (see below), about 15 M. in length, inhabited 
during the summer months only , and terminated by a beautiful 
glacier (p. 250). The Tourtemagne brook here forms, s / t M. 
from the post-office , a fine waterfall , 80 ft. high , worthy of a 
visit. A boy may generally be found near the post-office to act as 
guide (25 c). 

From Tourtemagne to Meiden (p. 250) in the Tourtemagne 
Valley, and thence by the Augstbord Pass to St. Nicolaus (p. 268) in 
9 — 10 hrs. (guide 10, horse 15 fr.) The bridle-path ascenls the steep r. 
bank of the Tourtemagne brook, passing the above-named fall, which, 
however, is not visible from the path. At Tummenen it crosses to the 1. 
bank whence fine retrospective views of the Rhone valley are obtained. 
The path again makes a steep ascent between fragments of rock , then for 
2 hrs. through the extensive Dubenwald , once a magnificent pine forest, 
but now considerably thinned by avalanches and conflagrations. In the 
middle is a small white chapel containing numerous votive tablets. At 
Vollensteg the path recrosses to the r. bank, and passing the hamlets of 
Niggelingen , Tschafel , and Pletschen or Zerplelsehen , reaches Meiden, 
4 hrs. from Tourtemagne. From Meiden by the Augstbord Pass to St. 
Nicolaus, see p. 251. 

Beyond Tourtemagne, on the r. bank of the Rhone, near the 
village Zum Steg, at the mouth of the LStschen Valley (p. 251), 
above the ravines of which tower the icy walls of the Tschingel or 
Kander Glacier , the traveller perceives the lofty chimneys of 
the works (belonging to a French company) at which the ore 
found In the Lotschen Valley is smelted. The Simplon group in 
the background is surmounted by the arch of the extensive 
Kaltwasser Olacier , which the road passes near the culminating 
point (p. 259). 

Hardly a trace remains of the old castle of Niedergestelen 
(Bas-Chdtillon), on the r. bank of the Rhone near the church. 
The tower of Raron glistens on a flat rock, and above the moun- 
tains rises the snow-clad Rietschhorn (12,969'). On the opposite 
bank, to the r. of the road, on a wooded ominence, and built into 

to Arona. VISPACH. 63. Route. 257 

the rock , is the little pilgrimage - church of Turtig , to which a 
winding path leads by a number of stations. 

8'/o M. Vispach (2155'), or Visp, Fr. Viege (Sonne, by 
the bridge, R. 2, B. l«/ 2 , D. incl. W. 33/ 4 , S. 2l/ 2 , A. V-2 fr. ; 
*Post, moderate), formerly the seat of the noble families of Silinen, 
Riedmatten, Kalbermatten, Blandra, TJlrich , etc. , who possessed 
a church of their own, is now an unpretending village, and was 
considerably damaged by an earthquake in 1855 and by the inunda- 
tion of 1868. Beautiful environs. *View from the sluice-gate and 
cemetery. Travellers from Zermatt who arrive at Vispach in the 
evening , and wish to proceed over the Simplon by diligence, 
should endeavour to reach the larger post-town of Brieg on the 
same day. 

One-horse carr. to Susten 10, Viesch 20, Baths of Leuk 20 fr. ; to Zer- 
matt see p. 267 ; horse to Stalden 5, St. Nicolaus 10, or if the night is passed 
there, 12 IV., Saas 20 fr. ; from Saas to the Mattmark Alp 10 fr. ; chair- 
porters, less experienced than those of the Bernese Oberland , 6 fr. per 
day, luggage-porters 5 fr. per day ; return-fees in each case included. 

By the Monte Moro to Vogogna, sec R. 64; to Zermatt, and across the 
Matterjoch to Aosta, R. 65. 

The bed of the Visp , which here pours into the Rhone a 
volume of water nearly equal to that of the latter river itself, 
is 13 ft. higher than a portion of the village. It has therefore 
been necessary to avert inundations by dams, as in the case of 
the torrents which fall into the Rhone higher up, the Gamsen, 
Saltine, etc. The magnificent, beautifully-formed snow mountain 
visible in the background of the Visp Valley is the Balferin 
(12,4740, the snow-field C-Firri), over the village of Balen and the 
first peak of the Mischabel or Saasgrat, which separates the 
Saas from the Zermatt Valley. 

The Simplon road commences at Gliss (2254'), a village with 
a large church. Pedestrians may take the old bridle-path leading 
straight up the Saltine Valley, thus escaping the first and less 
interesting part of the new road. The path is very pleasant, but 
its reunion with the high-road is not easily found without a 
guide. The diligence makes a circuit of '/ 2 M. by 

5!/ 4 M. Brieg (2244') (*Trois Couronnes; *Angleterre, R. 
2, B. 1, A. and L. '/ 2 fr -, °PP- tne diligence-office), a small 
town at the mouth of the Saltine (1076 inhab.), with a modern 
chateau, the four towers of which are surmounted by metal 


The ascent of the -Sparrenhorn (9889'), situated to the N. above the 
lower end of the Great Aletsch Glacier, is frequently made from Brieg. On 
the -Belle Alpe, 4 l | 2 hrs. ascent from Brieg, a good inn. View grand and 
striking. '|4 hr. above Flatten (village half-way between Brieg and the 
Belle Alpe) a path through the wood leads in ' ja hr. to the beautiful 
ice-grottoes of the Aletsch Glacier, from which the Massa issues. From 
the hotel to the Sparrenhorn 2 hrs. — Ascent of the Eggischhorn from 
the Belle Alpe, see p. 141. 

The Upper Valais , and passage of the Grimsel, Furca, and 

Bjedekf.r, Switzerland. 5th Edition. 17 

"258 Route 63. BERISAL. From Martigny 

Ories, see HK. 33, 34, and 3j. The Simplon road quits the Rhone 
valley at Brieg : from Brieg to Domo d'Ossola 39 M. , which the 
diligence performs in \)>/., hrs. (ti to Simplon, 3'/.j to Domo 
d'UssolaJ, returning in the same time (from Domo d'Ossola to 
Simplon f) 1 /.^! thence to Brieg 4 hrs. J. The ascent may be 
accomplished by a good walker in the same time. — Luggage 
to be forwarded by diligence over the .Simplon must be booked 
the previous night. It cannot be conveyed beyond lselle (Italian 
frontier, p. 2li0j unless the keys are sent with it to the custom- 
house in ^hat place. 

Alter the battle of Marengo, Buonaparte resolved to construct this 
road, ,.nd it remains to tliis day a lasting memento of his genius and 
energy. The difficulties of the St. Bernard passage doubtless first originated 
the idea, lie wanted a great military road; his constant enquiry was: 
'■l^uand le canon pourra-t-it done passer au Simplon ?' — and an enterprise 
was undertaken which would have utterly daunted a less determined 
spirit. This great work was commenced on the Italian side in the year 
ItSUO, on the Swiss side in 1801, and took six years to accomplish, at a 
cost of upwards of 18 million francs. The Simplon was, after the Brenner, 
the first great route across the Alps. 

The ascent commences at the post-office at Brieg , '/< M. 
from which the now little frequented road to Oliss with the lofty 
Saltiue Bridge lies to the r. Long windings lead over green 
meadows E. towards the Klenenhorn, past the Calvarienberg with 
its chapels; then to the S.W. into the ravine of the Saltine, 
commanding a tine view of the Glisshorn, Brieg, and the Rhone- 
Valley. The traveller perceives the glacier above, near which 
the road reaches the summit of the pass , an ascent of 4 hrs. 
About 4>A> M. from Brieg is the 2nd Refuge. (Pedestrians 
descending from the Simplon may take , '/ 4 M. beyond the 2nd 
Refuge, a shorter, but somewhat giddy path, which finally regains 
the high road to Gliss, in 2 hrs. from Berisal.J The road, now 
nearly level, proceeds in an E. direction in the Ganter Valley to 
the Ucmter Bridge (l 3 / 4 M.J, which in winter is greatly exposed 
to avalanches ; after 1 M . the traveller reaches (a footpath here 
effects a great savingj 

il VI. Berisal (oOOb'J, the 3rd Refuge (post-station and *inn), 
where voituriers generally pass the night. In March, 180+, a 
few hundred riflemen of the Valais drove back to Lago Alaggiore 
many thousand Italian soldiers, who had crossed the Simplon with 
the intention of recapturing Valais. ( :, / 4 Al.J Bridge across the 
t'rombac.h; 1 M. bridge across the Wehsbach; 5 / 4 M. 4th Refuge. 
The pine wood through which the road winds from Berisal is now 
quitted. In clear weather the Bernese Alps, especially the Breit- 
horn and Aletschhorn, are distinctly visible to the N . , in front 
of which the huge Aletsch Glacier (p. 141J descends into the 
Rhone Valley. (l'/ 4 Al.J Schalbet Uallery, 1)8' long, constructed by 
blasting the rocks; good \iew of the Raut-Glacier and Kan thorn. 
( 3 / 4 Al.J 5th or Schatbet Refuge , in a barren and desolate region. 

to Anna. SIMPLON. 63. Route. 259 

The portion of road between the fifth refuge and the summit 
of the pass is the most dangerous during the period of ava- 
lanches and storms. Within a distance of less than 3 M. there 
are no fewer than six houses of refuge and a hospice. ( 3 /4 M.J 
Kallwusser Glacier Gallery, over which the stream issuing from 
the glacier is precipitated into the depths below , forming a water- 
fall visible through one of the side openings in the gallery. This 
detile has been fortified several times by the French and Valaisian 
governments, but avalanches have repeatedly destroyed the works. 
(.74 M.J 6th Ref'uye, whence a splendid (the last) view of the 
Bernese Alps and the Aletsch Glacier ; far below in the Rhone 
Valley lies Brieg. 

A short distance farther the culminating point of the Simplon 
(J3132?') is reached (l>'/'2 M. from BerisalJ, 3 / 4 M. beyond which 
stands the Hospice (hospitable entertainment, good red wine, no 
payment demanded ; visitors should contribute to the poor-box at 
least as much as they would have paid at an hotel), at the base of 
the magnificent Monte Leone (11, bill)', ascent difficult, not to be 
attempted by the inexperienced), an extensive building entered by 
a flight of steps , founded by Napoleon for the reception of travel- 
lers, and subject to the same rules as the similar establishment 
on the Great St. Bernard (p. '!';>!). It remained unfinished from 
want of means till IS'io , when the St. Bernard Hospice purchased 
the buildings. The